Abu Raihan al-Biruni

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Élmuwan Muslim
Jaman Kaemasan Islam
Biruni on a 1973 post stamp commemorating his one thousandth anniversary
Nami: Abū Rayhān Muhammad ibn Ahmad Bīrunī
Kalungguhan: Abu-Rayhan Biruni
Babar: 15 September 973 M
Pupus: 13 Desember 1048 M
Étnis: Pérsia
Tradisi aliran: Asy'ariyah
Karesep utama: Antropologi, astrologi, astronomi, chemistry, geodesy, géologi, sajarah, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, pharmacology, fisika, science
Ide penting: Bapa antropologi, géodési jeung Indologi. Nu manggihan mékanika ékspériméntal sarta astronomi ékspérimental. Boga kontribusi dina sababaraha widang pangaweruh lianna.
Karya: Ta'rikh al-Hind, The Mas'udi Canon, Understanding Astrology, and many other books
Nu mangaruhan: Aristotle, Ptolemy, Aryabhata, Muhammad, Brahmagupta, al-Ash'ari, al-Sijzi, Abu Nasr Mansur, Avicenna
Nu dipangaruhan: Al-Sijzi, Avicenna, Omar Khayyam, al-Khazini, Zakariya al-Qazwini, Maragha observatory, Islamic science, Islamic philosophy


Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Bīrūnī (babar 15 September 973 di Kath, Khwarezm – pupus 13 Desember 1048 di Ghazni) salah saurang Persian (Tajik)[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] dina abad ka-11, nu percobaan jeung pamanggihna meh sarua jeung rupa-rupa saperti Leonardo da Vinci jeung Galileo, lima ratus taun samemeh Renaissance; Biruni dipikawanoh salah salah saurang Muslim world, tapi teu siga Muslim kontemporer (saperti Abulcasis, Alhacen, jeung Avicenna), ngaran Biruni teu pati dipikawanoh ku Western world.

Anjeuna saurang elmuwan Islam, ahli anthropoloi, ahli astronomi tur astrologi, ahli kimia, ahli ensklikopedi tur ahli sajarah, ahli geografi, ahli geodesi tur géologi, ahli matematika, ahli kedokteran, filsuf tur Ash'ari teologi, panalungtik jeung guru, sarta traveller, sarta gede pangaruhna keur sakabeh widang tadi. Anjeuna oge salah saurang panalungtik Muslim munggaran nu naliti India jeung tradisi Brahmin,[5] dipikawanoh salaku bapa elmu India,[6] bapak geodesi, sarta "ahli anthropologi munggaran".[7] Meh bareng jeung Geber sarta Ibn al-Haytham, al-Biruni salah saurang nu mingpin percobaan dina metoda ilmiah.[8] Anjeunna nu mimiti ngawanohkeun metoda percobaan kana mekanika,[9] sarta nu mimiti nerangkeun percobaan pakait jeung kajadian astronomi.[10]

George Sarton, bapak elmu sajarah, nyebat Biruni saperti:

"One of the very greatest scientists of Islam, and, all considered, one of the greatest of all times."[11]

A. I. Sabra nyebat Biruni:

"One of the great scientific minds in all history."[12]

Kawah Al-Biruni, di bulan, ngaran nu dipake sanggeus Biruni. Universita Teknik Tashkent (ngaran samemehna Tashkentskiy Politexnicheskiy Institut) oge dumasar kana jenengan Abu Rayhan al-Biruni.

Riwayat hirup[édit | sunting sumber]

Anjeunna dibabarkeun di Khwarazm (samemehna bagean kaler-wetan dinasti Samaniyah Persia) ayeuna di Khiva, Uzbekistan. Anjeuna diajar matematika jeung astronomi ku Abu Nasr Mansur.

Anjeunna bareng jeung filsu tur ahli fisika Muslim Persia Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), ahli sajarah, filsuf jeung ahli etnik Ibn Miskawayh, di universitas jeung pusat elmu nu diwangun ku raja Abu al-Abbas Ma'mun Khawarazmshah. Anjeunna oge datang ka Asia Kidul jeung Mahmud of Ghazni (nu putrana jeung gaganti Masud, kulawarga deukeutna), sarta bareng jeung manehna dina kampanye di India (dina taun 1030), diajar basa India, sarta nalungtik agama jeung filosofi masarakatna. Di dinya, anjeunna oge nulis Ta'rikh al-Hind ("Chronicles of India"). Biruni nulis bukuna dina basa Arabi tur dina basa indungna nyaeta Basa Persia, sanajan bisa ngagunakeun opat basa sejen nyaeta : Greek, Sanskrit, Syriac, sarta Berber.[1]

Anjeunna dikurebkeun di Ghazni di Afganistan.[rujukan?]

Karya[édit | sunting sumber]

Gambar tina buku Persia Beruni. Nembongkeung beda fase bulan.

Karya Biruni lobana 146, ieu kaasup 35 buku dina widang astronomi, 4 dina widang astrolabe, 23 dina widang astrologi, 5 dina widang kronologi, 2 dina widang ukuran waktu, 9 dina widang geografi, 10 dina widang geodesi tur teori pemetaan, 15 dina widang matematika (8 dina aritmetika, 5 dina widang geometri, 2 dina widang trigonometri), 2 dina widang mekanika, 2 dina kadokteran jeung farmakologi, 1 dina widang meteorologi, 2 dina widang mineralogi jeung batu mulia, 4 dina widang sajarah, 2 dina widang India, 3 dina widang agama jeung filsuf, 16 dina widang karya literatur, 2 buku dina widang magic, sarta 9 buku sejenna. Tina karya ieu, ngan 22 nu masih keneh aya, sarta ngan 13 karyana nu geus dicitak.[13] 6 hasil karyana nu masih aya dina widang astronomi.[14] Karyana nu masih aya nyaeta:

  • Critical study of what India says, whether accepted by reason or refused (Arabic تحقيق ما للهند من مقولة معقولة في العقل أم مرذولة) - catetan singget ngeunaan ageman jeung filsup di India
  • The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries (Arabic الآثار الباقية عن القرون الخالية) - ngeunaan pangaweruh babandingan kalender dina budaya jeung kahirupan nu beda-beda, dumasar kana matematik, astronomi jeung sajarah.
  • The Mas'udi Canon (Persian قانون مسعودي) - encyclopedia nu lengkep ngeunaan astronomi, geografi, jeung rekayasa, judul nu dipake keur ngahormat ka Mas'ud, putrana Mahmud of Ghazni
  • Understanding Astrology (Arabic التفهيم لصناعة التنجيم) - tanya jawab ngeunaan matematik jeung astronomi, dina basa Arab jeung Persia Pharmacy - ngeunaan obat jeung kasehatan
  • Gems (Arabic الجماهر في معرفة الجواهر) ngeunaan geologi, mineral, tur batu mulia, keur ngahormat Mawdud putra Mas'ud
  • Astrolabe
  • Buku Kumpulan Sajarah
  • History of Mahmud of Ghazni and his father
  • History of Khawarazm


Antropologi[édit | sunting sumber]

Biruni ngarupakeun "ahli antropologi" munggaran.[7] Anjeunna nyerat sacara lengkep babandingan elmu dina antropologi masarakat, ageman jeung budaya di Timur Tengah, wewengkon Mediterania jeung Asia Kidul. Antrologi Biruni dina widang ageman ngan mungkin keur elmuwan nu neuleuman leuwih teleb adat jeuing pangaweruh bangsa sejen. [15] Biruni oge dipuji ku sababaraha elmuwan keur karyana dina antropologi Islam.[16]

Astronomi[édit | sunting sumber]

Alat-alat astronomi[édit | sunting sumber]

Dina widang astronomi, al-Biruni nyieun jeung nulis acuan munggaran dina planisphere jeung orthographical astrolabe, nu sarua alusna jeung armillary sphere, sarta mampuh sacara matematika keur nangtukeun arah Qibla ti unggal tempat di dunya.[17][18] Anjeunna oge nu nulis acuan munggaran ngeunaan sextant.[19]

Anjeunna oge nyieun hodometer munggaran,[20] sarta mechanical lunisolar calendar computer nu ngagunakeun gear train jeung dalapan gear-wheels.[21] These were early examples of fixed-wired knowledge processing machines.[22]

1973 USSR stamp commemorating the 1000th anniversary of Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī

Teori-teori[édit | sunting sumber]

Biruni nu ngamimitian ngalaksanakeun percobaan nu rumit dina fenomena astronomi. Anjeunna nu mendak galaksi Milky Way jadi sakumpulan bentang-bentang nebulous. Di Khorasan, anjeunna nalungtik jeung ngajelaskeun gerhana panon poe dina 8 April 1019, sarta gerhana bulan dina 17 September 1019, sacara lengkep, tur mere garis lintang bentang nu pas salila gerhana bulan.[10]

Dina taun 1030, Biruni ngadiskusikeun heliosentris astronomi India teori Aryabhata, Brahmagupta jeung Varahamihira dina Indica. Biruni nyebatkeun yén patarosan heliosentris leuwih nujul kana filosofis batan masalah matematis.[23]

Dina taun 1031, Biruni namatkeun enslikopedi astronomi Kitab al-Qanun al-Mas'udi (di Basa Latin-keun jadi Canon Mas’udicus),[24] nu mangrupa catetan ngeunaan pamanggihna jeung tabel rumus astronomi. Buku ieu ngawanohkeun teknik matematika keur analisa percepatan planet, tur hukum kahiji nyaeta gerak titik pangjauhna ti panonpoe jeung gerak dina orbitna teu sarua. Biruni oge manggihkeun jarak antara Bumi jeung Panonpoe leuwih gede tinimbang nu ditaksir ku Ptolemy, dumasar kana yen Ptolemy ngabaikeun gerhana panonpoe taunans.[17][25]

Abu Said al-Sijzi, sajaman jeung Biruni, mere pamadegan heliosentris gerak Dunya ngurilingan panonpoe, hal ieu teu ditampik ku Biruni.[26] Biruni satuju yen muterna Dunya dina porosna, tur dina waktu nu sarua Biruni nempo kalayan netral heliosentris jeung model geosentris,[27] pamadegan anjeunna yen heliosentris bakal jadi masalah filosopi.[23] Anjeunna nyatet yen lamun Dunya muter dina porosna tur ngurilingan panonpoe, ieu bakal sarua jeung parameter astronomina, nyaeta:[17][18]

"Rotation of the earth would in no way invalidate astronomical calculations, for all the astronomical data are as explicable in terms of the one theory as of the other. The problem is thus difficult of solution."

Will Durant nuliskeun saperti di handap ngeunaan kontribusi Biruni dina widang astronomi:

"He wrote treatises on the astrolabe, the planisphere, the armillary sphere; and formulated astronomical tables for Sultan Masud. He took it for granted that the earth is round, noted “the attraction of all things towards the center of the earth,” and remarked that astronomic data can be explained as well by supposing that the earth turns daily on its axis and annually around the sun, as by the reverse hypothesis."[28]

Kimia[édit | sunting sumber]

Bareng jeung al-Kindi jeung Ibnu Sina, Biruni salah saurang ahli kimia munggaran nu nolak teori transmuation of metals didukung ku sababaraha urang ahli kimia muslim.[27]

Élmu bumi[édit | sunting sumber]

Biruni mere sababaraha kontribusi dina widang Élmu bumi. Anjeunna dileler oge salaku bapak géodesi,[7][29] sarta mere kontribusi nyara dina kartograpfi, géografi, jeung géologi.

Kartografi[édit | sunting sumber]

Dina umur 22 taun, anjeunna nulis sababaraha karya tulis pondok, nyaeta ngeunaan proyeksi peta, Kartografi, nu kaasuo kana metoda keur proyeksi hemisphere dina plane.

Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

Geodesy and Geography[édit | sunting sumber]

At the age of 17, Biruni calculated the latitude of Kath, Khwarazm, using the maximum altitude of the Sun. Biruni also solved a complex geodesic equation in order to accurately compute the Earth's circumference, which were close to modern values of the Earth's circumference.[17][30] His estimate of 6,339.9 km for the Earth radius was only 16.8 km less than the modern value of 6,356.7 km.

John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson write in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive:

"Important contributions to geodesy and geography were also made by Biruni. He introduced techniques to measure the earth and distances on it using triangulation. He found the radius of the earth to be 6339.6 km, a value not obtained in the West until the 16th century. His Masudic canon contains a table giving the coordinates of six hundred places, almost all of which he had direct knowledge."[8]

In mathematical geography, Biruni, around 1025, was the first to describe a polar equi-azimuthal equidistant projection of the celestial sphere.[31]

Geology[édit | sunting sumber]

Among his writings on geology, Biruni wrote the following on the geology of India:

"But if you see the soil of India with your own eyes and meditate on its nature, if you consider the rounded stones found in earth however deeply you dig, stones that are huge near the mountains and where the rivers have a violent current: stones that are of smaller size at a greater distance from the mountains and where the streams flow more slowly: stones that appear pulverised in the shape of sand where the streams begin to stagnate near their mouths and near the sea - if you consider all this you can scarcely help thinking that India was once a sea, which by degrees has been filled up by the alluvium of the streams."[32]

History[édit | sunting sumber]

Chronology[édit | sunting sumber]

By the age of 27, in the year 1000, he had written a book called Chronology which referred to other works he had completed (now lost) that included one book about the astrolabe, one about the decimal system, four about astrology, and two about history.

He discussed more on his idea of history in another work, The Chronology of the Ancient Nations.[6]

Indology[édit | sunting sumber]

Until the 10th century, history most often meant political and military history, but this was not so with Persian historian Biruni (973-1048). In his Kitab fi Tahqiq ma l'il-Hind (Researches on India), he did not record political and military history in any detail, but wrote more on India's cultural, scientific, social and religious history.[6] Biruni is now regarded as the father of Indology.[6]

Mathematics[édit | sunting sumber]

He made significant contributions to mathematics, especially in the fields of theoretical and practical arithmetic, summation of series, combinatorial analysis, the rule of three, irrational numbers, ratio theory, algebraic definitions, method of solving algebraic equations, geometry, and the development of Archimedes' theorems.

Medicine[édit | sunting sumber]

Biruni's Kitab-al-Saidana was an extensive medical encyclopedia which synthesized Islamic medicine with Indian medicine. His medical investigations included one of the earliest descriptions on Siamese twins.[10]

Physics[édit | sunting sumber]

Astrophysics[édit | sunting sumber]

In astrophysics and the celestial mechanics field of physics, Biruni described the Earth's gravitation as:[17]

"The attraction of all things towards the centre of the earth."

He also discovered that gravity exists within the heavenly bodies and celestial spheres, and he criticized Aristotle's views of them not having any levity or gravity and of circular motion being an innate property of the heavenly bodies.[33]

Mechanics[édit | sunting sumber]

Biruni was the first to apply experimental scientific methods to mechanics, especially the fields of statics and dynamics, particularly for determining specific weights, such as those based on the theory of balances and weighing.[9]

In the dynamics and kinematics fields of mechanics, Biruni was the first to realize that acceleration is connected with non-uniform motion, which is part of Newton's second law of motion.[8]

In statics, Biruni measured the specific gravities of eighteen gemstones, and discovered that there is a correlation between the specific gravity of an object and the volume of water it displaces.[34] He also introduced the method of checking tests during experiments, measured the weights of various liquids, and recorded the differences in weight between fresh water and salt water, and between hot water and cold water.[35]

During his experiments, he invented the conical measure,[36] in order to find the ratio between the weight of a substance in air and the weight of water displaced, and to accurately measure the specific weights of the gemstones and their corresponding metals, which are very close to modern measurements.[35]

Natural philosophy[édit | sunting sumber]

Biruni and Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), who are regarded as two of the greatest polymaths in Persian history, were both colleagues and knew each other since the turn of the millennium. Biruni later engaged in a written debate with Avicenna, with Biruni criticizing Aristotelian natural philosophy and the Peripatetic school, while Avicenna and his student Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Ma'sumi respond to Biruni's criticisms in writing. Biruni began by asking Avicenna eighteen questions, ten of which were criticisms of Aristotle's On the Heavens, with his first question criticizing Aristotle's reasons for denying the existence of levity or gravity in the celestial spheres and the Aristotelian notion of circular motion being an innate property of the heavenly bodies.[33]

Biruni's second question criticizes Aristotle's over-reliance on more ancient views concerning the heavens, while the third criticizes the Aristotelian view that space has only six directions. The fourth question deals with the continuity and discontinuity of physical bodies, while the fifth criticizes the Peripatetic school's denial of the possibility of there existing another world completely different from the world known to them.[37] In his sixth question, Biruni rejects Aristotle's view on the celestial spheres having circular orbits rather than elliptic orbits. In his seventh question, he rejects Aristotle's notion that the motion of the heavens begins from the right side and from the east, while his eighth question concerns Aristotle's view on the fire element being spherical. The ninth question concerns the movement of heat, and the tenth question concerns the transformation of elements.[38] The eleventh question concerns the burning of bodies by radiation reflecting off a flask filled with water, and the twelfth concerns the natural tendency of the classical elements in their upward and downward movements. The thirteenth question deals with vision, while the fourteenth concerns habitation on different parts of Earth. His fifteenth question asks how two opposite squares in a square divided into four can be tangential, while the sixteenth question concerns vacuum. His seventeenth question asks "if things expand upon heating and contract upon cooling, why does a flask filled with water break when water freezes in it?" His eighteenth and final question concerns the observable phenomenon of ice floating on water.[39]

After Avicenna responded to the questions, Biruni was unsatisfied with some of the answers and wrote back commenting on them, after which Avicenna's student Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Ma'sumi wrote back on behalf of Avicenna.[33]

Optics[édit | sunting sumber]

In optics, Biruni was one of the first, along with Ibn al-Haytham, to discover that the speed of light was finite. Biruni was also the first to discover that the speed of light is much faster than the speed of sound.[8][40]

Psychology[édit | sunting sumber]

Along with al-Kindi and Ibn al-Haytham, al-Biruni was a pioneer of experimental psychology, as he was the first to empirically describe the concept of reaction time:[41]

"Not only is every sensation attended by a corresponding change localized in the sense-organ, which demands a certain time, but also, between the stimulation of the organ and consciousness of the perception an interval of time must elapse, corresponding to the transmission of stimulus for some distance along the nerves."

Theology[édit | sunting sumber]

Islamic theology[édit | sunting sumber]

Biruni was a supporter of the orthodox Ash'ari school of Islamic theology.[42] He assigned to the Qur'an a separate and autonomous realm of its own and held that:[43]

"[the Qur'an] does not interfere in the business of science nor does it infringe on the realm of science."

Comparative religion[édit | sunting sumber]

He wrote works on both Islamic theology and Indian theology, and wrote on the topic of comparative religion, comparing both religions. His comparisons included the following comparison between the Qur'an and the Indian religious scriptures in the "On the Configuration of the Heavens and the Earth According to [Indian] astrologers" chapter of the Indica:[44]

"[The views of Indian astrologers] have developed in a way which is different from those of our [Muslim] fellows; this is because unlike the scriptures revealed before it, the Qur'an does not articulate on this subject [of astronomy], or any other [field of] necessary [knowledge] any assertion that would require erratic interpretations in order to harmonize it with that which is known by necessity."

"[In contrast, the religious and transmitted books of the Indians do indeed speak] of the configuration of the universe in a way which contradicts the truth which is known to their own astrologers."

Al-Biruni also had an interest in studying Hermeticism and criticizing its religious views. He showed an interest in comparative religion, comparing Islam with pre-Islamic religions, and was willing to accept certain elements of pre-Islamic wisdom which would conform with his understanding of the Islamic spirit.[45]

Tempo oge[édit | sunting sumber]

References[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. a b Rahman Habib, A Chronology of Islamic History, 570-1000 CE, Mansell Publishing, p. 167:

    "A Persian by birth, Biruni produced his writings in Arabic, though he knew, besides Persian, no less than four other languages."

  2. Biruni (2007). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 22, 2007.
  3. David C. Lindberg, Science in the Middle Ages, University of Chicago Press, p. 18:

    "A Persian by birth, a rationalist in disposition, this contemporary of Avicenna and Alhazen not only studied history, philosophy, and geography in depth, but wrote one of the most comprehensive of Muslim astronomical treatises, the Qanun Al-Masu'di."

  4. Mr Koïchiro Matsuura. United Nations: Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO.

    "Biruni, a scholar in many disciplines - from linguistics to mineralogy - and perhaps medieval Uzbekistan's most universal genius."

  5. Dyczkowski, M.S.G. (1988). The Canon of the Saivagama and the Kubjika Tantras of the Western Kaula Tradition, State University of New York Press.
  6. a b c d Zafarul-Islam Khan, At The Threshold Of A New Millennium – II, The Milli Gazette.
  7. a b c Akbar S. Ahmed (1984). "Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist", RAIN 60, p. 9-10.
  8. a b c d Citakan:MacTutor
  9. a b Mariam Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova (1996), "Statics", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 2, p. 614-642 [642], Routledge, London and New York:

    "Numerous fine experimental methods were developed for determining the specific weight, which were based, in particular, on the theory of balances and weighing. The classical works of al-Biruni and al-Khazini can by right be considered as the beginning of the application of experimental methods in medieval science."

  10. a b c Dr. A. Zahoor (1997), Abu Raihan Muhammad al-Biruni, Hasanuddin University.
  11. George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, Vol. 1, p. 707.
  12. A. I. Sabra, Ibn al-Haytham, Harvard Magazine, September-October 2003.
  13. E. S. Kennedy (1970). "Al-Biruni", Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. II, p. 152.
  14. An overview of Muslim Astronomers, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.
  15. J. T. Walbridge (1998). "Explaining Away the Greek Gods in Islam", Journal of the History of Ideas 59 (3), p. 389-403.
  16. Richard Tapper (1995). "Islamic Anthropology" and the "Anthropology of Islam", Anthropological Quarterly 68 (3), Anthropological Analysis and Islamic Texts, p. 185-193.
  17. a b c d e Khwarizm, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.
  18. a b G. Wiet, V. Elisseeff, P. Wolff, J. Naudu (1975). History of Mankind, Vol 3: The Great medieval Civilisations, p. 649. George Allen & Unwin Ltd, UNESCO.
  19. Jean Claude Pecker (2001), Understanding the Heavens: Thirty Centuries of Astronomical Ideas from Ancient Thinking to Modern Cosmology, p. 311, Springer, ISBN 3-540-63198-4.
  20. D. De S. Price (1984). "A History of Calculating Machines", IEEE Micro 4 (1), p. 22-52.
  21. Donald Routledge Hill (1985). "Al-Biruni's mechanical calendar", Annals of Science 42, p. 139-163.
  22. Tuncer Oren (2001). "Advances in Computer and Information Sciences: From Abacus to Holonic Agents", Turk J Elec Engin 9 (1), p. 63-70 [64].
  23. a b Saliba, George (1999). Whose Science is Arabic Science in Renaissance Europe? Columbia University.
  24. Richard Covington (May-June 2007). "Rediscovering Arabic science", Saudi Aramco World, p. 2-16.
  25. George Saliba (1980), "Al-Biruni", in Joseph Strayer, Dictionary of the Middle Ages, Vol. 2, p. 249. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  26. A. Baker and L. Chapter (2002), "Part 4: The Sciences". In M. M. Sharif, "A History of Muslim Philosophy", Philosophia Islamica.
  27. a b Michael E. Marmura (1965). "An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. Conceptions of Nature and Methods Used for Its Study by the Ikhwan Al-Safa'an, Biruni, and Ibn Sina by Seyyed Hossein Nasr", Speculum 40 (4), p. 744-746.
  28. Will Durant (1950). The Story of Civilization IV: The Age of Faith, p. 239-45.
  29. H. Mowlana (2001). "Information in the Arab World", Cooperation South Journal 1.
  30. James S. Aber (2003). Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, Emporia State University.
  31. David A. King (1996), "Astronomy and Islamic society: Qibla, gnomics and timekeeping", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 1, p. 128-184 [153]. Routledge, London and New York.
  32. A. Salam (1984), "Islam and Science". In C. H. Lai (1987), Ideals and Realities: Selected Essays of Abdus Salam, 2nd ed., World Scientific, Singapore, p. 179-213.
  33. a b c Rafik Berjak and Muzaffar Iqbal, "Ibn Sina--Al-Biruni correspondence", Islam & Science, June 2003.
  34. Will Durant (1950). The Age of Faith, p. 244. Simon and Shuster, New York. (cf. Khwarizm, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.)
  35. a b M. Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova, "Statics", in R. Rashed (1996), The Encyclopaedia of the History of Arabic Science, p. p. 614-642 [639], Routledge, London. (cf. Khwarizm, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.)
  36. Marshall Clagett (1961). The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages, p. 64. University of Wisconsin Press.
  37. Rafik Berjak and Muzaffar Iqbal, "Ibn Sina--Al-Biruni correspondence", Islam & Science, December 2003.
  38. Rafik Berjak and Muzaffar Iqbal, "Ibn Sina--Al-Biruni correspondence", Islam & Science, Summer 2004.
  39. Rafik Berjak and Muzaffar Iqbal, "Ibn Sina--Al-Biruni correspondence", Islam & Science, Winter 2004.
  40. George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, "The Time of Al-Biruni".
  41. Muhammad Iqbal, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, "The Spirit of Muslim Culture" (cf. [1] and [2])
  42. Ziauddin Sardar, Science in Islamic philosophy
  43. "Qur'an and Science", Encyclopedia of the Qur'an.
  44. Prof. Ahmad Dallal (2004), "Science and the Qur'an", in Jane McAuliffe, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, vol. 4, p. 540-558.
  45. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1993), An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines, p. 166. State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-1516-3.

Bacaan salajengna[édit | sunting sumber]

Tumbu luar[édit | sunting sumber]