Rékayasa

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Rékayasa ngarupakeun aplikasi élmu pikeun nedunan pangabutuh manusa. Ieu kacumponan ku ayana pangaweruh, matematik, jeung pangalaman praktis nu diterapkeun kana rancang barang atawa prosés nu mangpaat. Praktisi rékayasa nu profésional disebut insinyur.

Dibandingkeun jeung pagawéan séjén[édit | sunting sumber]

Rékayasa patali jeung implementasi jawaban pikeun hiji masalah praktis. Saurang élmuwan bisa nanya "naha?" nu diteruskeun ku nalungtik pijawabeun pananyana. Sabalikna ti éta, insinyur hayang nyaho "kumaha carana" ngaréngsékeun hiji masalah jeung kumaha cara ngajalankeun éta solusi.

Dina kalimah sejen, ilmuwan nalungtik kajadian, sedengkeun ahli rekayasa neangan cara keur meupeuskeun masalah atawa nyieun cara anyar tina cara anu geus aya samemehna.

Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

Watesan "ahli rekayasa" jeung "ahli teknologi" teu bisa silih gantikeun; duanana ngabogaan tipe pagawéan jeung profési anu béda. Pikeun gambaran: nalika insinyur geus manggihan solusi pikeun masalah nu disanghareupan, pagawéanana eureun, nu diteruskeun ku ahli téhnologi pikeun nyampurnakeun solusina. This process is dependent on various factors that vary with time. A solution that could be a practical application of a scientific fact does not satisfy a technologist. A technologist endeavours to bring it within the economic constraints so that the common person not only understands and marvels at science but also is able to enjoy it and loses fear of it by constant interaction.

Pikeun gambaran contona, tanggal 21 Novémber 1877, Thomas A. Edison ngawangun fonograf -- hiji préstasi punjul tina rékayasa. Salajengna, anjeunna ngarahkeun asisténna (si ahli téhnologi) piekun ngaronjatkeun parabotna ku jalan ngaleungitkeun harmonik tina kaluaran sorana.

Pancén insinyur[édit | sunting sumber]

The engineer must identify and understand the relevant constraints in order to produce a successful design. Constraints include available resources, physical or technical limitations, flexibility for future modifications and additions, and other factors such as requirements for cost, manufacturability, serviceability, and marketing and aesthetic, social, or ethic considerations. By understanding the constraints, engineers deduce specifications for the limits within which an object or system may be produced and operated. Engineering is therefore influenced by many considerations.

Problem solving[édit | sunting sumber]

Engineers use their knowledge of science and mathematics, and appropriate experience, to find suitable solutions to a problem. Creating an appropriate mathematical model of a problem allows them to analyze it (perhaps, but exceptionally, definitively), and to test potential solutions. If multiple reasonable solutions exist, engineers evaluate the different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best meets the requirements.

Engineers typically attempt to predict how well their designs will perform to their specifications prior to full-scale production. They use, among other things: prototypes, scale models, simulations, destructive tests, nondestructive testing, and stress tests. Testing ensures that products will perform as expected. Engineers as professionals take seriously their responsibility to produce designs that will perform as expected and will not cause unintended harm to the public at large. Engineers typically include a factor of safety in their designs to reduce the risk of unexpected failure.

Mangpaat komputer[édit | sunting sumber]

Computers, and design software, play an increasingly important role. Using computer aided design (CAD) software, engineers are able to capture more information about their designs. The computer can automatically translate some models to instructions suitable for automatic machinery (e.g., CNC) to fabricate (part of) a design. The computer also allows increased reuse of previously developed designs by presenting an engineer with a library of predefined parts ready to be used in designs.

Additionally, engineers make use of a variety of circuit schematics software to aid in the creation of circuit designs that perform an electronic task when used for a printed circuit board (PCB) or a computer chip.

Étimologi[édit | sunting sumber]

Yén kecap engineer (insinyur) asalna tina gambaran pikeun jalma nu nyieun/ngawangun engine (mesin), sabenerna ngan ukur mitos. Nyatana, kecap engine jeung engineer (ogé kecap ingenious) sarua asalna tina kecap Latin ingeniosus nu hartina "skilled", "ahli". Mangka saurang insinyur kudu pinter, boga pangalaman, mecahkeun masalah. Pangucapan engineer saméméhna dipangaruhan ku asal kecap tina engine. Istilah ieu salajengna robah jadi ngawengku sagala widang di mana kaahlian terapan métode ilmiah digunakeun. Dina sababaraha basa séjén, saperti basa Arab, kecap "engineering" ogé ngandung harti "géométri". Ogé na basa Indonésia jeung Sunda, kecap "engineering" geus ilahar ditarjamahkeun jadi "teknik/téhnik" jeung "rékayasa".

Patalina jeung disiplin séjén[édit | sunting sumber]

Science attempts to explain newly observed and unexplained phenomena, often creating mathematical models of observed phenomena. Technology and engineering are attempts at practical application of knowledge (often from science). Scientists work on science; engineers work on technology. However, there is often an overlap between science and engineering. It is not uncommon for scientists to become involved in the practical application of their discoveries; thereby becoming, for the moment, engineers. Conversely, in the process of developing technology engineers sometimes find themselves exploring new phenomena, thus becoming, for the moment, scientists.

There are significant parallels between the practice of medicine and engineering. Both professions are well known for their pragmatism -- the solution to real world problems often requires moving forward before phenomenea are completely understood in a more rigorous scientific sense.

There are also close connections between the workings of engineers and artists; they are direct in some fields, for example, architecture and industrial design, and indirect in others. Artistic and engineering creativity may be fundamentally connected.

Insinyur jeung budaya[édit | sunting sumber]

Sacara historis, rékayasa diteuteup salaku widang nu garing sarta teu dipikaresep dina budaya popular, sarta ogé dianggap salaku ladangna jalma nerd.

Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Pakakas[édit | sunting sumber]

Métode[édit | sunting sumber]

Cabang utama[édit | sunting sumber]

Tempo widang-widang rékayasa pikeun béréndélan nu lengkep.

Rupa-rupa[édit | sunting sumber]