Ngaran

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Ngaran nyaéta sebutan atawa labél anu dibikeun kana barang, jelema, patempatan, produk (contona mérek produk) malah ogé kana alpukah atawa konsép, anu biasana dipaké pikeun ngabédakeun nu hiji jeung nu séjénna. Ngaran bisa dipaké pikeun mikawanoh sagolongan atawa sahiji barang dina kontéks anu unik oge nu tinangtu.

Ngaran manusa kiwari umumna kabagi kana ngaran hareup jeung ngaran tukang atawa ngaran kulawarga (marga), contona Ali Wijaya, di mana Ali nyaéta ngaran hareup sedengkeun Wijaya nyaéta marganya. Sanajan kitu, aya ogé budaya-budaya anu henteu mikawanoh konsép kasebut. Aya ogé ngaran landihan anu mangrupa ngaran husus anu dipaké dina hirup kumbuh sapopoé.

Struktur ngaran[édit | sunting sumber]

Aya réa cara pikeun nyieun hiji ngaran, gumantung kana budaya satempat ogé basa satempat sarta biasana mangrupa gabungan tina

  1. ngaran paméré / ngaran hareup (mandiri pikeun tiap budak)
  2. ngaran kulawarga (mandiri pikeun tiap turunan ti gurat lalaki
  3. ngaran tengah (pikeun ngabédakeun ngaran paméré anu sarua ti hiji kulawarga)
  4. ngaran tungtung (ngaran paméré anu diperenahkeun sanggeus ngaran hareup)
  5. ngaran bapa
  6. ngaran indung
  7. ngaran parawan (ngaran kulawarga indung saméméh lakirabi)
  8. ngaran kulawarga aki ti bapa (=ngaran kulawarga)
  9. ngaran kulawarga nini ti bapa (=ngaran nini ti bapa mangsa keur parawan)
  10. ngaran kulawarga aki ti indung (=ngaran parawan indung)
  11. ngaran kulawarga nini ti indung (=ngaran parawan nini ti indung)
  12. ngaran dayeuh (biasana di Éropa/Amérika)
  13. ngaran pagawéan (biasana di Éropa/Amérika)
  14. ngaran warna (biasana di Éropa/Amérika)

Daptar ieu ngan sabagian leutik tina variasi anu bisa kabentuk.

Tina sajarah Éropah, lolobana jelema mimitina ngagunakeun hiji ngaran paméré waé, tuluy sanggeus jumlah jelema anu ngaranna sarua beuki réa di hiji wewengkon, ngaran kulawarga ditambahkeun pikeun ngabédakeun jalma-jalma anu ngaranna sarua. Sanggeus beuki réa jelema anu ngaran hareupna sarta ngaran kulawargana sarua, mangka jelema nambahan ngaran tengah, hiji ngaran, saterusna dua ngaran, sarta saterusna.

Di Inggris jeung Amérika Sarikat, jelema dawam digero maké ngaran hareupeunana. Di Jérman, jelema dawam digeroan kalawan ngaran tengahna. Di nagara-nagara Asia Wétan sarta Hungaria, ngaran kulawarga ditempatkeun di hareup, sarta dina kasus ngaran Tionghoa, ngan aya ngaran kulawarga dina jumlah anu kawates, sahingga ratusan nepi ka rébuan jelema ngabogaan ngaran anu persis sarua.

Ngaran Inggris nyaéta ngaran anu mandiri lantaran bisa ditambahkeun Sr. (Senior) sanggeus ngaran kulawarga pikeun bapa anu ngaranna sarua jeung anakna. Hal ieu dilantarankeun réa bapa anu hayang anakna (biasana anu cikal) supayah maké ngaranna sarta neruskeun pagawéanana.

Basa Inggris, Spanyol, Portugis, sarta sawatara bangsa séjénna sakapeung ngagunakeun Jr. (Junior) dina tungtung ngaran kulawarga pikeun anak anu ngaranna sarua jeung bapana (kebalikan tina Sr..) Ngaran Brasil sakapeung ngagunakeun Neto pikeun "incu", Sobrinho pikeun "alo" sarta Júnior pikeun "anak".

Sawatara basa, kawas basa Rusia, ngagunakeun ahiran jénder pikeun ngaran kulawarga maranéhanana, jadi pikeun turunan lalaki disebut Tuan Molotov, pikeun turunan wanoja atawa pamajikan disebut Nyonya Molotova.

Variasi ngaran[édit | sunting sumber]

Hiji ngaran bisa ngabogaan réa variasi dina sagala rupa basa, biasana pikeun ngajadikeun hiji ngaran jadi unik, jelema ogé nyieun variasi ku maranéhanana sorangan kana hiji ngaran anu geus aya. Ngaran-ngaran anu umum dipaké biasana diturunkeun ti ngaran jalma-jalma kawéntar dina jaman baheula, atawa ngaran anu ngabogaan harti husus (kecap-kecap anu éndah, profési kolot, ngaran kembang, jeung sajabana).

Ngaran anu diturunkeun ti ngaran jalma-jalma dina jaman baheula biasana nyumber tina ajaran ageman atawa sajarah hiji wewengkon.

Ngaran ti inohong-inohong dumasar ageman[édit | sunting sumber]

Di handap ieu aya daptar variasi ngaran anu ngagunakeun aksara Latén. Ngaran anu sakirana umum dipanggihan dicitak kandel


Islam[édit | sunting sumber]

Indonésia variasi séjén
Muhammad Mohammad, Mochamad

Kristen[édit | sunting sumber]

Indonésia Variasi séjén
Kristian, Kristin (p), Kris, Kristofer Christian, Christine (p), Christina, Christiana, Chris, Christopher, Christope, Christo, Cris, Kit, Kristin, Kristen, Kirsten
Abraham Abraham, Abram, Bram, Abiram, Ibrahim, Ebrahim,
Andreas, Andi Andrew, Andy, Drew, André, Andrej, Andrés, Andreo, Andrea, András, Antero
Daud David, Davey, Davie, Davy, Daffy, Duffy, Dafydd, Dewi, Dai, Daf, Taff, Taffy, Dave, Daveth, Davida, Davina (p), Davinia (p), Devin, Dawit, Dwight,
Edwin, Edi Dwardu, Duarte, Ed, Edd, Edward, Edmond, Edmund, Eddie, Eddy, Eduard, Eduardo, Édouard, Edoardo, Eduardus, Edvard, Edwin, Edwina (p), Ned, Neddie, Neddy, Ted, Teddy, Teddie, Ward
Eli (l), Elisa, Elisabet, Lisa Elizabeth, Lizzy, Elisabeth, Liza, Bess, Bessie, Beth, Bette, Betsy, Betty, Elbinard, Eli, Elisa, Elise, Eliza, Ella, Ellie, Elsa, Elsie, Isabel, Izabel, Izzie, Izzy, Libby, Lili, Lilie, Lilla, Lillibet, Lillibeth, Lily, Lisbet, Lisbeth, Liz, Liza, Lizabeth, Lizz, Lizzie, Lizzy
Franky, Fransiskus, Fransiska (p) Frank, Franc, François, Frank, Franck, Franks, Frans, Franz, Franciscus, Francis, Fran, Franci (p), Frances (p), Francine (p), Francesco, Franco, Francesca (p), Francisco, Francisca (p), Paco, Paca (p), Pancho, Cisco, Chico
George Georg, Jord, Jordi, Georges, Giorgio, Georgius, Georg, Jorge, Gheorghe, Gherghina, Georgeta, Huntu, Geta, Yury, Yuri, Iouri, Jorge, Jorgelina, Georgia (p), Georgina (p), Georgiana (p)
Henry Heinrich, Hendy, Hendrik, Enrico, Henri, Enrique, Henrique, Harry, Enric, Henriko, Henricus, Henrijs, Henrik, Hendrik, Hinnerk, Henryk, Henrich, Henrietta (p), Henriques
Karel Carl, Carlo, Carlos, Carles, Carol, Carolus, Cathal, Charl, Charles, Charlie, Charly, Charley, Chaz, Chuck, Chucky, Chuckles, Charlys, Kaarle, Kaarel, Kalle, Karl, Karlis, Karlo, Karol, Karolis, Károly,
(wangun feminim) Carla, Carol, Carole, Carola , Carolina, Caroline, Carolyn, Charlene/Charlène, Charlotte, Carlota, Carlotta, Karla, Karolina, Karole, Charla
Leonard Leo, Levi, Leonard, Leonardo, Lewis, Louis, Lou, Luis, Ludwig, Clovis, Louys, Luic, Loewy, Loeb, Lourent, Luki, Lluís, Ludvik, Lodewijk, Lewis, Lewes, Lewie, Lew, Ludovic, Ludwig, Lui, Lajos, Luigi, Lodovico, Ludovico, Ludovicus, Aloysius, Ludvig, Leon, Lionheart, Corleone, Leonidas
wangun feminim Louise, Louisa, Louisiana, Eloise, Heloise, Lisette, Luise, Louella, Luella, Loudella, Ludwika, Luísa/Luiza/Luisa, Luisa, Luigia, Eloisa, Ludovica, Lova
Mikael, Miki Michael, Miguel, Michel, Mikel, Mikhail, Michał, Mike, Mick, Mikiel, Mikey, Mikael, Mic, Mischka, Mickey, Micky, Meik, Maik, Meical, Meic, Michail, Mihail, Michalis, Mihalis, Mischa, Misha, Mikha, Michelle (p), Michaela, Mitchell, Michaelangelo
Paulus Paul, Paula (p), Pauline (p), Paulina (p), Pali, Paval, Pau, Poul, Paavali, Paavo, Pauli, Pál, Páll, Pól, Paolo, Paulius, Povilas, Paulose, Pavle, Pawlu, Paulo, Pablo, Pavol, Pavel, Pavlo
Petrus Peter, Pete, Pathrus, Pathros, Petr, Petra, Petros, Peeter, Peio, Peru, Pere, Peder, Petr, Peeter, Pekka, Petri, Petteri, Péter, Pétur, Peadar, Pearce, Peta, Pēteris, Petras, Peddyr, Petru, Petre, Peder, Petter, Pér, Peer, Pär, Pelle, Petya, Petar, Pedro, Pedr, Piotruś, Piotr, Piotrek, Pietru, Pietro, Piero, Pierre, Pieter, Pietro, Pieter, Pjetër, Piet, Pietari, Pyotr
Robertus, Robby Robert, Bobby, Rob, Bob, Robbie, Robin, Rupert, Bert, Bert, Roberts, Robb, Rodbert, Rothbert, Róbert, Roberto, Robertino, Beto, Robbert, Robbi, Robbie, Röbi, Robin, Rabbie, Robban, Roban, Robet, Robetus, Roibeárd, Roeper, Roper, Roupen, Ruben, Rubens, Raban, Rabanus, Rambert, Ratbert, Rupert, Ruprecht, Ruppert, Rvpertvs, Rubert, Rochbert, Robrecht, Rodebert, Rodebrecht, Rudbert, Rudebert, Roteberht, Rotebert, Rodebert, Roberto, Roberta (p), Bobbie (p), Robertine (p), Robertina (p),
Ricky, Riki Richard, Ristéard, Riccardo, Ryszard, Ricardo, Rikard, Rickard, Ruiseart, Rhisiart, Rik, Rick, Rich, Chard, Chad, Dick, Hecka, Rišo, Riško, Rysio, Ríša, Ričmond/Richmond, Cayo, Rickster, Rickie, Richie, Ricquart, Rijkaard, Rickaert, Ryckewaert
Tomas, Tomo Thomas, Tom, Tomais, Tomasp, Tomasp, Tommy, Thomasina (p), Tamsin (p) * Touma, Tamash, Tomaz, Tomislav, Thom, Toomas, Tummas, Tuomas, Tomas, Thomas, Thomas, Thanos, Thanasis, Athanasios, Teomo, Tamás, Tómas, Tomás, Tamihana, Tomasz, Tomek, Tomás, Tomé, Tomasp, Tomasi, Tam, Tomáš, Tomaž, Tomás, Tomos, Thoma, Thomman, Thommi
William William, Wilhelm, Bill, Billy, Willem, Gulielmus, Guglielmo, Guillaume, Guildhelm, Guilhem, Guillem, Guillermo, Guilherme, Gwilym, Gwilherm, Illiam, Uilleam, Uilliam, Vilhelm, Vilhelmo, Viliam, Vilém, Vilmos, Vilhelms, Vilius, Viliumas, Viljami, Ville
Yakub, Yakobus Jacob, James, Jack, Jacky, Jackie, Jacques, Jacqui, Jaquie, Jacquee, Jacque, Jacq, Jacquie, Jac, Jaci, Jaki, Jacki, Jaqui, Jackee, Jay, Jacqueline (p), Jacquelyn, Jaclyn, Jacklyn, Jacqlyn, Jacquelin, Jacklin, Jamie, Jaime, Jacobus, Jacome, Jaime, Jaume, Jamio, Jam, Jim, Jimmy, Jimbo, Iacomus, Iacobus, Iago, Jakup, Jakub, Jakob, Jakov, Yaqub, Jakes, Jakobe, Jakue, Jakub, Jagu, Jagut, Jacut, Jak, Jakes, Jakez, Jakezig, Jakou, Jaim, Jaume, Xaume, Jacob, Jago, Jammes, Jamma, Jakov, Jakub, Jakoubek, Kubicek, Kubes Kubes, Kuba, Jakob, Jeppe, Jacob(us), Jakob, Jaap, Jobby, Cobus, Koos, Jacob, Jakob, Jacoby, Jake, Jakey, Jackie, Jack, Coby, James, Jamie, Jaime/Jaimie, Jim Jimmy/Jimmi/Jimi, Jacqueline/Jaqueline), Jacqui/Jaqui, Jackie, Jacki, Jamie/Jamey, Jamie/Jami, Jay, Jakobo, Jakob, Jaakob, Jaagup, Jaak, Jákup, Jaakob, Jaakoppi, Jaakko, Jamppa, Jacques, Jacob, Jacquot, Jacot, Jaco, Jack, Jacq, Jacquy, Jame, Gemme, Jacomo, Jakob, Jeckel, Jakab, , Seamus, Shamus, Giacomo, Iacopo, Jacopo, Giacobbe, Jayms, Jakob, Jeppe, Jammes, James, Jakub, Jacó (O.T. form), Jacob, Jaime, Tiago, Diogo, Jacme, Iacob, Iacov, Jacobo, Jacob, Iago, Yago, Santiago, Jaime, Diego, Jakob, Yaqub, Jaime, Yakup, Iago, Jâms, Jago, Hakob, Jaume, Jaak, Jaakko, Jacques, Jakob, Jacob, Jakab, Giacomo, Jacopo, Giacobbe, Jacobus, Jakub, Iacob, Iacov, Yakov, Jacob, Jacobo, Jaime, Yago, Diego, Jacó, Jaime, Iago, Thiago, Tiago Jago, Jammes, Giacôbê, Yankev, Yankl, Yankel, Yankele
Yohanes / Yahya (Jon, Joni) John, Johannes, Jack, Johnny, Johnnie, Giovanni, Gianni, Giuàn, Hans, Hansel, Hasse, Hänsel, Ian, Ion, Ivan, Jan, Jani, Jans, Janez, Janko, János, Janci, Jean, Johan, Johann, Joan, João, Jón, Jovan, Juan, Juhani, Sean/Seán, Shaun, Shawn, Shon, Siôn, Yohani
(wangun feminim) Iona, Ioana, Jana, Jane, Janice, Janet, Jean, Jeanette, Jeanne, Joanne, Joan, Johanna
Yusuf, Yoseph Joseph. Joe, Jose/José, Josef/Jósef, Jozef/Józef/Jožef, Joseba, Josepe, Josep/Jósep, József, Josephus, Joosef, Juozapas, Juozas, Yosef, Xosé, Yusif, Usub, Bepo, Iosephus, Giuseppe, Beppe, Geppetto, Iosif, Pepe, Hose, Joseff

Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]

Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]