Basa Jérman

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Luncat ka: pituduh, sungsi
Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.
Basa Jerman (Deutsch)
Dipaké di: Jérman, Swis, Austria, jeung 38 nagara lianna.
Wewengkon:
Jumlah pamaké: 120 yuta
Urutan ka: 9
Klasifikasi rungkun basa: Indo-Éropa

 Jérman
  Kulon
   Jérman Luhur
    Jérman
     Jérman Tengah
      Jérman Tengah Wétan
       Jérman

Status resmi
Basa resmi di: Jérman, Liechtenstein, Austria, Bélgia, Itali, Swis, Luxembourg, Denmark, Namibia, Polandia, jsb.
Diatur ku: -
Sandi basa
ISO 639-1 de
ISO 639-2 ger (B), deu (T)
ISO 639-3 deu
SIL GER
Tempo ogé: Basa - Daptar basa

Basa Jérman (Deutsch, deutsche Sprache), anggota kelompok kulon basa-basa Jérman, nyaéta salasahiji basa utama di dunya, ogé mangrupa basa nu boga pamaké asli panglobana di Uni Éropa. Utama dipaké di Jérman, Austria, Liechtenstein, sabagian utama Swis, Luxembourg, Südtirol (Tyrol Kidul) di Itali, Opole Voivodship di Polandia, Canton Wétan di Bélgia, sabagian Rumania, Alsace jeung sabagian wewengkon Lorraine di Prancis. Ogé katambah ku sababaraha urut jajahan, kayaning Namibia nu populasi pamaké basa Jérmanna kawilang loba, sababaraha minoritas di nagara-nagara Éropa wétan, kayaning Rusia, Hungaria, jeung Slovenia, sarta di Amérika Kalér jeung nagara-nagara Amérika Latin kawas Argentina jeung Brazil, utamana di wilayah Rio Grande Do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná e Espírito Santo.

Urang Amish jeung sabagian Mennonites ogé maké logat Jérman. Ampir 120 yuta jalma, saparapat ti sakabéh Éropa, ngomong basa Jérman. Basa Jérman jadi basa katilu pangpopularna nu diajarkeun di sakuliah dunya, sarta kadua pangpopularna di Éropa (sanggeus basa Inggris), |AS, jeung Asia Wétan (Jepang). Basa Jérman jadi basa resmi di Uni Éropa.

Sajarah[édit | sunting sumber]

Logat nu mangrupa géséhan sora basa Jérman kadua nalika mangsa pertengahan dianggap salaku bagian ti basa Jérman modern.

Ayana pola jajahan, Völkerwanderung (diéjah ['fœlk6vand@rUN]), jalur dagang jeung komunikasi (wewengkon aliran walungan), jeung isolasi lingkungan (pagunungan jeung leuweung geledegan) ngabalukarkeun tumuwuhna lentong/basa wewengkon nu baréda. Basa-basa wewengkon ieu dipaké sapanjang Karajaan Romawi.

As Germany was divided into many different states, the only force working for a unification or standardization of German was a long process of several hundred years, in which writers tried to write and in a way, that was understood in the largest area.

When Martin Luther translated the Bible (the New Testament in 1521 and the Old Testament in 1534) he based his translation mainly on this already developed language, which was the most widely understood language at this time. In the beginning, copies of the Bible had a long list for each region, which translated words unknown in the region into the regional dialect. Roman Catholics rejected Luther's translation in the beginning and tried to create their own Catholic standard (Gemaines Deutsch). It took until the middle of the 18th century to create a standard, that was widely accepted, thus ending the period of Early New High German.

German used to be the language of commerce and government in the Habsburg Empire, which encompassed a large area of Central and Eastern Europe. Until the mid-nineteenth century it was essentially the language of townspeople throughout most of the Empire. It indicated that the speaker was a merchant, an urbanite, not their nationality. Some towns, such as Prague and Budapest were gradually Germanized in the years after their incorporation into the Habsburg domain. Others, such as Bratislava (Pressburg), were originally settled during the Habsburg period and were primarily German at that time. A few towns such as Milano remained primarily non-German. However, most towns such as Prague, Budapest, Bratislava, Zagreb, and Ljubljana which later became national capitals were for the time primarily German, although they were surrounded by country that spoke other languages.

Until about 1800, Standard German was almost only a written language. In this time people in urban, northern Germany, who spoke dialects very different from Standard German learnt it almost like a foreign language and tried to pronounce it as close to the spelling as possible. Later this spoken form spread southward.

Media and written works are almost all produced in this variety of High German (usually called Standard German in English or Hochdeutsch in German), which is understood in all areas of German languages (except by pre-school children in areas which speak only dialect - but in the age of TV even they usually learn to understand Standard German before school age).

The first dictionary of the Brothers Grimm, the 16 parts of which were issued between 1852 and 1960, remains the most comprehensive guide to the words of the German language. In 1860, grammatical and orthographical rules first appeared in the Duden Handbook. In 1901, this was declared the standard definition of the German language in these matters. Official revisions of some of these rules were not issued until 1998.

Klasifikasi[édit | sunting sumber]

Basa Jérman mangrupakeun anggota cabang Kulon kulawarga basa Jérman, nu mangrupa bagian ti kulawarga basa Indo-Éropa.

Status resmi[édit | sunting sumber]

Basa Jérman mangrupa hiji-hijina basa resmi di Jérman, Liechtenstein, jeung Austria; salasahiji basa resmi di Bélgia (jeung basa Prancis jeung basa Walanda), Itali (jeung basa Itali, basa Prancis, basa Slovénia), Swis (jeung basa Prancis, Itali, jeung Romansh), Luxembourg (jeung basa Prancis & basa Luxembourg), jeung Denmark (jeung basa Denmark), ogé salasahiji ti 20 basa resmi Uni Éropa.

Basa Jérman ogé mangrupakeun basa minoritas di Prancis, Rusia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Polandia, Rumania, Togo, Kamérun, Amérika Serikat, Namibia, Brazil, Paraguay, Hungaria, Républik Céko, Slovakia, Walanda, Slovénia, Ukraina, Kroasia, Moldavia, Australia, Latvia, Éstonia, jeung Lituania.

Basa Jérman kungsi jadi basantara (lingua franca) Éropa tengah, wétan, jeung kalér. Pangaruh basa Inggris nu beuki kuat geus mangaruhan basa Jérman kiwari. Ngan, basa Jérman masih tetep jadi salasahiji basa deunegun pangpopularna nu diajarkeun di sakuliah dunya, jeung leuwih ti basa Prancis di wewengkon Éropa. Kira 38% pangeusi Éropa nyebutkeun bisa ngomong basa Jérman.

Basa wewengkon[édit | sunting sumber]

Istilah "basa Jérman" is used for several dialects of Germany and surrounding countries and in North America.

The dialects of Germany are typically divided into Low German and High German. The Low German dialects, or Low Saxon as they are sometimes known more precisely, are more closely related to Lower Franconian languages like Dutch than to the High German dialects, and from a linguist's perspective are not part of the German language proper. The High German dialects spoken by Germanic communities in the former Soviet union and Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features, and are usually considered the separate language Yiddish. There are also distinctive dialects of German which are or were primarily spoken in North America, including Pennsylvania German, Texas German, and Hutterite German.

The modern dialects of German proper are divided into Middle German and Upper German; Standard German is based on Middle German, while Austrian and Swiss German dialects are Upper German. A moderately complete listing of these dialects may be found at High German.

Tata basa[édit | sunting sumber]

Artikel utama: Tata basa Jérman

Sistim tulisan[édit | sunting sumber]

Basa Jérman ditulis migunakeun aksara Latin. Lian ti 26 aksara baku, dina basa Jérman aya tilu vokal nu maké Umlaut, nyaéta ä, ö, jeung ü, ogé lambang husus pikeun "ss", nu ngan dipaké dina kasus husus: ß. Nepi ka kiwari, basa Jérman dicitak dina aksara hideung Gothic (Fraktur, atawa Schwabacher) jeung ditulis dina Sütterlin. Varian aksara Latin ieu béda pisan jeung serif atawa sans serif typefaces used today, and are difficult for the untrained to read.

Ortografi[édit | sunting sumber]

Artikel utama: Éjahan basa Jérman.

Conto[édit | sunting sumber]

Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]

Tarjamah kecap jeung frase[édit | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]

  • George O. Curme, A Grammar of the German Language (1904, 1922) - karya na basa Inggris panglengkepna