Bebegig nyaéta hiji pakakas, nu sacara tradisional biasana mangrupa jejelemaan maké papakéan urut, atawa mannequin, nu dipaké keur ngusir katut nyingsieunan manuk kawas gagak sangkan teu ngaganggu pepelakan. Gagak henteu ukur ngahakanan pepelakan di tempat nu kungsi disorangna, tapi maranéhanana ogé ngumpulkeun baladna dina wanci peuting, ti mimiti kolompok nu réana satengah losin, antukna mah ngawangn kolompok nu réana 20 atawa 30 jeung saterusna tepikeun ka kacida réana tur gararandénga. Geus mangrupakeun kabiasaan keur maranéhanana lamun seug kudu balik deui kana patempatan nu kungsi disorangna dina wanci peuting.
Sajarah[édit | sunting sumber]
|Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.
Household Cyclopedia of General Information taun 1881 méré warta kieu:
Machinery of various kinds, such as wind-mills in miniature, horse rattles, etc., to be put in motion by the wind, are often employed to frighten crows; but with all of these they soon become familiar, when they cease to be of any use whatever.
The most effectual method of banishing them from a corn cob pipe field, as far as experience goes, is to combine with one or other of the scarecrows in vogue the frequent use of the musket. Nothing strikes such terror into these sagacious animals as the sight of a fowling-piece and the explosion of gun powder, which they have known so often to be fatal to their race.Such is their dread of a fowling-piece, that if one is placed upon a dyke or other eminence, it will for a long time prevent them from alighting on the adjacent grounds. Many persons now, however, believe that crows like most other birds, do more good by destroying insects and worms, etc., than harm by eating grain.
Crows can be a substantial problem for gardens in the springtime: they can work down a row pulling up recently sprouted corn to eat the remaining seed/seedlings. In the southern Appalachians another common method of scaring off crows was use of a dead crow hung upside down from a pole.
Modern scarecrows seldom take a human shape. On California farmland, highly reflective aluminized PET film ribbons are tied to the plants to create shimmers from the sun. Another approach are automatic noise guns powered with propane gas.
Ngaran séjén keur bebegig[édit | sunting sumber]
In the United Kingdom, where the use of scarecrows as a protector of crops dates from time immemorial, and where dialects were rife, there are a wide range of alternative names such as:
- Mommet (Somerset)
- Murmet (Devon)
- Hodmedod (Berkshire)
- Tattie bogle (Scotland), Bodach-rocais (lit. "old man of the rooks")
- Bwbach (Wales)
Pangaruh budaya[édit | sunting sumber]
The impact of the scarecrow extends beyond its immediate utilitarian function. Scarecrows feature in literature and in festivals.
In the 1719 novel Robinson Crusoe, by Daniel Defoe, the main character attempts to keep birds from eating his newly sowed corn stalks. As a discouragement, he shoots several of the birds and then hangs them in rows, such as English prisoners. The remaining birds are so frightened that they refuse to even remain in the area. While not the modern idea of a scarecrow, Crusoe does remark, "...I could never see a bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there." (Crusoe is generally thought of as the first English novel to use the term and it is possible that the term owes its popularity to this appearance.)
Nathaniel Hawthorne's short story Feathertop is about a scarecrow created and brought to life in seventeenth century Salem, Massachusetts by a witch in league with the devil. He is intended to be used for sinister purposes and at first believes himself to be human, but develops human feelings and deliberately cuts his own life short when he realizes what he really is. The basic framework of the story was used by American dramatist Percy MacKaye in his 1908 play The Scarecrow.
L. Frank Baum's tale The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, has a scarecrow as one of the main protagonists. The Scarecrow of Oz was searching for brains from the Great Wizard. In the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz The Scarecrow of Oz was portrayed by Ray Bolger. In the 1914 film His Majesty, the Scarecrow of Oz the Scarecrow of Oz was portrayed by Frank Moore. Worzel Gummidge, a scarecrow who came to life in a friendly form, first appeared in series of novels by Barbara Euphan Todd in the 1930s, and later in a popular television adaptation.
In the Comic book genre, The Scarecrow is a character in the DC Comics universe. He is a classic Batman villain. Similar characters, known as Scarecrow and Straw Man, appear in the Marvel Comics universe.
In music, British band Pink Floyd recorded a song called "The Scarecrow" for their debut album, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn, while Southern horrorcore rapper Boondox's stage act incorporates scarecrow imagery.
Féstival bebegig[édit | sunting sumber]
In the UK, the festival at Wray, Lancashire was established in the early 1990s and continues to the present day. In the village of Orton, Eden, scarecrows are displayed each year, often using topical themes such as a Dalek exterminating a Wind turbine to represent local opposition to a wind farm. Norland, West Yorkshire has a festival. Tetford and Salmonby jointly host one. In Teesdale, the villages of Cotherstone, Staindrop and Middleton-in-Teesdale have annual scarecrow festivals. In dymchurch on romney marsh a man dressed as the scarecrow rode down the street anually since 1964 in celebration of local author Russel Thorndike's Dr Syn books. however this year (2008) health and saftey made him walk. In August 2004 a scarecrow dressed as a police woman was stolen from Middleton-in-Teesdale by staff at Loaded magazine who appointed it as guest editor for one issue. Mercury, Teesdale. "Men's magazine owns up to stealing scarecrow Nancy". In the USA, St. Charles, Illinois hosts an annual "Scarecrow Festival".
Rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]
- Lesley Brown (ed.). (2007). "Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles". 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-923324-3.
- Hartshorne, Henry. (1881). "The Household Cyclopedia of General Information". New York: Thomas Kelly.
- Warrack, Alexander (1982). "Chambers Scots Dictionary". Chambers. ISBN 0-550-11801-2.
Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]
Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]
- British history of the scarecrow
- Photo of a crow trap in Australia
- A typical English scarecrow made of discarded clothing
Bibliografi[édit | sunting sumber]
Scarecrow Fact and Fable, Peter Haining, 1986