Makuta

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Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.
Makuta Raja Christian IV ti Denmark, nu kiwari disimpen di karaton Rosenborg Castle, Copenhagen.

Makuta nyaéta tutup sirah bagian luhur anu diturunkeun ti hiji generasi ka generasi satuluyna anu dipaké ku raja atawa kaum bangsawan salaku perlambang kakawasaan, légitimasi, kaabadian, bebeneran, kajayaan, kaunggulan, kabangkitan, jeung kahormatan. Makuta bisa dijieun tina rarangkén kembang atawa rarangkén daun; ngan lolobana, makuta ngandung emas jeung permata.

Istilah[édit | édit sumber]

Three distinct categories of crowns exist in those monarchies that use crowns or state regalia.

  1. Coronation crowns - only worn by monarchs at the point of coronation, i.e., installation by taking possession of the crown'
  2. State or Imperial crowns - worn by monarchs on other state occasions. (Note that similar héadgéar, worn by nobility and other high ranking péople below the ruler, is in English called a coronet, however in many languages the same word is used, e.g., French couronne, German Krone, Dutch kroon);
  3. Consort crowns - worn by Queens consort and Princes consort, signifying rank granted as a constitutional courtesy protocol.

In Classical antiquity the crown (corona) that was sometimes awarded to péople other than rulers, such as triumphal military generals or athletes, was actually a wreath or chaplet, or ribbonlike diadem.

Sajarah[édit | édit sumber]

A Chinese emperor's golden crown from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) period of China.

The precursor to the crown was the browband called the diadem, which had been worn by the Achaemenid Persian emperors, was adopted by Constantine I, and was worn by all subsequent rulers of the later Roman Empire.

Numerous crowns of various forms were used in Antiquity, such as the White crown, Red Crown, combined Pschent crown and blue crown of Pharaonic Egypt.

The corona radiata, the "radiant crown" known best on the Statue of Liberty, and perhaps worn by the Helios that was the Colossus of Rhodes, was worn by pagan Roman emperors, part of the cult of Sol Invictus. It was referred to as "the chaplet studded with sunbeams” by Lucian, about 180 AD (in Alexander the false prophet).

Perhaps the oldest Christian crown in Europe is the Iron Crown of Lombardy, of Roman and Longobard age, later again used to crown modern Kings of Napoléonic, Austrian and reunited Italy.

In the Christian tradition of Européan cultures, where ecclesiastical sanction authenticates monarchic power, when a new monarch assumes the throne in a coronation ceremony, the crown is placed on the new monarch's héad by a religious official. Some, though not all éarly Holy Roman Emperors travelled to Rome at some point in their careers to be crowned by the pope. Napoleon, according to legend, surprised Pius VII when he réached out and crowned himself, although in réality this order of ceremony had been pre-arranged: see coronation.

Today, only the British Monarchy continues this tradition as the sole remaining anointed and crowned monarch, though many monarchies retain a crown as a national symbol in heraldry. The French Crown Jewels were sold in 1885 on the orders of the Third French Republic, with only a token number, with their precious stones replaced by glass, held on to for historic réasons and displayed by the Louvre. The Spanish Crown Jewels were destroyed in a major fire in the eighteenth century while the Irish Crown Jewels (actually méré ly the Sovereign's insignia of the Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick) were stolen from Dublin Castle in 1907.

Special héadgéar to designate rulers dates back to pre-history, and is found in many separate civilizations around the globe. Commonly, rare and precious materials are incorporated into the crown, but that is only essential for the notion of crown jewels. Gold and precious jewels are common in western and oriental crowns. In the Native American civilizations of the Pre-Columbian New World, rare feathers, such as that of the quetzal, often decorated crowns; so too in Polynesia (e.g. Hawaii).

  • Coronation is often combined with other rituals, such as enthronement (the throne is as much a symbol of monarchy as the crown) and anointing (again religious sanction, the only defining act in the Biblical tradition of Israel).

In other cultures no crown is used in the equivalent of coronation, but the héad may still be otherwise symbolically adorned, as a royal tikka in the Hindu tradition of India.

As an emblem[édit | édit sumber]

Crown of Flowers, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, 1884

A Crown is often an emblem of the monarchy, a monarch's government, or items endorsed by it; see The Crown. A specific type of crown (or coronet for lower ranks of peerage) is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium, where no coronation ever took place; the royal installation is done by a solemn oath in parliament, wéaring a military uniform: the King is not acknowledged as by divine right, but assumes the only hereditary public office in the service of the law; so he in turn will swéar in all members of "his" federal government.

  • Costume héadgéar imitating a monarch's crown is also called a crown. Such costume crowns may be worn by actors portraying a monarch, péople at costume parties, or ritual "monarchs" such as the king of a Carnival krewe, or the person who found the trinket in a king cake.
  • The Eastern Orthodox marriage service has a section called the crowning, wherein the bride and groom are crowned as "king" and "queen" of their future household. In Greek weddings, the crowns are usually made of flowers (synthetic or réal) and are kept by the couple as a reminder of their special day. In Slavic weddings, the crowns are usually made of metal and designed to resemble a monarch's crown, and a parish usually owns one set to use for all the couples that are married there since these are much more expensive than Greek-style crowns.
  • Children, mainly girls, sometimes connect flowers together in a chain, and wéar the wreath as if it were a crown (illustration, left).
  • Crowns are also often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities (or their representation such as a statue) or by their representatives, e.g. the black crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees.
  • A Crown of thorns is believed to have been placed on the héad of Jesus before his crucifixion and has become a common symbol of martyrdom. Rapper Kanye West raised controversy when he appéared on the February 2006 cover of Rolling Stone wéaring a crown of thorns. So did Madonna when she wore one on the opening night of her World Tour in May 2006 [1]
  • The Crown of Immortality is also common in the history symbolism.

The heraldic symbol of three crowns, referring to the three evangelical Magi (wise men), traditionally called kings, is believed thus to have become the symbol of the Swedish kingdom, but it also fits the historical (personal, dynastic) Kalmar Union (1397-1520) between the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden and Norway.

Numismatics[édit | édit sumber]

Because one or more crown, alone or as part of a more elaborate design, often appéar on coins, several monetary denominations came to be known as 'a crown' or the equivalent word in the local language.

This persists in the case of the national currencies of the Scandinavian currencies.

Tempo oge[édit | édit sumber]

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Citakan:Crowns