3G

Ti Wikipédia, énsiklopédia bébas
Luncat ka: pituduh, sungsi
Standar
telepon mobil jeung data
Kulawarga GSM / UMTS
2G
3G
Pre-4G
Kulawarga cdmaOne / CDMA2000
2G
3G
Pre-4G
Tehnologi sejen
0G
1G
2G
Pre-4G
Pita frékuénsi

3G (dibaca: triji, asalna tina kecap-kecap basa Inggris 3rd Generation) nyaéta standar katut téknologi telepon sélulér generasi-katilu, anu hadir saenggeus lahirna 2G. 3G téh dijieun dumasar kana kulawarga standar anu dikaluarkeun ku International Telecommunication Union (ITU) hasil tina kagiatan International Mobile Telecommunications programme, "IMT-2000". Téknologi 3G ngamungkinkeun operator jaringan pikeun nawarkeun ka palangganna rupa-rupa layanan anu leuwih canggih bari ngahasilkeun kapasitas jaringan anu leuwih gédé ku cara ningkatkeun éfisiénsi spéktrum frékuénsi. Layanan-layanan ieu diantarana wide-area wireless voice telephony jeung broadband wireless data, anu dijalankeun dina lingkungan bagerak (usik). Biasana, 3G nawarkeun layanan anu laju pangiriman datana 5-10 Mb per detik.

Henteu jiga jaringan IEEE 802.11, jaringan 3G mah ngarupakeun jaringan telepon sélulér anu ngawengku daérah anu lega sarta mampuh nyadiakeun aksés internét jeung telepon vidéo dina laju pangiriman data nu gancang. Sedengkeun jaringan IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) mah mangrupakeun jaringan pitarubak anu wewengkonna leutik (radius pancaranana pondok) sarta dimekarkeun utamana pikeun ngirim data.

Nurutkeun Global mobile Suppliers Association, dina bulan Désémber 2005, 100 jaringan 3G dijalankeun di 40 nagara. Di Asia, Éropah, Kanada jeung Amérika Sarikat, pausahaan-pausahaan telekomunikasi ngagunakeun téknologi W-CDMA anu narima kira-kira 100 desain terminal pikeun ngajalankeun jaringan sélulér 3G.

Sajarah[édit | sunting sumber]

Di Éropah, layanan 3G munggaran ditawarkeun di Inggris jeung Italia dina bulan Maret 2003. Harita Déwan Uni Éropah ngusulkeun yén para operator 3G kudu ngalayanan 80% populasi nasional masing-masing nagara anggota dina tungtung taun 2005.

Pangwangunan jaringan 3G ditanggohkeun di sabagian nagara di dunya lantaran biaya idin spéktrum frékuénsi anu mahal. Baca ogé Telecoms crash. Di réa nagara, jaringan 3G henteu ngagunakeun frékuénsi radio anu sarua jeung 2G, sahingga para operator kudu ngawangun jaringan anu samasakali anyar sarta merlukeun idin guna frékuénsi anu ogé anyar; anu mahiwal mah kajadian di Amérika Sarikat dimana para operator ngajalankeun layanan 3G dina frékuénsi anu sarua jeung layanan sélulér lianna. Sedengkeun di Éropah, biaya idin di sabagian nagara anggota mahal pisan. Alesan lain nu ngabalukarkeun pananggohan layanan 3G nyaéta waragad pikeun ningkatkeun kamampuh alat-alat nu aya supaya jadi sistem anu anyar.

Nepi ka bulan Juni 2007, aya 200 juta langganan anu geus kasambungkeun kana layanan 3G. Dibandingkeun jeung palanggan telepon sélulér sadunya anu jumlahna 3 triliun, angka éta ngan 6.7%. Di nagara-nagara tempat 3G munggaran disadiakeun – Jepang jeung Korea Kidul – leuwih ti satengah langganan telepon sélulér ngagunakeun 3G. Di Éropah, Italia ngarupakeun nagara anu rahayatna panglobana ngagunakeun layanan 3G; sapertilu jumlah langganan telepon sélulérna pindah ngagunakeun éta layanan. Nagara lianna anu mingpin dina migrasi ka 3G diantarana Inggris, Austria jeung Singapura anu ngahontal angka 20% tina jumlah langganan telepon sélulér.

EMTEL Ltd, pausahaan telekomunikasi sélulér kadua panggedéna di Mauritius, geus ngamparkeun jaringan 3G UMTS komérsial munggaran di Afrika (percobaan telepon munggaran dilakukeun dina tanggal 16 Oktober 2004). Layanan komérsial anu sapinuhna mitembeyan dina bulan Nopémber 2004, anu ngajadikeun jaringan 3G boga ieu pausahaan sabagé jaringan 3G komérsial munggaran di Afrika. Di Afrika beulah kalér, Wana di Moroko nyadiakeun layanan 3G dina ahir Maret 2006. Operator lianna di éta nagara ngamimitian ngajalankeun jaringan 3G dina patengahan taun 2007. Vodafone Mesir (anu katelah ogé CLICK GSM) nyadiakeun layanan 3G dina patengahan taun 2006. Dina awal taun 2007, Vodacom Tanzania mimiti migrasi kana sistem 3G High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) di Dar Es Salaam. Tanzania ngarupakeun nagara kadua di Afrika anu ngagunakeun téknologi kasebut saenggeus Afrika Kidul. Dina bulan Maret 2007, Nigeria méré idin 3G ka tilu pausahaan GSM panggedéna sarta ka hiji pausahaan anu teu kasohor, Alheri Engineering Co. Ltd, pikeun ngaréaan rupa layananana.

Rogers Wireless mimiti nawarkeun layanan 3G HSDPA di Kanada Beulah wétan dina awal taun 2007.

Kaistiméwaan[édit | sunting sumber]

Kaistiméwaan téknologi sélulér 3G nyaéta ieu téknologi téh bisa narima jumlah palanggan anu leuwih réa. – hususna di daérah pakotaan – sarta laju data anu leuwih gancang kalawan waragad pangwangunan anu leuwih murah manan 2G.

3G ngagunakeun pamawa sinyal kalayan kanal anu rubakna 0,6 MHz pikeun ngirimkeun data dina laju anu jauh leuwih gancang sarta kapasitas anu jauh leuwih gedé batan jaringan 2G.

Pamawa sinyal anu kanalna 0.5 MHz ngoptimalkeun pamakéan sumber daya frékuénsi radio pikeun para operator anu geus dibéré loba lahan (blok) spéktrum frékuénsi nu paréndéng. Sajaba ti éta, hal ieu ogé ngabantu pikeun ngurangan waragad nu dibutuhkeun sarta mampuh nyadiakeun pangiriman data kalayan laju anu kacida gancangna pikeun langganan.

Ieu téknologi ogé ngamungkinkeun pangiriman data dina laju 384 kbit/det pikeun sistem anu bagerak (usik) sarta 2 Mb/s pikeun sistem anu cicing. Para pamaké layanan 3G dibéré harepan bisa ngarasakeun kapasita anu leuwih gedé sarta éfisiénsi spéktrum anu leuwih alus, anu ngamungkinkeun roaming ti hiji jaringan 3G ka jaringan 3G lianna.

Standar[édit | sunting sumber]

International Telecommunications Union (ITU): IMT-2000 kawangun ku genep antarmuka radio:

Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

Evolution to 3G[édit | sunting sumber]

Cellular mobile telecommunications networks are being upgraded to use 3G technologies from 1999 to 2010. Japan was the first country to introduce 3G nationally, and in Japan the transition to 3G was largely completed in 2006. Korea then adopted 3G Networks soon after and the transition was made as early as 2004.

Operators and UMTS networks[édit | sunting sumber]

As of 2005, the evolution of the 3G networks was on its way for a couple of years, due to the limited capacity of the existing 2G networks. 2G networks were built mainly for voice data and slow transmission. Due to rapid changes in user expectation, they do not meet today's wireless needs.

"2.5G" (and even 2.75G) are technologies such as i-mode data services, camera phones, high-speed circuit-switched data (HSCSD) and General packet radio service (GPRS) were created to provide some functionality domains like 3G networks, but without the full transition to 3G network. They were built to introduce the possibilities of wireless application technology to the end consumers, and so increase demand for 3G services.

Network standardization[édit | sunting sumber]

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) defined the demands for 3G mobile networks with the IMT-2000 standard. An organization called 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has continued that work by defining a mobile system that fulfills the IMT-2000 standard. This system is called Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).

The evolution of the system will move forward with so called releases. Each release will introduce new features. The following features are examples of many others in these new releases.

Release '99[édit | sunting sumber]

Release 4[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Edge radio
  • Multimedia messaging
  • MeXe levels
  • Improved location services
  • IP Multimedia Services (IMS)

Release 5[édit | sunting sumber]

Release 6[édit | sunting sumber]

  • WLAN integration
  • Multimedia broadcast and multicast
  • Improvements in IMS
  • HSUPA

3G evolution (pre-4G)[édit | sunting sumber]

  • The standardization of 3G evolution is working in both 3GPP and 3GPP2. The corresponding specifications of 3GPP and 3GPP2 evolutions are named as LTE and UMB, respectively. 3G evolution uses partly beyond 3G technologies to enhance the performance and to make a smooth migration path.

There are several different paths from 2G to 3G. In Europe the main path starts from GSM when GPRS is added to a system. From this point it is possible to go to the UMTS system. In North America the system evolution will start from Time division multiple access (TDMA), change to Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) and then to UMTS.

In Japan, two 3G standards are used: W-CDMA (compatible with UMTS) used by NTT DoCoMo and Softbank, and CDMA2000, used by KDDI. Transition to 3G was completed in Japan in 2006.

Advantages of a layered network architecture[édit | sunting sumber]

Unlike GSM, UMTS is based on layered services. At the top is the services layer, which provides fast deployment of services and centralized location. In the middle is the control layer, which helps upgrading procedures and allows the capacity of the network to be dynamically allocated. At the bottom is the connectivity layer where any transmission technology can be used and the voice traffic will transfer over ATM/AAL2 or IP/RTP.

Mobile technologies[édit | sunting sumber]

When converting a GSM network to a UMTS network, the first new technology is General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). It is the trigger to 3G services. The network connection is always on, so the subscriber is online all the time. From the operator's point of view, it is important that GPRS investments are re-used when going to UMTS. Also capitalizing on GPRS business experience is very important.

From GPRS, operators could change the network directly to UMTS, or invest in an EDGE system. One advantage of EDGE over UMTS is that it requires no new licenses. The frequencies are also re-used and no new antennas are needed.

From GPRS to UMTS[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Home location register (HLR)
  • Visitor location register (VLR)
  • Equipment identity register (EIR)

From GPRS network, the following network elements can be reused:

  • Mobile switching centre (MSC) (vendor dependent)
  • Authentication centre (AUC)
  • Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) (vendor dependent)
  • Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)

From Global Service for Mobile (GSM) communication radio network, the following elements cannot be reused

  • Base station controller (BSC)
  • Base transceiver station (BTS)

They can remain in the network and be used in dual network operation where 2G and 3G networks co-exist while network migration and new 3G terminals become available for use in the network.

The UMTS network introduces new network elements that function as specified by 3GPP:

The functionality of MSC and SGSN changes when going to UMTS. In a GSM system the MSC handles all the circuit switched operations like connecting A- and B-subscriber through the network. SGSN handles all the packet switched operations and transfers all the data in the network. In UMTS the Media gateway (MGW) take care of all data transfer in both circuit and packet switched networks. MSC and SGSN control MGW operations. The nodes are renamed to MSC-server and GSN-server.

UMTS and 3G terminals[édit | sunting sumber]

3G handsets usually have cameras, music players, video players, contactless smartcards for payment functions (wallet phones), Web browsers, email clients and more. This shows that the UMTS system is based on layered services and future applications can be supported without too much impact to the underlying radio access network.

UMTS terminals[édit | sunting sumber]

The technical complexities of a 3G phone or handset depends on its need to roam onto legacy 2G networks. In the first countries, Japan and South Korea, there was no need to include roaming capabilities to older networks such as GSM, so 3G phones were small and lightweight. In Europe and America, the manufacturers and network operators wanted multi-mode 3G phones which would operate on 3G and 2G networks (e.g., WCDMA and GSM), which added to the complexity, size, weight, and cost of the handset. As a result, early European WCDMA phones were significantly larger and heavier than comparable Japanese WCDMA phones.

Japan's Vodafone KK experienced a great deal of trouble with these differences when its UK-based parent, Vodafone, insisted the Japanese subsidiary use standard Vodafone handsets. Japanese customers who were accustomed to smaller handsets were suddenly required to switch to European handsets that were much bulkier and considered unfashionable by Japanese consumers. During this conversion, Vodafone KK lost 6 customers for every 4 that migrated to 3G. Soon thereafter, Vodafone sold the subsidiary (now known as Softbank).

The general trend to smaller and smaller phones seems to have paused, perhaps even turned, with the capability of large-screen phones (similar to the Apple iPhone - interestingly EDGE, not 3G) to provide more video, gaming and internet use on the 3G networks.

Issues[édit | sunting sumber]

Although 3G was successfully introduced to users in Europe, Asia, South America, North America (U.S.A.) and Africa, some issues are debated by 3G providers and users:

  • Expensive input fees for the 3G service licenses
  • Numerous differences in the licensing terms
  • Large amount of debt currently sustained by many telecommunication companies, which makes it a challenge to build the necessary infrastructure for 3G
  • Lack of member state support for financially troubled operators
  • Expense of 3G phones
  • Lack of buy-in by 2G mobile users for the new 3G wireless services
  • Lack of coverage, because it is still a new service
  • High prices of 3G mobile services in some countries, including Internet access (see flat rate)
  • Current lack of user need for 3G voice and data services in a hand-held device
  • High power usage

See also[édit | sunting sumber]

References[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. ITU Radiocommunication Assembly approves new developments for its 3G standards

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]