Piagam Madinah

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Piagam Madinah atawa Konstitusi Madinah (Basa Arab: صحیفة المدینه‎) nyaéta piagam formal kasapukan antara Muhammad jeung suku-suku/kelompok sarta rundayan-rundayan gedé nu matuh di Yatsrib (kadieunakeun katelah Madinah), utamana Muslim, Yahudi, jeung pagan, nu dijieun kira taun 622.[1][2]. Di dinya dituliskeun ngeunaan dipungkasna papaséaan antarsuku Aus jeung Khazraj di Madinah, anu salajengna dituturkeun ku sababaraha hak jeung kawajiban pikeun masarakat Muslim, Yahudi, jeung pagan sangkan ngahiji dina hiji masarakat-Umat[3].

Nepi ka kiwari, teu aya kasapukan ngeunaan titimangsa ieu piagam, tapi sacara umum mah para sarjana satuju yén ieu piagam dijieun teu lila sanggeus hijrah ti Mekah taun 622[4]. Ieu sacara éféktif ngadegkeun nagara Islam, anu di antara katangtuanana nyaéta ngeunaan kaamanan masarakat, kabébasan boga ageman, peran Madinah salaku tempat suci (ngeureunan peperangan), kasalametan wanoja, hubungan raket antarsuku di Madinah, sistem pajeg pikeun ngarojong masarakat dina mangsa aya bancang pakéwuh, aturan-aturan ngeunaan hubungan pulitik jeung kakawasaan luar, sistem jaminan kasalametan pikeun unggal jalma, sistem pangadilan pikeun mémérés sengkéta, sarta ngatur diyat (gaganti kisos).

Kasang tukang[édit | sunting sumber]

Dina taun-taun panungtungan di Mekah, Muhammad kadatangan utusan salaku wawakil ti sababaraha golongan Madinah. Éta utusan mundut anjeunna sangkan jadi pamingpin pikeun sakabéh masarakat[5][6]. Di Yatsrib, salila saratus taun Arab jeung Yahudi teu weléh pagétréng[5]. Kisos teu anggeus-anggeus, jangji damé bolay waé, pamustunganana kalah sakabéh suku ngilu paséa (Perang Bu'ats[5]. Para pamingpin suku sapuk mundut Muhammad jadi panengah pikeun maranéhna, kalawan jaminan anjeunna bakal dijaga kasalametanana[7].

Sanggeus hijrah ka Madinah, Muhammad nyusun Piagam Madinah, "ngadegkeun hiji federasi" di antara dalapan suku/kelompok urang Madinah jeung Muslim nu hijrah ti Mekah, nu ngatur hak jeung kawajiban sakabh rahayat sarta hubungan antarkelompok di Madinah (kaasup antara masarakat Muslim jeung masarakat lianna, utamana Yahudi jeung 'Ahli Kitab' lianna)[5].

Sumber[édit | sunting sumber]

Para sarjana henteu kungsi manggih dokumén/naskah aslina, tapi ngarujuk ka sababaraha vérsi anu aya dina sababaraha rujukan Muslim bihari, utamana dina naskah Sirah Rosululloh karya Ibnu Ishaq jeung Kitabul Amwal karya Sayyid al-Nas jeung Abu 'Ubaid. Ku para ahli, duanana dianggap oténtik.

Analisis[édit | sunting sumber]

Ceuk Bernard Lewis, Piagam Madinah teu sarua jeung perjangjian modél jaman ayeuna, tapi mangrupa wawar atawa proklamasi unilateral ti Muhammad[8]. Anu matak kataji, ieu konstitusi ngasupkeun Yahudi ka jero Umat. Yahudi jadi samasarakat jeung Muslim, padahal agamana séwang-séwangan[9].

Sarjana hukum L. Ali Khan nyebutkeun yén Piagam Madinah téh kontrak sosial nu diturunkeun tina kasapukan, lain tina fictional state of nature atawa veil of ignorance-na John Rawls. Ieu kontrak diwangun dina konsép hiji masarakat anu rupa-rupa sukuna tapi hirup dina kakawasaan Pangéran[10].

Muhammad Tahirul Qadri nyusun buku nu dijudulan Constitutional Analysis of the Constitution of Madina, nu medarkeun analisis Piagam Madinah. Anjeunna ngategorikeun artikel-artikelna dumasar konstitusi hukum modéren[11].

Piagam Madinah ogé ngalembagakeun cara damé pikeun ngahijikeun kahirupan masarakat tanpa kudu asimilasi jadi hiji ageman, basa, atawa budaya[12]. Dina Encyclopedia of Islam, Welch nyebutkeun "The constitution reveals his Muhammad's great diplomatic skills, for it allows the ideal that he cherished of an ummah (community) based clearly on a religious outlook to sink temporarily into the background and is shaped essentially by practical considerations." [13]

Umat[édit | sunting sumber]

Inti tina konsép umat (ummah) nyaéta konfederasi pulitik, nu di Arab jaman bihari mah taya lian ti téokratik, tapi minculak kusabab ayana rupa-rupa ageman. Serjeant nyebutkeun yén hal ieu henteu anéh, sabab ti saméméh Islam gé aya masarakat Kurés narima lambang-lambang Kristen dina Ka'bah[14].

Hak non-Muslim[édit | sunting sumber]

Non-Muslim nu kawengku dina umat boga sababaraha hak[15]:

  1. Kaamanan (dzimmi) pikeun sakabéh golongan[16]
  2. Warga non-Muslim boga hak pulitik & budaya anu sarua jeung Muslim, sarta bébas ngadegkeun agemanana séwang-séwangan[17].
  3. Non-Muslim ngilu béla nagara pikeun ngalawan musuh umat sarta ngilu udunan pikeun ngabéayaanana[18].
  4. Non-Muslim teu boga kawajiban pikeun ngilu perang kaagamaan Muslim[19]

Rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. Baca:
    • Firestone (1999) kac. 118;
    • "Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam Online
  2. Watt. Muhammad at Medina jeung R. B. Serjeant "The Constitution of Medina." Islamic Quarterly 8 (1964) kac. 4.
  3. R. B. Serjeant, The Sunnah Jami'ah, pacts with the Yathrib Jews, and the Tahrim of Yathrib: Analysis and translation of the documents comprised in the so-called "Constitution of Medina." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 41, No. 1. 1978), page 4.
  4. Watt. Muhammad at Medina. pp. 227-228 Watt argues that the initial agreement was shortly after the hijra and the document was amended at a later date specifically after the battle of Badr. Serjeant argues that the constitution is in fact 8 different treaties which can be dated according to events as they transpired in Medina with the first treaty being written shortly after Muhammad's arrival. R. B. Serjeant. "The Sunnah Jâmi'ah, Pacts with the Yathrib Jews, and the Tahrîm of Yathrib: Analysis and Translation of the Documents Comprised in the so called 'Constitution of Medina'." in The Life of Muhammad: The Formation of the Classical Islamic World: Volume iv. Ed. Uri Rubin. Brookfield: Ashgate, 1998, p. 151 and see same article in BSOAS 41 (1978): 18 ff. See also Caetani. Annali dell’Islam, Volume I. Milano: Hoepli, 1905, p. 393. Julius Wellhausen. Skizzen und Vorabeiten, IV, Berlin: Reimer, 1889, p 82f who argue that the document is a single treaty agreed upon shortly after the hijra. Wellhausen argues that it belongs to the first year of Muhammad’s residence in Medina, before the battle of Badr in 2/624. Wellhausen bases this judgement on three considerations; first Muhammad is very diffident about his own position, he accepts the Pagan tribes within the Umma, and maintains the Jewish clans as clients of the Ansars see Wellhausen, Excursus, p. 158. Even Moshe Gil a skeptic of Islamic history argues that it was written within 5 months of Muhammad's arrival in Medina. Moshe Gil. "The Constitution of Medina: A Reconsideration." Israel Oriental Studies 4 (1974): p. 45.
  5. a b c d Watt, The Cambridge History of Islam, kac. 39
  6. Esposito (1998), kac. 17.
  7. Alford Welch, Muhammad, Encyclopedia of Islam
  8. Bernard Lewis, "The Arabs in History," kac. 42.
  9. Jonathan Berkey. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800. Cambridge University Press.
  10. Baca
  11. Constitution of Madina
  12. Ramadan, Hisham M. (2006). Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 0-7591-0990-7.
  13. Welch, Encyclopedia of Islam, Muhammad article
  14. R. B. Serjeant (1978). The Sunnah Jami'ah, pacts with the Yathrib Jews, and the Tahrim of Yathrib: Analysis and translation of the documents comprised in the so-called "Constitution of Medina." Bul. Sch. Oriental & African Studies. University of London. Vol. 41, No. 1: 4.
  15. Ahmed (1979), kac. 46-7
  16. Artikel 15, sakumaha dicutat dina Ahmed (1979)
  17. Artikel 25, sakumaha dicutat dina Ahmed (1979)
  18. Artikel 37, sakumaha dicutat dina Ahmed (1979)
  19. Artikel 45, sakumaha dicutat dina Ahmed (1979)

Baca ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Bacaan salajengna[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Ahmad, Barakat (1979). Muhammad and the Jews, Vikas Publishing House.
  • Karsh, Efraim (2006). Islamic Imperialism : A History, Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10603-3.
  • Watt, Montogomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina, Oxford University Press.
  • Wensinck, Arendt Jan (1908). Muhammad and the Jews of Medina, Leiden.

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]


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