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[[ImageGambar:2004 Indian Ocean earthquake Maldives tsunami wave.jpg|thumb|250px|Sunami nu narajang [[Malé]] di [[Maldiva]] [[26 Désémber]] [[2004]].]]
'''Sunami''' (éjahan {{IPA|/suˈnɑːmi/}} atawa {{IPA|/tsuˈnɑːmi/}}) hartina runtuyan [[gelombang beungeut sagara|gelombang]] nu dihasilkeun nalika awak [[cai]], misalna [[sagara]] ngalir sacara gancang dina jumlah/[[skala]] anu badag. Sunami ieu biasana mangrupakeun balukar ayana [[lini]], [[longsor]], [[gunung bitu]], atawa [[tabrakan météorit]]. Anapon balukarna rupa-rupa, bisa sama sakali teu mangaruhan manusa, tapi bisa ogé ngabalukarkeun musibah anu nelasan ratusan rébu jalma.
Waves are formed as the displaced water mass moves under the influence of [[gravity]] to regain its [[equilibrium]] and radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.
In the 1950s it was discovered that larger tsunamis than previously believed possible could be caused by landslides, explosive volcanic action and [[impact event]]s. These phenomena rapidly displace large volumes of water, as energy from falling debris or expansion is transferred to the water into which the debris falls. Tsunamis caused by these mechanisms, unlike the ocean-wide tsunamis caused by some earthquakes, generally dissipate quickly and rarely affect coastlines distant from the source due to the small area of sea affected. These events can give rise to much larger local shock waves ([[solitons]]), such as the landslide at the head of [[Lituya Bay]] which produced a water wave estimated at 50 – 150 m and reached 524 m up local mountains. However, an extremely large landslide could generate a [[megatsunami]] that might have ocean-wide impacts.
* [[16 October]] [[1979]] - 23 people died when the coast of [[Nice]], [[France]], was hit by a tsunami. This may have had a manmade cause due to construction at the new Nice airport creating an undersea landslide. [http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/(v5vg3l2tc4kfq2m223kj2l45)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,3,4;journal,18,26;linkingpublicationresults,1:102476,1]
== Rujukan ==
* Dudley, Walter C. & Lee, Min (1988: 1st edition) ''Tsunami!'' ISBN 0-8248-1125-9 [http://www.tsunami.org/references.htm#Books link]
* Kenneally, Christine (December 30, 2004). "Surviving the Tsunami". ''Slate''. [http://www.slate.com/id/2111608/ link]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/programmes/moses/evidence/redsea.shtml What about the famous image of a great canyon of water? Could this have any basis in reality?]
== Catetan ==
== Tumbu kaluar ==
=== Artikel jeung website ===
* [http://www.colegiosaofrancisco.com.br/tsumani/0001.php Tsunami Information] &mdash; Information on tsunamis in Portuguese.
* [http://www.whoi.edu/institutes/coi/viewTopic.do?o=read&amp;id=281 Tsunami Information from the Coastal Ocean Institute], [[Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution]]
* [http://www.tsunami.ws Tsunami Forums]
* [http://www.pbs.org/nova/tsunami/ NOVA: Wave That Shook The World] &mdash; Site and special report shot within days of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.
* [http://fohn.net/biggest-tsunami/ Biggest Tsunami Countdown] &mdash; Description of the five largest historical tsunamis.
* [http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/ NOAA Tsunami] &mdash; General description of tsunamis and the United States agency NOAA's role in [http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/research_modeling.html Tsunami hazard assessment], [http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/prepare.html preparedness], [http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/education.html education], [http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/warnings_forecasts.html forecasts & warnings], [http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/responding.html response] and [http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/research_modeling.html research].
* [http://ifmaxp1.ifm.uni-hamburg.de/tsunami.shtml Can HF Radar detect Tsunamis?] &mdash; University of Hamburg HF-Radar.
* [http://topics.developmentgateway.org/special/tsunami Development Gateway Tsunami Special]
* [http://www.highergroundproject.org.uk The Higher Ground Project] &mdash; Stories of children who survived the tsunami.
* [http://www.geohazards.no/ The International Centre for Geohazards (ICG)]
* [http://www.prh.noaa.gov/itic/library/about_tsu/faqs.html ITIC tsunami FAQ]
* [http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami/ NOAA PMEL Tsunami Research Program] (United States)
* [http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/c1187/ USGS: Surviving a tsunami] (United States)
* [http://ioc.unesco.org/itsu/ ITSU] &mdash; Coordination Group for the Pacific Tsunami Warning System.
* [http://www.tsunami.org/ Pacific Tsunami Museum]
* [http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/tsunami/ Tsunamis and Earthquakes]
* [http://tsunami.gov/ Tsunami Centers] &mdash; United States National Weather Service.
* [http://www.sthjournal.org/ ''Science of Tsunami Hazards'' journal]
* [http://www.geohazards.no/ The International Centre for Geohazards (ICG)]
* [http://www.penmachine.com/techie/learn_about_tsunamis_2005-01.html The Indian Ocean tsunami and what it tells us about tsunamis in general.]
* [http://www.tsunamiterror.info Tsunami: Magnitude of Terror]
* [http://www.cln.org/themes/tsunamis.html General Tsunami Resources]
* [http://www.projectshum.org/NaturalDisasters/tsunami.html Natural Disasters - Tsunami] &mdash; Great research site for kids.
* [http://www.envirtech.org/envirtech_tsunameter.htm Envirtech Tsunami Warning System] &mdash; Based on seabed seismics and sea level gauges.
* [http://www.indianoceandisasterrelief.co.uk Indian Ocean Disaster Relief]
* [http://www.benfieldhrc.org/tsunamis/mega_tsunami_more.htm Benfield Hazard Research - Mega Tsunamis - Cumbre Vieja volcano on the Canary Island of La Palma Risk]
* [http://geology.com/articles/tsunami-geology.shtml What Causes a Tsunami?]
* [http://sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa006&articleID=000CDB86-32E0-13A8-B2E083414B7F0000 Scientific American Magazine (January 2006 Issue) Tsunami: Wave of Change] What we can learn from the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004.
* [http://www.jtic.org/ Jakarta Tsunami Information Centre]
=== Gambar jeung video ===
'''Tempo oge: [[2004 Indian Ocean earthquake#Images and video|Images and video, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake]]'''
* [http://www.asiantsunamivideos.com/ Large Collection of Amateur Tsunami Videos with Thunbnail Images and Detailed Descriptions]
* [http://www.archive.org/movies/movieslisting-browse.php?collection=opensource_movies&cat=tsunami 5 Amateur Camcorder Video Streams] Kajadian tsunami 26 December 2004 di Sri Lanka, Thailand jeung Indonesia.
* [http://www.digitalglobe.com/tsunami_gallery.html 2004 Asian Tsunami Satellite Images (Before and After)]
* [http://www.crisp.nus.edu.sg/tsunami/tsunami.html Satellite Images of Tsunami Affected Areas] Poto satelit nu nembongkeun karusakan akibat tsunami dina taun 2004 di Indonesia, Thailand jeung Pulau Nicobar India.
* [http://www.geophys.washington.edu/tsunami/general/physics/runup.html Computer-generated animation of a tsunami]
* [http://www.geophys.washington.edu/tsunami/general/physics/characteristics.html Animation of 1960 tsunami originating outside coast of Chile]
* [http://www.riveroflife.be/tsunami/index.html The Survivors - A moving travelogue full of stunning images along the tsunami ravaged South-Western Coast of India]
Bahaya tsunamis
* [http://www.forskning.no/Artikler/2006/juni/1149444923.73 Origin of a Tsunami - animation showing how the shifting of continental plates in the Indian Ocean created the catastrophe of December 26th 2004.]
* [http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-75-1561/science_technology/earthquakes_and_tsunamis/ CBC Digital Archives – Canada's Earthquakes and Tsunamis]
=== Fiksi ===
* [[Michael Crichton]]'s ''[[State of Fear]]'' (2004) explored [[unintended consequence]]s of human intervention with natural forces. [http://www.michaelcrichton.net/fear/index.html]
[[CategoryKategori:Bencana alam|Tsunami]]
[[CategoryKategori:Musibah géologis|Tsunami]]
[[CategoryKategori:Oséanografi fisik]]
[[CategoryKategori:Istilah basa Jepang]]
{{Link FA|cs}}


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