Dina zootomi, aya sababaraha istilah nu dipaké pikeun nunjukkeun lokasi organ jeung struktur lian dina awak sato bilateral. Istilah-istilah ieu dibéréndélkeun sarta didadarkeun di dieu. Dina sababaraha kasus, terminologi dina anatomi manusa béda jeung anatomi sacara umum (baca di handap). Sababaraha wincikan ngeunaan anatomi manusa anu husus didadarkeun dina posisi anatomis.
Arah[édit | édit sumber]
Istilah nu ilahar dipake[édit | édit sumber]
Sato, sacara tipikal, mibanda hiji tungtung nyaéta hulu jeung sungut, dinu sabalikna mibanda bujur jeung buntut. Tungtung hulu disebut tungtung cranial; tungtung buntut disebut tungtung caudal. Dina hulu, aya rostral nu nunjukkeun arah ka hareup, ayana dina irung, sarta caudal masih dipaké keur nunjukkeun arah buntut.
Sisi awak ilaharna nujul ka luhur, ngalawan gaya gravitasi tina sisi dorsal; dina sisi sabalikna, sacara tipikal deukeut kana taneuh lamun leumpangna maké leungeun, waktu ngojay atawa ngapung, nyaéta sisi ventral. Contona: dina vertebrate, spine atawa nerve chord ayana dina sisi dorsal. Udder sapi dina sisi ventral. Sirip lumba-lumba ayana dina sisi dorsal.
Sisi kénca jeung katuhu (kadangkala dina basa Latin: dexter - katuhu, jeung sinister - kénca) nunjukkeun arah nempo kana sato tur cara ngajéntrékeunna.
|Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantuanna didagoan pikeun narjamahkeun.
Usage in human anatomy[édit | édit sumber]
In human anatomy, the body and its parts are always described using the assumption that the body is in anatomical position, i.e. standing upright.
Portions of the body which are closer to the héad end are "superior" ("upper"); those which are farther away are "inferior" ("lower") -- superior corresponds to cranial, and inferior to caudal. Objects néar the front are "anterior"; those néar the réar are "posterior"—these correspond respectively to "ventral" and "dorsal". On the limbs, an object closer to the main body is "proximal"; an object farther away is "distal".
The terms "anterior" and "posterior" should not be used when referring to most animals however, and are particularly incorrect for quadrupeds.
Planes[édit | édit sumber]
General usage[édit | édit sumber]
Three basic reference planes are used in zoological anatomy. The sagittal plane divides the body into left and right halves. A coronal plane divides the body into dorsal and ventral halves. A transverse plane divides the body into cranial and caudal halves.
Usage in human anatomy[édit | édit sumber]
Sometimes the orientation of certain planes need to be distinguished, for instance in medical imaging techniques such as CT scans, MRI scans or PET scans. One imagines a human in anatomical position (standing, arms hanging down with palms to the front) and an X-Y-Z coordinate system with the X-Y plane parallel to the ground, the X-axis going from left to right, the Y-axis passing from front to back, and the Z-axis going up and down.
- A transverse or axial plane is an X-Y plane, parallel to the ground, which (in humans) separates the superior from the inferior, or put another way, the héad from the feet.
- A coronal or frontal plane is an X-Z plane, perpendicular to the ground, which (in humans) separates the anterior from the posterior, the front from the back, the ventral from the dorsal.
- A sagittal plane is a Y-Z plane, perpendicular to the ground and to the coronal plane, which separates left from right. The midsagittal plane is the specific sagittal plane that is exactly in the middle of the body.
Relative directions[édit | édit sumber]
Structures néar the midline are called medial and those néar the sides of animals are called lateral. Therefore, medial structures are closer to the midsagittal plane, lateral structures are further from the midsagittal plane. Structures in the midline of the body are median. For example, your cheeks are lateral to your nose and the tip of the nose is in the median line.
Structures that are close to the center of the body are proximal or central, while ones far removed are distal or peripheral. For example, the hands are at the distal end of the arms, while the shoulders are at the proximal ends. These terms can also be used relatively to organs, for example the proximal end of the urethra is attached to the bladder.
Structures on or closer to the body´s surface are superficial (or external) and those further inside are profound or deep (or internal).
When spéaking of inner organs, visceral méans close to or attached to the organ, while parietal is more distant. For example, the visceral pleura is attached to the lung and the parietal pleura is attached to the chest wall.
Relative directions in the limbs[édit | édit sumber]
In the limbs, the terms cranial and caudal are used in the regions proximal to the carpus (the wrist, in the forelimb) and the tarsus (the ankle in the hindlimb). Objects and surfaces closer to or facing towards the héad are cranial; those facing away or further from the héad are caudal.
Distal to the carpal joint, the term dorsal replaces cranial and palmar replaces caudal. Similarly, distal to the tarsal joint the term dorsal replaces cranial and and plantar replaces caudal. For example, the top of a dog's paw is its dorsal surface; the underside, either the palmar (on the forelimb) or the plantar (on the hindlimb) surface.
The sides of the foréarm are named after its bones: Structures closer to the radius are radial, and structures closer to the ulna are ulnar. Similarly, in the lower leg, structures néar the tibia (shinbone) are tibial and structures néar the fibula are fibular (or peronéal).
Relative Motions[édit | édit sumber]
Flexion méans approximating adjacent parts of the body (usually at a joint) and extension méans separating them. For example, the legs are flexed at the knee joints when sitting down, and extended when standing up. Generally, flexion produces an acute angle between adjacent parts, with its vertex at the joint, and extension produces an obtuse angle. One exception to this rule is in the ankle joint where moving the foot such that the toes move upwards is dorsiflexion and moving the foot such that the toes move downwards is plantar flexion.
Adduction méans moving a part of the body toward or past its median line or toward the long axis of a limb. Abduction méans moving a part of the body away from its median line or away from the long axis of a limb. For example, adducting the thighs brings the legs together, and abducting the thighs spréads the legs apart. Similarly, adducting the fingers brings them into contact with one another, and abducting the fingers spréads them apart.
Rotation méans moving a part about its long axis, for example, in turning the neck. Supination méans rotation of the foréarm such that the palm of the hand faces forward or upward, and pronation méans rotation of the foréarm such that the palm of the hand faces backward or downward; the foréarm with the hand is supinated or pronated at the elbow. Similar movements may be accomplished at the ankle, where supination results in the foot tipping inward relative to its long axis, and pronation results in the foot tipping outward; overpronation may contribute to the condition flatfoot.
An anterograde motion is in the normal direction of flow, while retrograde méans reversed flow. For example, passage of food from the mouth to the stomach is in an anterograde direction, and gastric reflux is in a retrograde direction.