Turki

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Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Républik Turki
Bandéra Turki Lambang Turki
Bandéra Lambang
Motto: basa Turki: Yurtta Sulh, Cihanda Sulh
(basa Sunda: "Damai di Imah, Damai di Dunya")
Lagu: İstiklâl Marşı
(basa Sunda: "Mars Kamerdikaan")

Lokasi Turki


Ibukota Ankara
41°1′N 28°57′E
Kota panggedéna İstanbul
Basa resmi basa Turki
Pamaréntahan Républik
 - Présidén Ahmet Necdet Sezer
 - Perdana Mentri Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Ngadegna  
 - Ottoman Empire 1299 
 - Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire 19081922 
 - Formation of Parliament 23 April 1920 
 - Start of War of Independence 19 Méi 1919 
 - Victory Day 30 Augustus 1922 
 - Declaration of Republic 29 Oktober 1923 
Wewengkon  
 - Total 783,562 km² (ka-37)
  302,534 sq mi 
 - Cai (%) 1.3
Populasi  
 - Perkiraan taun 2005 73,193,000 (17th 1)
 - Sénsus taun 2000 67,844,903
 - Kapadetan 93/km² (102nd 1)
241/sq mi 
GDP (PPP) 2006 (éstimasi)
 - Total $612.3 billion (19th)
 - Perkapita $8,385 (75th)
HDI (2003) 0.750 (94th) – medium
Mata uang New Turkish Lira2 (TRY)
Wewengkon wanci EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Internét TLD .tr
Kode telepon +90
1. Population & Density ranks based on 2005 figures.
2. Since 1 January 2005, the New Turkish Lira (Yeni Türk Lirası) replaced the old Turkish Lira.

Turki (basa Turki: Türkiye), resmina Républik Turki (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ), nyaéta hiji nagara di Eurasia nu ngampar sapanjang semenanjung Anatolia di Asia kulon kidul sarta wewengkon Balkan ti Éropa wétan kidul. Wates-wates Turki nyaéta dalapan nagara:

Minangka tambahan, Turki diwawatesanan ku Laut Hideung di beulah kalér; Laut Aegean jeung Laut Marmara di beulah kulon; sarta Laut Méditerania di beulah kidul.

Républik Turki netepkeun dirina minangka républik nu démokratis, sékulér, jeung konstitusional numana sistim pulitikna diadegkeun dina taun 1923. Turki mangrupakeun nagara anggota PBB, NATO, OSCE, OECD, OKI, sarta Déwan Éropa. Ogé mangrupakeun nagara calon pikeun ngagabung jeung Uni Éropa. Alatan lokasina nu stratégis, ngajagangan Éropa jeung Asia sarta aya diantara tilu sagara, Turki geus jadi jalan nyabrang bersajarah antara budaya wétan jeung kulon. Turki mangrupakeun tempat keur sababaraha peradaban sarta jadi tempat bitotama antar maranéhannana.

Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

Citakan:Morepolitics

The Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a secular parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Executive branch[édit | sunting sumber]

The function of Head of State is performed by the President (Cumhurbaşkanı). A president is elected every seven years by the Grand National Assembly. The President does not have to be a member of parliament. The current President Ahmet Necdet Sezer, was elected by Parliament on May 16, 2000. Executive power rests in the Prime Minister (Başbakan) and the Council of Ministers (Bakanlar Kurulu). The Ministers have to be members of Parliament; however, the Prime Minister is no longer required to be an MP. The Prime Minister is elected by the parliament through a vote of confidence in his government. The Prime Minister is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, whose Islamic conservative AKP won a majority of parliamentry seats in the 2002 general elections. The Chairman of the Parliament is Bülent Arınç from the same party. The current President of the Constitutional Court is Mustafa Bumin.

Legislative branch[édit | sunting sumber]

Legislative power is invested in the 550-seat Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), representing 81 provinces. The members are elected for a five year term by mitigated proportional representation with an election threshold of 10 %. To avoid fragmentation of parliament, a party must win at least 10% of the national vote in a national parliamentary election to gain parliamentary representation. Independent candidates may run, and to be elected, they must only win 10% of the vote in the province from which they are running. The Turkish military plays an informal political role, seeing itself as the guardian of the secular, unitary nature of the republic. Political parties deemed anti-secular or separatist by the judiciary can be banned. Turkey has a multi-party system, with several strong parties..

Foreign Relations[édit | sunting sumber]

Turkish-EU relations[édit | sunting sumber]

Turkey's main political, economic and military relations remain rooted within Western Europe and the United States. An associate member of the European Union since 1964, Turkey is currently in the process of accession pending the completion of negotiations. A major source of tension in its EU aspirations is the issue of Cyprus, a member of the EU which Turkey does not recognise, but instead supports the de facto independent Turkish Cypriot north. Other factors include Turkey's human rights record, its relatively large population, its relatively poor (although fast growing) economy and proximity to the volatile Middle East. Based on what it views as lukewarm support for its accesion to the EU and alleged double standards in its negotiations (France and Austria have indicated they will hold referendums on Turkey's membership) the Turkish public has become increasingly euroskeptic in recent times. A mid-2006 Eurobarometer survey revealed that 43% of Turkish citizens view the EU positively; just 35% trust the EU, 45% support enlargement and just 29% support an EU constitution [1]. It is believed that the accession process would take at least 10 years which would mean that Turkey would enter the EU in 2015 at the earliest.

Turkish-American relations[édit | sunting sumber]

Turkey has remained a close ally of the United States, supporting it in the war on terror in the post September 11th climate. However, the Iraq war faced strong domestic opposition in Turkey and as such, the Turkish parliament voted against allowing US troops to attack Iraq from its south-eastern border. This led to a period of cooling in relations, but soon regained momentum through diplomatic, humanitarian and indirect military support. Turkey is particularly cautious about an independent Kurdish state arising from a destabilised Iraq. Turkey has fought an insurgent war against the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), that seeks Kurdish independence, in which some estimated 30,000 people have lost their lives. This has led Ankara to pressure the US into clamping down on guerrilla training camps in northern Iraq, though it remains reluctant due to its relative stability compared to the rest of Iraq. Turkey must therefore balance domestic pressures with commitments to its strongest ally.

Greco-Turkish relations[édit | sunting sumber]

Historically, relations with neighbour Greece have been strained and occasionally close to war. The antagonism can be traced all the way back to centuries of Ottoman Turkish rule over the Greek people and consequent struggle by the latter for the creation of a Greek nation state. The last one emerged over the Cyprus dispute and conflicts on the status of the Aegean Sea are the current main points of contention. Cyprus remains divided between a Greek Cypriot south, and a Turkish Cypriot north recognized only by Turkey. Efforts to reunite the island under the auspices of the United Nations have failed thus far. As far as the Aegean Sea is concerned, Ankara considers it strategically important for easy passage of Turkish vessels. Turkey does not recognise the extension of Greek territorial waters to 12-mile around the islands of the Aegean. Ankara argues that the Turkish Aegean coasts would then be blocked by Greek territorial waters, despite the innocent passage of vessels that is universally recognised within the territorial waters of any state according to the Law of the Sea. Turkey has warned that such an act would be considered a casus belli or an act of war on Turkey.

Nonetheless, following consecutive earthquakes in both Turkey and Greece and the prompt response of aid and rescue teams from both sides, the two nations have entered a much more positive period of relations, with Greece actively supporting Turkey's struggle to enter the European Union. A clear sign of improved relations was visible in the response to a mid air collision by Greek and Turkish fighter jets in the southern Aegean. While the Turkish pilot ejected safely, the Greek pilot lost his life. However, both countries agreed that the event should not affect their bilateral relations.[2]

Military[édit | sunting sumber]

Red right arrow.svg
 Artikel utama: Turkish Armed Forces.

The Turkish Armed Forces (Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri or abbreviated as TSK) consists of the Army, Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry) and Air Force. The Gendarmerie and Coast Guard operate as the part the Department of Internal Affairs in peacetime and are subordinate to the Army and Navy Commands respectively. In wartime, both have law enforcement and military functions. The Turkish Armed forces, with a combined troop strength of 1,043,550[3] people, is the second largest standing force in NATO after the United States. Currently, 36,000[4] troops are stationed in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Every fit male Turkish citizen has to serve military service for varying time periods ranging between 1 month to 15 months depending on his education, job location, and occasional paid options. The Turkish Armed Forces became a member of the NATO Alliance on February 18, 1952.

In 1998, Turkey announced a modernisation programme worth some $31 billion over a period of ten years including tanks, helicopters and assault rifles. Turkey is also a level three contributor to the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, gaining an opportunity to develop and influence the creation of the next generation fighter spearheaded by the United States.

The Armed forces have traditionally been a politically powerful institution, considering itself the guardian of Atatürk's legacy. They have staged three coups between 1960 and 1980, whilst also influencing the removal of the Islam-oriented government of Necmettin Erbakan in 1997. Through the National Security Council, the army has influenced policy on issues it deems a threat to the country, including those relating to Kurdish insurgency and Islamism. In recent years, reforms have seen an increased civilian presence on the NSC and a decline in the military's influence as it attempts to comply with the EU's Copenhagen criteria. Despite its influence in civilian affairs, the military continues to enjoy strong support from the nation, frequently seen as Turkey's most trusted institution.[5]

The Commander of The Turkish Armed Forces is The Chief of the General Staff General Yaşar Büyükanıt who succeeded General Hilmi Özkök on August 30, 2006. The President, as the Head of State, is The Commander in Chief, in times of peace. The Chief of the General Staff becomes the Commander in Chief, on behalf of the President, in times of war.

Geography[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Geography of Turkey.
Physical map of Turkey
Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı) - the tallest peak in Turkey at 5137m

The territory of Turkey extends from 36° to 42° N and from 26° to 45° E in Eurasia. It is roughly rectangular in shape and is 1,660 kilometers (1,031 mi) wide. Turkey's area inclusive of lakes is 814,578 square kilometres (314,510 sq mi), of which 790,200 square kilometres (305,098 sq mi) occupies the Anatolian peninsula (also called Asia Minor) in Western Asia, and 3% or 24,378 square kilometres (9,412 sq mi) are located in Europe. Many geographers consider Turkey politically in Europe, although it is rather a transcontinental country between Asia and Europe. The land borders of Turkey total 2,573 kilometres (1,599 mi), and the coastlines (including islands) total another 8,333 kilometres (5,178 mi).

Turkey is generally divided into seven regions: the Marmara, the Aegean, the Mediterranean, Central Anatolia, East Anatolia, Southeast Anatolia and the Black Sea region. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. This region comprises approximately 1/6 of Turkey's total land area. As a general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward

Turkey forms a bridge between Europe and Asia, with the division between the two running from the Black Sea (Karadeniz) to the north down along the Bosporus (Istanbul Boğazı) strait through the Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi) and the Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı) strait to the Aegean Sea (Ege Denizi) and the larger Mediterranean Sea (Akdeniz) to the south. The Anatolian peninsula or Anatolia (Anadolu) consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains, in between the Köroğlu and East-Black Sea mountain range to the north and the Taurus Mountains (Toros Dağları) to the south. To the east is found a more mountainous landscape, home to the sources of rivers such as the Euphrates (Fırat), Tigris (Dicle) and the Araks (Aras), as well as Lake Van (Van Gölü) and Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı), Turkey's highest point at 5,137 metres (16,853 ft).

Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of complex earth movements that have shaped the region over thousands of years and still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. The Bosporus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey, leading to the creation of the Black Sea. There is an earthquake fault line across the north of the country from west to east.

The climate is a Mediterranean temperate climate, with hot, dry summers and mild, wet and cold winters, though conditions can be much harsher in the more arid interior. Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the interior of Turkey a continental climate with distinct seasons. The central Anatolian Plateau is much more subject to extremes than are the coastal areas. Winters on the plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of -30 °C to -40 °C can occur in the mountainous areas in the east, and snow may lie on the ground 120 days of the year. In the west, winter temperatures average below 1 °C. Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures above 30 °C. Annual precipitation averages about 400 millimeters, with actual amounts determined by elevation. The driest regions are the Konya plain and the Malatya plain, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 millimeters. May is generally the wettest month and July and August, the driest.

Administrative divisions[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Provinces of Turkey.

Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces (iller in Turkish; singular il). Each province is divided into subprovinces (ilçeler; singular ilçe). The province usually bears the same name as the provincial capital, also called the central subprovince; exceptions are Hatay (capital: Antakya), Kocaeli (capital: İzmit) and Sakarya (capital: Adapazarı). Major provinces include: İstanbul 11 million, Ankara 4 million, İzmir 3.5 million, Bursa 2.1 million, Konya 2.2 million, Adana 1.8 million.

Cities[édit | sunting sumber]

İstanbul over the Bosporus

The capital city of Turkey is Ankara, but the historic capital İstanbul remains the financial, economic and cultural centre of the country. Other important cities include İzmir, Bursa, Adana, Trabzon, Malatya, Gaziantep, Erzurum, Kayseri, İzmit (Kocaeli), Konya, Mersin, Eskişehir, Diyarbakır, Antalya and Samsun. An estimated 68% of Turkey's population live in urban centers.[6] In all, 12 cities have populations exceeding 500,000 and 48 cities have more than 100,000 people.

Major Cities :

Note:Population figures given are those according to the 2000 census
Searchtool.svg
 Tingali ogé: List of cities in Turkey.


Economy[édit | sunting sumber]

Citakan:Infobox Country Economy

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 Artikel utama: Economy of Turkey.

Turkey's economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that in 2005 still accounted for 30% of employment. Turkey has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communications.

Turkey began a series of reforms in the 1980s designed to shift the economy from a statist, insulated system to a more private-sector, market-based model. The reforms spurred rapid growth, but this growth was punctuated by sharp recessions and financial crises in 1994, 1999, and 2001. Turkey's failure to pursue additional reforms, combined with large and growing public sector deficits, widespread corruption resulted in high inflation, increasing macroeconomic volatility, and a weak banking sector.

Current GDP per capita soared by 210% in the Seventies. But this proved unsustainable and growth scaled back sharply to 70% in the Eighties and a disappointing 11% in the Nineties.

The Ecevit government, in power from 1999 through 2002, restarted structural reforms in line with ongoing economic programs under the standby agreements signed with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), including passage of social security reform, public finance reform, state banks reform, banking sector reform, increasing transparency in public sector, and also introduction of related legislation to liberalize telecom, and energy markets. Under the IMF program, the government also sought to use exchange rate policies to curb inflation.

In the 1990s, Turkey’s economy suffered from a series of coalition governments with weak economic policies, leading to a boom-and-bust cycle culminating in a severe banking and economic crisis in 2001 and a deep economic downturn (GNP fell 9.5% in 2001) and increase in unemployment. The government was forced to float the lira and adopt a more ambitious economic reform program, including a very tight fiscal policy, enhanced structural reforms, and unprecedented levels of IMF lending.

Large IMF loans tied to implementation of ambitious economic reforms, enabled Turkey to stabilize interest rates and the currency and to meet its debt obligations. In 2002 and 2003, the reforms began to show results. With the exception of a period of market jitters in the run-up to the Iraq war, inflation and interest rates have fallen significantly, the currency has stabilized, and confidence has begun to return. Turkey's economy grew an average of 7.5% per year from 2002 through 2005 - one of the highest sustained rates of growth in the world, rivaling countries like China and India. Inflation and interest rates have fallen significantly, the currency has stabilized, government debt has declined to more supportable levels, and business and consumer confidence have returned. At the same time, the booming economy and large inflows of portfolio investment have contributed to a growing current account deficit. Though Turkey’s economic vulnerabilities have been greatly reduced, the economy could still face problems in the event there is a sudden change in investor sentiment that leads to a sharp fall in the exchange rate. Continued implementation of reforms, including tight fiscal policy, is essential to sustain growth and stability.

Gambar:TurkishYTL.JPG
The currency of Turkey is the New Turkish Lira (Yeni Türk Lirası or YTL for short)

On 1 January 2005, the Turkish Lira was replaced by the New Turkish Lira by dropping six zeroes. That is, 1 new lira is equal to 1,000,000 old lira.

Turkey has a number of bilateral investment and tax treaties, including with the United States, that guarantee free repatriation of capital in convertible currencies and eliminate double taxation. After years of low levels of foreign direct investment (FDI), in 2005 Turkey succeeded in attracting $9.6 billion in FDI and is expected to attract a similar level in 2006. A series of large privatizations, the stability fostered by the start of Turkey’s EU accession negotiations, strong and stable growth, and structural changes in the banking, retail, and telecommunications sectors have all contributed to the rise in foreign investment.

Turkey seeks to improve its investment climate through administrative streamlining, an end to foreign investment screening, and strengthened intellectual property legislation. However, a number of disputes involving foreign investors in Turkey and certain policies, such as high taxation of cola products and continuing gaps in the intellectual property regime, inhibit investment. The Turkish privatization board is in the process of privatizing a series of state-owned companies, including the state alcohol and tobacco company and the oil refining parastatal. In 2004, the Privatization Board privatized the telephone company and some of the state-owned banks. The government also committed in the World Trade Organization to liberalize the telecommunications sector at the beginning of 2004.

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 Tingali ogé: Economic history of Turkey.

Society[édit | sunting sumber]

Demographics[édit | sunting sumber]

Citakan:Infobox Country Demographics

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 Artikel utama: Demographics of Turkey.

The legal use of term "Turkish" (a citizen of Turkey) is different from the ethnic definition (an ethnic Turk). However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity. Besides the minorities that have legal status as defined and internationally recognized by the Treaty of Lausanne; namely Greeks, Armenians and Jews; ethnic groups include Abkhazians, Albanians, Arabs, Bosniaks, Chechens, Circassians, Georgians, Hamshenis, Kabardin, Kurds, Laz, Ossetians, Pomaks, Roma and Zazas, the largest non-Turkic ethnicity being the Kurds, a distinct ethnic group concentrated in the southeast. While the term "minority" itself remains a sensitive issue in Turkey, it is to be noted that the degree of assimilation within various ethnic groups outside the recognized minorities is high, the following generations generally adding into the melting-pot of the Turkish main body. Within that main body, certain distinctions based on diverse Turkic origins could be made as well by taking account of the same tendency as mentioned.

Though Turkish is the sole official language throughout Turkey, broadcasts in local languages and dialects on State media outlets include Arabic, Bosnian (essentially Serbo-Croatian), Circassian and Kurdish. Radio broadcasts are 60 minutes a day, five hours a week, 45 minutes a day, and four hours a week on television.[7]

The Turkish population is relatively young with over a quarter falling within the [0-14] age bracket. Life expectancy stands at 70.2 years for males and 75.2 years for females, giving an overall 72.6 years for the populace. Due to a demand for an increased labour force in Post-World War II Europe, many Turkish citizens emigrated to Western Europe (particularly West Germany), forming a significant overseas population.

Education[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Turkish education system.

Education is compulsory and free from ages 7 to 15. There are around 820 higher education institutes including universities, with a total student enrollment of over 1 million. The 15 main universities are in Istanbul and Ankara. Tertiary education is the responsibility of the Higher Education Council, and funding is provided by the state. From 1998 the universities were given greater autonomy, and were encouraged to raise funds from partnerships with industry.

There are approximately 85 universities in Turkey. There are two types of universities, state and (private) foundational. State universities charge very low fees and foundationals are highly expensive with fees up to $15 000 or sometimes even more. The capacity in total of Turkish universities is approximately 300.000. Some universities can compete with the best world universities whereas some are unable to provide the necessary educational standards due to underfunding. However, university students are a lucky minority in Turkey. Universities provide either two or four years of education for undergraduate studies. For graduate studies, two further years is necessary, as is typical throughout the world.

The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey coordinates basic and applied research and development. There are 64 research institutes and organisations. R&D strengths include agriculture, forestry, health, biotechnology, nuclear technologies, minerals, materials, IT, and defence.

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 Tingali ogé: Education in Turkey.

Culture[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Culture of Turkey.

Turkey has a very diverse culture derived from various elements of the Ottoman Empire, European, and the Islamic traditions. As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-driven former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, the increase in the methods of artistic expression followed. During the first years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into the fine arts, such as paintings, sculptures and architecture amongst other things. This was done as both a process of modernisation and of creating a cultural identity. Today the Turkish economy is diverse enough to subsidise individual artists with great freedom.

Because of different historical factors playing an important role in defining a Turkish identity, the culture of Turkey is an interesting combination of clear efforts to be "modern" and Western, combined with the necessity felt to maintain traditional religious and historical values.

Turkish cuisine is one of the world's most famous, blending ingredients and recipes inherited from the territories covered by the Ottoman Empire. Turkish Cuisine generally consists of sauced dishes prepared with cereals, various vegetables and some meat (usually Lamb), soups, cold dishes cooked with olive oil and pastry dishes.

Culture of Turkey
Music Cinema Poetry Prose Turkish Cuisine History of Turkish Literature

Religion[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Islam in Turkey.

Nominally, 99% of the population is Muslim. Most belong to the Sunni branch of Islam. About 15-20% of the population are Alevi Muslims. There is also a small but significant Twelver Shi'a minority, mainly of Azeri descent.

The remaining 1% of the population are of other religions, mostly Christian (Greek Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic (Gregorian), Syriac Orthodox, Molokans, Roman Catholics and Protestants), Jewish, Bahá'ís and Yezidis.

Unlike in other Muslim-majority countries, there is a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. Even though the state does not have any/or promote any religion, it actively monitors the area between the religions. The constitutional rule that prohibits discrimination on religious grounds is taken very seriously. The Turkish constitution recognises freedom of religion for individuals, and the religious communities are placed under the protection of state, but the constitution explicitly states that they cannot become involved in the political process, by forming a religious party for example. No party can claim that it represents a form of religious belief. However, the religious sensibilities are generally represented through conservative parties.

The mainstream Hanafite school of Sunni Islam is largely organised by the state, through the Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı (Department of Religious Affairs). The Diyanet is the main Islamic framework established after abolition of the Ulama and Seyh-ul-Islam of the old régime. As a consequence, they control all mosques and Muslim clerics. Imams are trained in Imam Hatip schools and at theology departments at universities. The department is criticized by some Alevi Muslims for not supporting their beliefs and instead favoring the Sunni faith.

The Orthodox Patriarch (Patrik) is the head of the Greek-Orthodox Church in Turkey and serves as the spiritual leader of all Orthodox churches throughout the world. The Armenian Patriarch is the head of the Armenian Church in Turkey, while the Jewish community is led by the Hahambasi, Turkey's Chief Rabbi, based in İstanbul.

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 Tingali ogé: Jews of Turkey, Roman Catholicism in Turkey, jeung Orthodox Church of Constantinople.

Images of Turkey[édit | sunting sumber]

See also[édit | sunting sumber]

References[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. New Eurobarometer poll results show a drop in Turkish support for the EU Hurriyet' Sunday, July 09, 2006
  2. BBC News Online May 23, 2006.
  3. Economist Intelligence Unit: Turkey 2005 p.23.
  4. Ibid.
  5. A poll published in September 2005 in the national Hürriyet paper found the army to be Turkey's most trusted national institution. Aydinli, Ersel, Nihat Ali Özcan, and Dogan Akyaz (2006). "The Turkish Military's March Toward Europe". Foreign Affairs (Jan/Feb).
  6. Globalis - an interactive world map - Turkey - Urban Population
  7. Directorate General of Press and Information - Historical background of radio and television broadcasting in Turkey

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