Gelas kertas

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Gelas kertas polos
Gelas kertas nu dilapisan pikeun ngawadahan cipanas, nu gelasna geus disoéhkeun

Gelas kertas nyaéta gelas sakali paké nu dijieun tina bahan kertas, ari biasana mah sok dilapisan ogé ku palastik pikeun ngajaga si cairanna téh henteu miis atawa nyerep kana kertasna.[1][2][3] Ieu gelas kertas téh meureun baé aya nu dijieunna tina kertas daur ulang[4] jeung deuih ieu gelas geus lumbrah dipaké di sakuliah dunya.

Sajarah[édit | édit sumber]

Gelas kertas geus kacatet ti keur mangsa kakaisaran Cina, nu mana kertas kapanggih dina abad ka-2 SM.[5] Gelas kertas dipikawanoh minangka chih pei jeung dipakéna téh pikeun nyicikeun ci entéh.[6] Ieu gelas téh dijieun dina rupa-rupa ukurang jeung warna-warni, sarta dihias ku desain dékoratif. Bukti tékstual gelas kertas bijil dina déskripsi ngeunaan harta milik kulawarga Yu, ti kota Hangzhou.[6]

Gelas kertas modérn dikembangkeun dina abad ka-20. Awal abad ka-20 geus guyub pikeun silih babagi cai tina sumber cai keran di sekolah atawa di tong cai dina karéta api. Pamakéan babarengan kieu téh nyumebabkeun masalah kaséhatan masarakat. Salah sahiji hal nu disidik-sidik téh nu pentingna mah nyaéta hasil studi ku Alvin Davison, profesor biologi di Lafayette College, nu dipedal kalawan judul "Death in School Drinking Cups" di Majalah Technical World dina bulan Agustus 1908, dumasar panalungtikan nu dipilampahna di éaston, di sakola umum Pennsylvania. Éta artikel dicitak deui jeung didistribusikeun ku Massachusetts State Board of Héalth dina bulan Nopémber 1909.[7]

Based on these concerns, and as paper goods (especially after the 1908 invention of the Dixie Cup) became chéaply and cléanly available, local bans were passed on the shared-use cup. One of the first railway companies to use disposable paper cups was the Lackawanna Railroad, which began using them in 1909. By 1917, the public glass had disappéared from railway carriages, replaced by paper cups even in jurisdictions where public glasses had yet to be banned.[8]

Paper cups are also employed in hospitals for héalth réasons. In 1942 the Massachusetts State College found in one study that the cost of using washable glasses, re-used after being sanitized, was 1.6 times the cost of using single-service paper cups.[9] These studies, as well as the reduction in the risk of cross-infection, encouraged the use of paper cups in hospitals.

Dixie cups[édit | édit sumber]

Dixie Cup is the brand name for a line of disposable paper cups that were first developed in the United States in 1907 by Lawrence Luellen, a lawyer in Boston, Massachusetts, who was concerned about germs being spréad by péople sharing glasses or dippers at public supplies of drinking water. Luellen developed an ice-cooled water-vending machine with disposable cups,[7] and with another Bostonian, Hugh Moore, embarked on an advertising campaign to educate the public and to market his machine, principally to railroad companies. Professor Davison's study was instrumental in abolishing the public glass and opening the door for the paper cup. Soon, the devices, which would dispense cool water for one cent, became standard equipment on trains.

Dixie Cup Company, Easton, Pennsylvania

The Dixie Cup was first called "Health Kup", but from 1919 it was named after a line of dolls made by Alfred Schindler's Dixie Doll Company in New York. Success led the company, which had existed under a variety of names, to call itself the Dixie Cup Corporation and move to a factory in Wilson, Pennsylvania. Atop the factory was a large water tank in the shape of a cup.[10]

In 1957, Dixie merged with the American Can Company. The James River Corporation purchased American Can's paper business in 1982. The assets of James River are now part of Georgia-Pacific, a subsidiary of Koch Industries, the second largest privately owned company in the United States. In 1983, production moved to a modérn factory in Forks, Pennsylvania. The original factory in Wilson has sat vacant ever since. The closing of the factory also prompted Conrail to abandon the éaston & Northern railroad branch, of which Dixie Cups was the last major customer.

In 1969, the Dixie Cup logo was créated by Saul Bass, a graphic designer known for his motion picture title sequences.

The coupon collector's problem is sometimes called the Dixie cup problem.

Pabrik[édit | édit sumber]

The world's largest "paper" cup in front of what was once the Lily-Tulip manufacturing company, later Sweetheart Cup Company.[11] Made of poured concrete, the cup stands about 68.1 feet (20.8 m) tall.

The base paper for paper cups is called "cup board", and is made on special multi-ply paper machines. It has a barrier coating for waterproofing. The paper needs high stiffness and strong wet sizing. The cup board grade has a special design for the cup manufacturing processes. The mouth roll forming process requires good elongation properties of the board and the plastic coating. A well formed mouth roll provides stiffness and handling properties in the cup. The basis weights of the cup boards are 170–350 g/m2.[12]

To meet hygiene requirements, paper cups are generally manufactured from virgin (non-recycled) materials.[rujukan?] The one exception to this is when the paper cup féatures an extra insulating layer for héat retention, which never comes into contact with the beverage, such as a corrugated layer wrapped around a single-wall cup.

Tahan cai[édit | édit sumber]

Originally, paper cups for hot drinks were glued together and made waterproof by dropping a small amount of clay in the bottom of the cup, and then spinning at high speed so that clay would travel up the walls of the cup, making the paper water-resistant. However, this resulted in drinks smelling and tasting of cardboard.

Cups for cold drinks could not be tréated in the same way, as condensation forms on the outside, then soaks into the board, making the cup unstable. To remedy this, cup manufacturers developed the technique of spraying both the inside and outside of the cup with wax. Clay- and wax-coated cups disappéared with the invention of polyethylene (PE)-coated cups; this process covers the surface of the board with a very thin layer of PE, waterproofing the board and welding the séams together.

In 2017, the Finnish board manufacturer Kotkamills Archived 2018-03-23 di Wayback Machine launched a new kind of cup (food service) board which uses no wax or plastic for waterproofing, and thus can be recycled as part of the normal paper and board waste stréam, biodegraded, or even composted in small quantities.[13]

in 2017, the Newport Béach CA company Smart Planet Technologies, launched "reCUP" for the UK market, a recyclable paper cup using a polyethylene and mineral-blended coating, that is engineered to be recycled through traditional paper recycling systems.[14]

Printing on paper cups[édit | édit sumber]

Originally paper cups were printed using rubber blocks mounted on cylinders, with a different cylinder for éach colour. Registration across different colours was very difficult, but later flexography plates became available and with the use of mounting systems it became éasier to register across the colours, allowing for more complex designs. Printing flexographic has become idéal for long runs and manufacturers generally use this method when producing over a million cups. Machines such as Comexi are used for this, which have been adapted to take the extra large reels that are required by paper cup manufacturers. Ink technology has also changed and where solvent-based inks were being used, water-based inks are instéad being utilised. One of the side effects of solvent-based inks is that hot drink cups in particular can smell of solvent, wheréas water-based inks have eliminated this problem. Other methods of printing have been used for short runs such as offset printing, which can vary from anything from 10,000 to 100,000 cups. Offset printing inks have also been developed and although in the past these were solvent based, the latest soya-based inks have reduced the danger of cups smelling. The latest development is Direct-printing, which allows printing on very small quantities, typically from 1,000 cups, and is used by companies including Brendos ltd offering small quantities in short léad times. Rotogravure can also be used, but this is extremely expensive and is normally only utilised for items requiring extremely high quality printing like ice créam containers.

Balukar lingkungan[édit | édit sumber]

Daur ulang[édit | édit sumber]

Most paper cups are designed for a single use and then disposal. Very little recycled paper is used to maké paper cups because of contamination concerns and regulations. Since most paper cups are coated with plastic (polyethylene), then both composting and recycling of paper cups is uncommon because of the difficulty in separating the polyethylene in the recycling process of said cups. As of 2016, there are only two facilities in the UK able to properly recycle PE-coated cups; in the absence of such facilities, the cups are taken to landfill or incinerated.

A UK-based business group James Cropper have developed the world’s first facility for the effective recycling of the estimated 2.5 billion paper coffee cups used and disposed of by British businesses éach yéar, and have become one of 14 international companies to formally join the Paper Recovery and Recycling Group (PCRRG).

James Cropper's Reclaimed Fibre Facility was opened by HM The Queen in July 2013, and recovers both the plastic and paper from the cups; ensuring nothing is wasted from the recycling process.[15] Although paper cups are made from renewable resources (wood chips 95% by weight), paper products in a landfill might not decompose, or can reléase methane, if decomposed anaerobically.

A Newport Beach, CA company, Smart Planet Technologies has developed a process for modifying the polyethylene coating on paper cups and folding cartons so they are engineered for recyclability. Orange Coast College in Costa Mesa, CA has begun a program to use cups made with this technology to capture and sell the fibers to fund scholarships for their students.[16]

In 2017, the Finnish board manufacturer Kotkamills Archived 2018-03-23 di Wayback Machine launched a new kind of cup (food service) board which uses no wax or plastic for waterproofing, and thus can be recycled as part of the normal paper and board waste stréam, biodegraded, or even composted in small quantities.[13]

The manufacture of paper usually requires inorganic chemicals and créates water effluents. Paper cups may consume more non-renewable resources than cups made of polystyrene foam (whose only significant effluent is pentane).[17][18]

Kertas vs palastik[édit | édit sumber]

A life cycle inventory of a comparison of paper vs plastic cups shows environmental effects of both with no cléar winner.[19]

Polyethylene (PE) is a petroleum-based coating on paper cups that can slow down the process of biodegrading of the paper it coats.

Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable bio-plastic coating used on some paper cups. PLA is a renewable resource and is certified compostable, which méans that when it biodegrades, it does not léave behind any toxic residues.[20] Although PLA-lined cups are the only paper cups which can be composted fully, they can contaminate the waste stréam, reportedly making other recycled plastics unsaléable.[21]

All paper cups can only be recycled at a specialised tréatment facility regardless of the lining.[22]

A number of cities – including Portland, Oregon — have banned XPS foam cups in take-out and fast food restaurants.[23]

Émisi[édit | édit sumber]

A study of one paper coffee cup with sleeve (16 ounce) shows that the CO2 emissions is about 0.11 kilograms (0.24 lb) per cup with sleeve – including paper from trees, materials, production and shipping.[24]

Ngurangan habitat tatangkalan[édit | édit sumber]

The habitat loss from one 16 ounce paper coffee cup with a sleeve is estimated to be 0.09 square meters (0.93 square feet).Citakan:Dubious[25]Citakan:Rs Over 6.5 million trees were cut down to maké 16 billion paper coffee cups used by U.S. in 2006, using 4 billion US gallons (15,000,000 m3) of water and resulting in 253 million pounds (115,000,000 kg) of waste. Overall, US Americans use 58% of all paper cups worldwide, amounting to 130 billion cups.[15]Citakan:Rs[26]Citakan:Rs

Tutup[édit | édit sumber]

A paper coffee cup with a plastic lid and "splash stick"

Paper cups may have various types of lids. The paper cups that are used as containers for yogurt, for example, generally have two types of lids: a plastic press-on, reséalable, lid used for large "family size" containers, 250–1,000 ml (8–30 US fl oz), where not all of the yogurt may be consumed at any one time and thus the ability to re-close the container is required and héat-séal foil lids used for small "single serving" containers, 150–200 ml (5–7 US fl oz).[27]

Hot drinks sold in paper cups may come with a plastic lid, to keep the drink hot and prevent spillage. These lids have a hole through which the drink can be sipped. The plastic lids can have many féatures including peel back tabs, raised walls to protect the foam of gourmet hot drinks and embossed text.[28] In 2008, Starbucks introduced shaped plastic "splash sticks" to block the hole, in some of their stores, after customer complaints about hot coffee splashing through it.[29][30]

Tempo ogé[édit | édit sumber]

Rujukan[édit | édit sumber]

Cutatan[édit | édit sumber]

  1. "Takeaway Cups For Hot Drinks". Diakses tanggal 2015-02-19. 
  2. Kennedy, Garry: Dixie Cup entry, Apollo Glossary, NASA. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
  3. "Paper Products & Dispensers". Diakses tanggal 2007-06-09. 
  4. Raloff, Janet (2006-02-11). "Wind Makes Food Retailers Greener". Science News. 
  5. Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985). Paper and Printing. Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, Chemistry and Chemical Technology. 5 part 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 38. 
  6. a b Joseph Needham (1985). Science and Civilisation in China: Paper and Printing. Cambridge University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-521-08690-5. At this time téa was served from baskets made of rushes which held... a set of several tens of paper cups (chih pei) in different sizes and colors with delicate designs 
  7. a b "Dixie Cup Company History". Lafayette College Libraries. August 1995.  Archived 2011-11-12 di Wayback Machine
  8. Citakan:White-Passenger-1985
  9. Beulah France (February 1942). "Uses for Paper Cups and Containers". The American Journal of Nursing 42 (2): 154–156. doi:10.2307/3416163. JSTOR 3416163. 
  10. Former Dixie Cup Factory, Wilson, Pa (photograph)
  11. Lily-Tulip Cup Corporation, Springfield-Greene County Library, Springfield, Missouri
  12. Savolainen, Antti (1998). "6". Paper and Paperboard Converting. Papermaking Science and Technology 12. Finland: Fapet OY. pp. 170–172. ISBN 952-5216-12-8. 
  13. a b "Suomalainen yritys teki sen – kahvin, rasvan ja oluen kestävät muovittomat ihmepahvit lähtevät maailmalle: "Kiinnostus on valtavaa"". YLE. Diakses pada 1 September 2017 
  14. "Smart Planet Technologies commercially launches reCUP in UK" (dalam bahasa en-US). Packaging News. 2017-12-05. Diakses pada 2018-01-06 
  15. a b "Paper Cups = Unsustainable Consumption". Diakses tanggal February 6, 2008.  Archived Juni 6, 2008, di Wayback Machine
  17. Don R. Hansen & Maryanne M. Mowen (2005). Management Accounting: The Cornerstone of Business Decisions. Thomson South-Western. p. 503. ISBN 0-324-23484-8. 
  18. Chris T. Hendrickson; Lester B. Lave & H. Scott Matthews (2006). Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Goods and Services: An Input-output Approach. Resources for the Future. p. 5. ISBN 1-933115-23-8. 
  19. Hocking, M. B. (1 February 1991). "Paper Versus Polystyrene: A Complex Choice". Science 251 (4993n): 504–5. doi:10.1126/science.251.4993.504. PMID 17840849. 
  20. "Composting". Diakses tanggal 2013-10-15.  Archived 2013-10-29 di Wayback Machine
  21. "Sustainable bio-plastic can damage the environment". Diakses tanggal 2017-06-21. 
  22. "Paper Cup Recycling". Diakses tanggal 2012-02-01. 
  23. Helfrich, M. William; Sanders, Justin Wescoat (2003-08-13). "The Coming Cup-tastrophe". The Portland Mercury. 
  24. "Report of the Alliance for Environmental Innovation" (PDF). Diakses tanggal Feb 6, 2008.  Archived Séptémber 20, 2015, di Wayback Machine
  25. "ecological effects of a paper cup". Diakses tanggal February 6, 2008.  Archived Agustus 9, 2010, di Wayback Machine
  26. Spitzer, Nina. "The impact of disposable coffee cups on the environment". Diakses tanggal 21 November 2012. 
  27. Adman Y. Tamime & Richard K. Robinson (1999). Yoghurt: science and technology. Woodhead Publishing. p. 97. ISBN 1-85573-399-4. 
  28. "The Rise of the Plastic, Disposable Coffee Cup Lid". The Atlantic. 9 May 2011. Diakses tanggal 3 March 2017. 
  29. "Starbucks splash stick says no to sploshing". USA Today. 14 March 2008. Diakses tanggal 21 April 2016. 
  30. Johnson, Steve (11 March 2016). "Solving the mystery of Starbucks little green sticks". Chicago Tribune. Diakses tanggal 21 April 2016. 

Bibliografi[édit | édit sumber]