Homéopati

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Homéopati mangrupikeun pangobatan alternatip nu dumasarkeun kana élmu semu.[1][2] Élmu éta dicetuskeun dina taun 1796 ku dokter Jérman Samuel Hahnemann. Para praktisina disebat homéopat, manéhna yakin yén zat anu nyababkeun gejala panyakit di awak urang séhat bisa menyembuhkeun gejala panyakit nu sami di awak urang gering; doktrin ieu disebat similia similibus curentur.[3] Préparasi homéopathi didamel nganggo dilusi homéopati. Dina prosés dilusi, zat-zat nu dipilih bakal diéncérkeun sababaraha kali ka produk ahir sacara kimia teu cekap éncér. Remen ogé, teu aya hiji molekul tina zat aslina anu tetep sésa di produk ahir.[4] Unggal dilusi, produk homeopati éncér biasa dingoyagkeun, anjeunna éta "ngémutan" zat aslina saatos dipiceun. Praktisi nyatakeun yén préparasi sapertos kitu nalika didahar, bisa nyageurkeun panyakit.[5]

Sajarah[édit | édit sumber]

Sadaya élmu ilmiah anu aya hubunganana sareng fisika, kimia, biokimia sareng biologi[6][7] anu diraih saprak sahenteuna abad pertengahan ke-19, berkontradiksi sareng homéopati. Pangobatan homéopati henteu biokimia, jeung teu aya pangaruh kana panyakit anu dipikaterang salami ieu.[8][9] Téori Hahnemann ngeunaan panyakit, museur kana prinsip anu disebatna miasme, henteu saluyu sareng idéntifikasi virus jeung baktéri anu salaku panyabab panyakit. Percobaan klinis parantos dilakukeun sareng umumna nunjukkeun henteu pangaruh tujuan tina preparasi homéopati.[10][11]:206 Kurangna éféktivitas démonstrasi nyababkeun homéopati disebat dina komunitas ilmiah jeung médis salaku ngedukun atanapi panipuan.[1][12]

Homéopati ngahontal popularitas ageungna dina abad ka-19. Homéopati diwanohkeun ka Amérika Serikat dina taun 1825 kalayan dibukana sakola homéopati taun 1835. Sapanjang abad ka-19, puluhan lembaga homeopati muncul di Éropa jeung Amérika Serikat.[13] Salami periode ieu, homéopati tiasa kawilang suksés, sabab bentuk pangobatan nu lain tiasa ngabahayakeun atawa kurang épéktip. Dina akhir abad ka-19, prakték ieu mimiti ngaleungit, kalayan sakola médis homéopati terakhir di Amérika Serikat ditutup dina taun 1920.[14]

Dina taun 1970-an, homéopati mimiti ningkat signifikan,[15][16] penjualan sababaraha produk homéopati ningkat sapuluh kali lipet. Tren na pakait sareng naékna gerakan Jaman Anyar,[17] ogé tiasa sabagian kusabab préférénsi produk "alami",[18] jeung waktos konsultasi nu langkung lami ku praktisi homéopati.

Dina abad ka-21 sauntuyan analisis meta parantos nunjukkeun yén klaim térapi homeopati kakurangan pembenaran ilmiah. Hasilna, badan nasional jeung internasional nganjurkeun ditarikna dana kasehatan pamaréntah pikeun homeopati. Badan-badan nasional di Australia, Inggris, Swiss, Perancis; ogé Déwan Panaséhat Élmu Akademi Éropa jeung Akademi Élmu Rusia sadayana parantos nyimpulkeun yén homeopati henteu épéktip.[19][20] Dinas Kaséhatan Nasional di Inggris eureun nyayogikeun dana pikeun pangobatan homeopati sareng naros ka Dinas Kaséhatan pikeun nambihan obat homeopati ka daptar barang resép terlarang.[21][22] Perancis eureun nyayogikeun dana dina taun 2021,[23] sedengkeun Spanyol parantos ngumumkeun gerakan larangan homeopati jeung térapi semu lain di pusat kaséhatan.[24]

Bukti jeung khasiat[édit | édit sumber]

Di luar komunitas pangobatan alternatip, para élmuwan parantos lami nganggap homéopati mangrupikeun élmu palsu [25] atanapi élmu semu,[1][26] sareng komunitas médis nganggap éta salaku ngedukun. Henteuna bukti statistik khasiat térapi saluyu sareng henteuna agén atanapi mékanisme farmakologis [8] Pendukung obat homéopati nyatakeun yén pangobatan homeopati kuduna khasiat, sanajau mékanisme biofisika anu teu acan dipikanyaho.[27] Henteu préparasi homeopati parantos kabuktosan benten sareng plasébo.

Rujukan[édit | édit sumber]

  1. a b c "Science, Pseudoscience, and Not Science: How Do They Differ?". Chapter 2: Science, Pseudoscience, and Not Science: How Do They Differ?. Healthcare and Biomedical Technology in the 21st Century (Springer). 2014. pp. 19–57. ISBN 978-1-4614-8540-7. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-8541-4_2. within the traditional medical community it is considered to be quackery 
  2. Ladyman J (2013). "Chapter 3: Towards a Demarcation of Science from Pseudoscience". Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0-226-05196-3. Yet homeopathy is a paradigmatic example of pseudoscience. It is neither simply bad science nor science fraud, but rather profoundly departs from scientific method and theories while being described as scientific by some of its adherents (often sincerely). 
  3. Hahnemann, Samuel (1833). The homœopathic medical doctrine, or "Organon of the healing art". Dublin: W. F. Wakeman. pp. iii, 48–49. Observation, reflection, and experience have unfolded to me that the best and true method of cure is founded on the principle, similia similibus curentur. To cure in a mild, prompt, safe, and durable manner, it is necessary to choose in each case a medicine that will excite an affection similar (ὅμοιος πάθος) to that against which it is employed.  Translator: Charles H. Devrient, Esq.
  4. "Homeopathy". Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Diakses tanggal 2019-11-17. 
  5. "Homeopathy". nhs.uk. Diakses tanggal 2019-11-10. 
  6. Grimes, D.R. (2012). "Proposed mechanisms for homeopathy are physically impossible". Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies 17 (3): 149–55. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7166.2012.01162.x. 
  7. "Homeopathic products and practices: assessing the evidence and ensuring consistency in regulating medical claims in the EU" (PDF). European Academies' Science Advisory Council. p. 1. Diakses tanggal 1 October 2017. ... we agree with previous extensive evaluations concluding that there are no known diseases for which there is robust, reproducible evidence that homeopathy is effective beyond the placebo effect. 
  8. a b Ernst, E. (2002). "A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 54 (6): 577–82. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.2002.01699.x. PMC 1874503. PMID 12492603. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1874503. 
  9. "Evidence Check 2: Homeopathy – Science and Technology Committee". British House of Commons Science and Technology Committee. Diakses tanggal April 5, 2014. 
  10. Caulfield, Timothy; Debow, Suzanne (2005). "A systematic review of how homeopathy is represented in conventional and CAM peer reviewed journals". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 5: 12. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-5-12. PMC 1177924. PMID 15955254. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1177924. 
  11. Shelton, JW (2004). Homeopathy: How it really works. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-59102-109-4. 
  12. Paul S. Boyer (2001). The Oxford companion to United States history. p. 630. ISBN 9780195082098. Diakses tanggal January 15, 2013. After 1847, when regular doctors organized the American Medical Association (AMA), that body led the war on "quackery", especially targeting dissenting medical groups such as homeopaths, who prescribed infinitesimally small doses of medicine. Ironically, even as the AMA attacked all homeopathy as quackery, educated homeopathic physicians were expelling untrained quacks from their ranks. 
  13. Winston J (2006). Homeopathy Timeline. The Faces of Homoeopathy (Whole Health Now). ISBN 978-0-473-05607-0. Diakses tanggal July 23, 2007. 
  14. "History of Homeopathy". Creighton University Department of Pharmacology. July 2007. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal July 5, 2007. Diakses tanggal July 23, 2007. 
  15. Jonas, WB; TJ Kaptchuk; K Linde (2003). "A critical overview of homeopathy.". Annals of Internal Medicine 138 (5): 393–99. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-138-5-200303040-00009. PMID 12614092. 
  16. Lockie, Andrew (2000). Encyclopedia of Homeopathy (1st ed.). New York: Dorling Kindersley. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-7566-1871-1. 
  17. Edzard Ernst; Singh, Simon (2008). Trick or Treatment: The Undeniable Facts about Alternative Medicine. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-06661-6. 
  18. Bruce M. Hood (April 7, 2009). SuperSense. HarperCollins. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-06-186793-4. Diakses tanggal September 7, 2013. 
  19. "Swiss make New Year's regulations". Swiss Info. Diakses tanggal December 16, 2015. 
  20. "Homeopathic remedies are 'nonsense and risk significant harm' say 29 European scientific bodies". The Independent. Citakan:ISO date/en. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/homeopathy-nonsense-risk-harm-29-european-academies-science-advisory-council-remedies-a7963786.html. Diakses pada October 10, 2017 
  21. "NHS to ban homeopathy and herbal medicine, as 'misuse of resources'". Daily Telegraph. Citakan:ISO date/en. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/07/21/nhs-ban-homeopathy-herbal-medicine-misuse-resources/. Diakses pada July 21, 2017 
  22. Donnelly, Laura (Citakan:ISO date/en). "High Court backs NHS decision to stop funding homeopathy". Daily Telegraph. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2018/06/05/high-court-backs-nhs-decision-stop-funding-homeopathy/. Diakses pada 26 August 2018 
  23. France-Presse, Agence (2019-07-10). "France to stop reimbursing patients for homeopathy" (dalam bahasa en-GB). The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/10/france-to-stop-reimbursing-patients-for-homeopathic-treatment. Diakses pada 2019-07-30 
  24. Güell, Oriol (2018-11-14). "Spain moves to ban pseudo-therapies from universities and health centers" (dalam bahasa en). El País. ISSN 1134-6582. https://elpais.com/elpais/2018/11/14/inenglish/1542203925_514487.html. Diakses pada 2019-07-30 
  25. Caulfield, Timothy; Rachul, Christen (2011). "Supported by science?: What Canadian naturopaths advertise to the public". Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology 7: 14. doi:10.1186/1710-1492-7-14. PMC 3182944. PMID 21920039. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3182944. "Within the non-CAM scientific community, homeopathy has long been viewed as a sham" 
  26. Ladyman J (2013). "Chapter 3: Towards a Demarcation of Science from Pseudoscience". Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0-226-05196-3. Yet homeopathy is a paradigmatic example of pseudoscience. It is neither simply bad science nor science fraud, but rather profoundly departs from scientific method and theories while being described as scientific by some of its adherents (often sincerely). 
  27. Vickers, Andrew; Zollman, Catherine (1999-10-23). "Homoeopathy". BMJ : British Medical Journal 319 (7217): 1115–1118. doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7217.1115. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 1116906. PMID 10531108. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1116906. 

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