Basa Latin

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Luncat ka: pituduh, sungsi
Basa Latén (Latina)
Dipaké di: Karajaan Romawi
Wewengkon: Bojong Itali
Jumlah pamaké:
Urutan ka:
Klasifikasi rungkun basa: Indo-Éropa

 Italik
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Status resmi
Basa resmi di: Kota Vatican
Diatur ku: -
Sandi basa
ISO 639-1 la
ISO 639-2 lat
ISO 639-3
SIL LTN
Tempo ogé: Basa - Daptar basa

Basa Latin atawa Latén baheulana ngarupakeun basa asli nu dipaké di wewengkon sabudeureun Roma nu disebut Latium. Boga pangaruh badag nalika jadi basa formal Karajaan Romawi.

Sadaya Basa Romawi diturunkeun tina basa Latin, sarta loba kekecapan nu asalna tina kecap Latin kapanggih ogé dina basa-basa modern séjénna kayaning basa Inggris. Leuwih ti éta, di dunya Kulon, basa Latin geus jadi lingua franca, basa nu diteuleuman sarta dilarapkeun pikeun kaperluan ilmiah sarta pulitik, salila leuwih ti sarébu taun, nu kalindih ku basa Prancis dina abad ka-18 sarta basa Inggris ahir abad ka-19. Kiwari jadi basa resmi Garéja Katolik Roma, kaasup salaku basa resmi nasional Kota Vatikan. Basa Latin ogé masih dipaké, bareng jeung basa Yunani, pikeun nangtukeun ngaran nu dipaké dina klasifikasi ilmiah mahluk hirup.

Fitur Utama[édit | sunting sumber]

Latin has an extensive flectional system, which mainly operates by appending strings to a fixed stem. Inflection of nouns and adjectives is termed "declension", that of verbs, "conjugation". There are five declensions of nouns, and four conjugations for verbs. The six noun forms (or "cases") are:

  1. nominative (subjects and predicate nominatives),
  2. genitive (relation, often possession),
  3. dative (indirect objects),
  4. accusative (direct objects, some prepositional phrases),
  5. ablative (separation, source, cause, or instrument),
  6. vocative (direct address).

In addition, there exists in some nouns a locative case used to express place (normally expressed by the ablative with a preposition such as IN), but this hold-over from Indo-European is only found in the names of lakes, cities, towns, similar locales, and a few other words.

Basa Latin jeung Romans[édit | sunting sumber]

Saruntagna Karajaan Romawi, basa Latin robah jadi rupa-rupa basa Romans. These were for many centuries only spoken languages, Latin being still used for writing. (E.g. Latin was the official language of Portugal until 1296 when it was replaced by Portuguese.)

Actually the Romance languages are not derived from Classical Latin but rather from the spoken Vulgar Latin. Latin and Romance differ (for example) in that Romance had distinctive stress whereas Latin had distinctive length of vowels. In Italian and Sardo logudorese, there is distinctive length of consonants and stress, in Spanish only distinctive stress, and in French even stress is no longer distinctive.

Another major distinction between Romance and Latin is that Romance languages, excluding Romanian, have lost their case endings in most words except for some pronouns. Romanian still has five cases (though the ablative is no longer represented).

Basa Latin jeung basa Inggris[édit | sunting sumber]

Tatabasa Inggris teu sacara langsung diturunkeun tina tatabasa Latin. Attempts to make English grammar fit Latin rules — such as the contrived prohibition against the split infinitive — have not worked successfully in regular usage. However, as many as half the words in English come to us through Latin, including many words of Greek origin first adopted by the Romans, not to mention the thousands of French, Spanish, and Italian words of Latin origin that have also enriched English.

Nalika abad ka-16 nepi ka abad ka-18, panulis-panulis Inggris nyipta loba pisan kecap-kecap anyar nu diturunkeun tina akar kecap basa Latin jeung Yunani. Kecap-kecap ieu, euyeub ku rasa jeung harti. Loba kecap-kecapna nu kungsi dipaké terus kapopohokeun, tapi sabagian mah aya kénéh, kayaning imbibe, extrapolate, jeung inebriation.

Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Ngeunaan basa Latin[édit | sunting sumber]

Ngeunaan sastra Latin[édit | sunting sumber]

Jejer séjén nu patali[édit | sunting sumber]

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]