Radio VHF kalautan

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A VHF set and a VHF channel 70 DSC set, the DSC on top.
A standard handheld maritime VHF, mandatory on larger seagoing vessels under the GMDSS rules
A classic maritime VHF set
A portable VHF which is ip67, GMDSS and ATEX approved

Radio VHF kalautan dipasang dina sakabéh kapal balayar badag sarta kapal leutik di sagara. Hal ieu ogé dipaké, jeung aturan anu saeutik béda, di walungan sarta danau. Hal ieu dipaké pikeun sagala rupa tujuan, kaasup ngagero layanan kasalametan sarta komunikasi jeung palabuhan, locks, rohang nakodas and marinas, sarta operasi dina kisaran very high frequency (VHF) , antara 156 and 162.025 MHz. Sanajan loba dipaké pikeun nyingkahan tabrakan, pamakéanana pikeun tujuan anu kontroversial sarta pohara nguciwakeun sawatara nagara, kaasup Inggris.[1]

A marine VHF set is a combined transmitter and receiver and only operates on standard, international frequencies known as channels. Channel 16 (156.8 MHz) is the international calling and distress channel. Channel 9 can also be used in some places as a secondary call and distress channel. Transmission power ranges between 1 and 25 watts, giving a maximum range of up to about 60 nautical miles (111 km) between aerials mounted on tall ships and hills, and Citakan:Convert/nmi between aerials mounted on small boats at sea level.[1] Frequency modulation (FM) is used, with vertical polarization, meaning that antennas have to be vertical in order to have good reception.

Modern-day marine VHF radios not only offer basic transmit and receive capabilities. Permanently mounted marine VHF radios on seagoing vessels are required to have certification of some level of "Digital Selective Calling" (DSC) capability, to allow a distress signal to be sent with a single button press.

Marine VHF mostly uses "half-duplex" transmission, where communication can only take place in one direction at a time. A transmit button on the set or microphone determines whether it is operating as a transmitter or a receiver. The majority of channels, however, are set aside as "duplex" transmission channels where communication can take place in both directions simultaneously.[1] Each duplex channel has two frequency assignments. Duplex channels can be used to place calls on the public telephone system for a fee via a marine operator. This facility is still available in some areas, though its use has largely died out. Marine VHF radios can also receive weather radio broadcasts, where they are available.

Types of equipment[édit | sunting sumber]

Sets can be fixed or portable. A fixed set generally has the advantages of a more reliable power source, higher transmit power, a larger and more effective aerial and a bigger display and buttons. A portable set (often essentially a waterproof, VHF walkie-talkie in design) can be carried on a kayak, or to a lifeboat in an emergency, has its own power source and is water-proof if GMDSS approved. A few portable VHFs are even approved to be used as emergency radios in environments requiring intrinsically safe equipment (e.g. gas tankers, oil rigs, etc.).

Marine radios can be "voice-only" or can include "Digital Selective Calling" (DSC).

Voice-only equipment is the traditional type, which relies totally on the human voice for calling and communicating.

Digital Selective Calling equipment, a part of the Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS), provides all the functionality of voice-only equipment and, additionally, allows several other features:

  • a transmitter can automatically call a receiver equipped with Digital Selective Calling, using a telephone-type number known as a Maritime Mobile Service Identity or MMSI. The DSC information is sent on the reserved Channel 70. When the receiver picks up the call, his active channel is automatically switched to the transmitter's channel and normal voice communication can proceed.
  • a distress button, which automatically sends a digital distress signal identifying the calling vessel and the nature of the emergency
  • a connection to a GPS receiver allowing the digital distress message to contain the distressed vessel's position

The MMSI is used for seagoing vessels and consists of a nine-digit number identifying a VHF set or group of sets. The left hand digits of MMSI indicate the country and type of station. For example, here are MMSI prefixes of four station types:

  • Ship : 232, 233, 234 or 235 are the United Kingdom – e.g. a UK ship : 232003556
  • Coastal station : 00 – e.g. Solent Coastguard : 002320011
  • Group of stations : 0 – e.g. 023207823
  • Portable DSC equipment : for UK 2359 - e.g. 235900498

For use on the inland waterways within continental Europe, a compulsory Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS) transmission conveys the vessel's identity after each voice transmission. This is a ten-digit code that is either an encoded version of the ship's alphanumeric call sign, or for vessels from outside the region, the ship MMSI prefixed with '9'. The requirement to use ATIS in Europe, and which VHF channels maybe used are strongly regulated, most recently by the Basel agreements.

Operating procedure[édit | sunting sumber]

The accepted conventions for use of marine radio are collectively termed "proper operating procedure." These conventions include:

  • Listening for 2 minutes before transmitting
  • Using Channel 16 only to establish communication (if necessary) and then switch to a different channel
  • using a set of international "calling" procedures such as the "Mayday" distress call, the "Pan-pan" urgency call and "Securité" navigational hazard call.
  • using "pro-words" based on the English language such as Acknowledge, All after, All before, All stations, Confirm, Correct, Correction, In figures, In letters, Over, Out, Radio check, Read back, Received, Repeat, Say again, Spell, Standby, Station calling, This is, Wait, Word after, Word before, Wrong (local language is used for some of these, when talking to local stations)
  • using the NATO phonetic alphabet: Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-ray, Yankee, Zulu
  • using a phonetic numbering system based on the English language or a combination of English and Roman languages: Wun, Too, Tree, Fow-er, Fife, Six, Sev-en, Ait, Nin-er, Zero, Decimal, alternatively in marine communication: unaone, bissotwo, terrathree, kartefour, pantafive, soxisix, setteseven, oktoeight, novenine, nadazero

Slightly adjusted regulations can apply for inland shipping, such as the Basle rules in Western Europe.

Marine VHF radio is sometimes illegally operated inland. Since enforcement is often the job of the local coast guard, enforcement away from the water is sometimes difficult.

Marine VHF Channels and Frequencies[édit | sunting sumber]

Channel
number
Frequencies (MHz) Citakan:GBR [2] Bandéra Amérika Sarikat Amérika Sarikat Bandéra Kanada Kanada Bandéra Australia Australia Bandéra Selandia Anyar Selandia Anyar Bandéra Finlandia Finlandia[3]
 A 
Usually ship stations
 B 
Usually coast stations
0 156.000 160.600 Private, coast guard  A 
1 156.050 160.650 Ship-to-ship/shore, commercial and safety
West Coast  A 
Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
BC Coast
Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
2 156.100 160.700 Public
BC Coast
Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
3 156.150 160.750  A  Illegal for public use1 Public
BC Coast/Inland
Boat to Boat - Kawau Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
4 156.200 160.800 Ship-to-ship/shore, commercial and safety
East Coast and Inland  A 

Canadian Coast Guard - public working channel
BC Coast4  A 

Boat to Boat - Tutukaka/Raglan Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
5 156.250 160.850 Ship Movements Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
6 156.300 160.900 Ship-to-ship + Ship-to-Air  A  Ship-to-ship + Ship-to-Air  A  Distress - Ship-to-Air Working - Intership  A  Ship-to-ship
also SAR: Ship-to-Ship + Ship-to-Air
7 156.350 160.950 General working channel Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
8 156.400 161.000 Ship-to-ship  A  Ship-to-ship
East and west coasts,
Lake Winnipeg  A 
Working - Intership Working - Intership  A  Ship-to-ship
9 156.450 161.050 Frequently used by pilots  A  Calling  A , commercial and non-commercial. Ship-to-air for maritime support
Atlantic and BC coasts  A 
Pilots, Port Operations Port Operations  A  VTS
(Ship-to-ship + Port Operations
10 156.500 161.100 Frequently used by HM Coastguard  A  Ship-to-air - SAR and antipollution  A 
General working -
Atlantic and BC coasts,
Great Lakes
Port Operations  A  Ship-to-ship
Port Operations
also SAR and oil cleanup
only VTS on Gulf of Finland
11 156.550 161.150 Port Operations VTS - BC Coast
Pilotage  A 
Port Operations  A  Port Operations
12 156.600 161.200 Port Operations VTS - San Francisco offshore
Pilotage  A 
VTS - BC Coast
Port and pilot ops  A 
Port Operations, VTS Port Operations  A  Port Operations
13 156.650 161.250 Bridge-to-Bridge Working  A  Bridge-to-Bridge safety  A : Vessels > 20m must maintain watch, Tx limited to 1 watt.

Movable bridge / lock operations.

VTS - BC Coast
Bridge-to-bridge safety  A 
Port Operations, VTS Intership Nav Safety  A  Pilots
Ship-to-ship
Port Operations
14 156.700 161.300 Port Operations VTS - San Francisco Bay and Delta
Pilotage  A 
VTS - BC Coast
Port and pilot ops  A 
Port Operations  A  Working channel for SAR authorities, Turku Radio
(Port Operations)
15 156.750 161.350 On board working (limited to 1 watt)  A   A  max 1 W
Intraship
Ship-to-ship
Port Operations
16 156.800 156.800
International distress, safety and calling  A 

All vessels equipped with VHF must maintain watch.
17 156.850 161.450 On board Working  A  Aquatic Sports Events  A  max 1 W
Intraship
Ship-to-ship
Port Operations
18 156.900 161.500 Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
19 156.950 161.550 Landside facilities: harbormaster, marinas. Canadian Coast Guard - Working Channel Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
20 157.000 161.600 Repeater Operations Continuous Weather
Maritime Safety Service
Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
21 157.050 161.650  A  U.S. Coast Guard Only Continuous marine broadcasts  B  (WX 8) Continuous Weather
Maritime Safety Service
Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
22 157.100 161.700  A  U.S. Coast Guard—public working channel2 Continuous Weather
Maritime Safety Service
Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
23 157.150 161.750 HM Coastguard Maritime Safety Information  A  U.S. Coast Guard Only Continuous Weather
Maritime Safety Service
Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
24 157.200 161.800 UKSAR G/A Winching  A 
UKSAR TWC  B 
Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
25 157.250 161.850 Maritime Radio Working Channel Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
26 157.300 161.900 HM Coastguard Maritime Safety Information Public correspondence (marine telephone operator) Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
27 157.350 161.950 Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
28 157.400 162.000 Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
60 156.025 160.625 GOFREP on Gulf of Finland
Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
61 156.075 160.675  A  Illegal for public use1 GOFREP (Estonia) on Gulf of Finland
Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
62 156.125 160.725 UKSAR Calling & Helicopter Channel  A 
UKSAR TWC  B 
Boat to Boat - Waiheke/Whangaroa Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
63 156.175 160.775 UKSAR TWC (simplex) Boat to Boat - Manukau Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
64 156.225 160.825 UKSAR TWC (simplex)  A  Illegal for public use1 Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
65 156.275 160.875 Marine Assistance Working Channel Boat to Boat - Coromandel Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
66 156.325 160.925 Marinas - BC Coast  A  Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
67 156.375 160.975 UK Small Ship Safety Channel Working Channel, Marine Weather Maritime Radio Working Channel  A  VTS
(Ship-to-ship + Port Operations)
68 156.425 161.275 Non-commercial  A  Maritime Radio Working Channel  A  Port Operations
69 156.475 161.075 Port Operations Non-commercial  A  Australian Navy Maritime Radio Working channel
Surf Lifesaving
 A  Ship-to-ship
Port Operations
70 156.525 161.125 Digital Selective Calling  A 
71 156.575 161.175 Non-commercial  A  Maritime Radio Working Channel  A  VTS
(Ship-to-ship + Port Operations) Port Operations
72 156.625 161.225 Ship-to-ship  A  Non-commercial ship-to-ship  A  Ship-to-ship  A  Ship-to-ship
Ship-to-air
73 156.675 161.275 HM Coastguard Safety Broadcasts Ship-to-ship Marinas - Working  A  Ship-to-ship

Ship-to-air
(Port Operations)
74 156.725 161.325 British Waterways/Canal and River Trust Channel (Canal and River System) Ship-to-ship Working - Coast/Ship  A  Port Operations
75 156.775 161.375 Navigaton related communications (limited to 1 watt)  A Restricted
Ship-to-ship
Port Operations
76 156.825 161.425  A  Restricted
Port Operations
77 156.875 161.475 Ship-to-ship  A  Ship-to-ship  A  Ship-to-ship
78 156.925 161.525 Non-commercial  A  Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
79 156.975 161.575 Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
80 157.025 161.625 UK Marina Channel Repeater Operations Coastguard Radio - Working Channel GOFREP on Gulf of Finland
Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
81 157.075 161.675  A  U.S. Government Use Only Repeater Operations Coastguard Radio - Working Channel GOFREP (Estonia) on Gulf of Finland
Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
82 157.125 161.725  A  U.S. Government Use Only Canadian Coast Guard - Working Channel Coastguard Radio - Working Channel Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
83 157.175 161.775  A  U.S. Coast Guard Use Only Continuous Marine Broadcasts  B  (WX 9) Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
84 157.225 161.825 HM Coastguard Maritime Safety Information Coastguard Radio - Working Channel Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
85 157.275 161.875 UKSAR TWC (simplex) Radio Telephone - Duplex Coastguard Radio - Working Channel Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
86 157.325 161.925 HM Coastguard Maritime Safety Information Coastguard Radio - Working Channel Public Correspondence (Ship-to-Shore Duplex)
Port Operations
87 157.375 161.975 Automatic Identification System  B 
88 157.425 162.025 Automatic Identification System  B 

Notes:

1: Some radios enable channels 3A, 61A, and 64A when configured for "USA mode" even though those channels are allocated exclusively for Public Safety use by the FCC. The frequencies 156.075, 156.150, and 156.225 MHz are used for interoperability communication by police and fire departments in many areas.

2: Channel 22A is reserved for communication between the U.S. Coast Guard vessels and private vessels. The Coast Guard does not monitor 22A: Contact must first be established on 16.

3: UKSAR land based search & rescue teams have access to the simplexed versions of 24, 62, 63, 64, 85 for operational & training needs. These include Mountain Rescue teams in England, Wales & Scotland.

4: CCG public operations moved from 22A to 04A to avoid interference from USCG stations in northern Washington state.

See also[édit | sunting sumber]

References[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. a b c UK Maritime and Coastguard Agency Marine Guidance Note MGN324
  2. (2008) VHF Radio (including GMDSS), 2nd, RYA.
  3. Kommunikationsverket 2010: Handbok i VHF-radiokommunikation för radiooperatör med kusttrafikcertifikat

External links[édit | sunting sumber]

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