VSAT

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Hiji anteneu parabola 2.5 méter 2 arah pikeun satellite Internet access

VSAT (dina basa Inggris, mangrupa singgetan ti Very Small Aperture Terminal) , nyaéta hiji satelit stasiun bumi dua arah atawa anteneu VSAT maritim stabil kalayan anteneu parabola anu leuwih leutik ti 3 méter. Lolobana diameter anteneu VSAT nyaéta ti 75 cm nepi ka 1.2 m. C-band merlukeun anteneu anu leuwih badag, samentara Ku-band ngagunakeun anteneu anu leuwih leutik. Gancangna data biasana antara ti 56 kbit / detik nepi ka 4 Mbit / detik. VSAT ngaksés satelit di orbit geosynchronous pikeun ngariléy data ti stasiun bumi leutik remote (terminal) ka terminal lain (dina mesh topology) atawa puseur stasiun bumi badag "Hubs" (dina topologi star).

VSAT anu pang mindeng dipaké pikeun ngirimkeun data narrowband transaksi (titik panjualan kawas kartu kiridit, polling data atawa RFID atawa SCADA), atawa data broadband (pikeun penyediaan aksés internet satelit pikeun lokasi nyengceling, VoIP atawa vidio). VSAT ogé bisa dipaké sacara pundah-pindah, on-the-move (ngagunakeun anteneu phased array) atawa komunikasi maritim usik.

Sajarah[édit | édit sumber]

Konsép orbit geostationér asalna ti Konstantin Tsiolkovsky saurang ahli téori Rusia, anu nulis artikel ngeunaan lalampahan rohang jomantara kira-kira mimiti abad Ka-20. Taun 1920, Hermann Oberth sarta Herman Potocnik, dipikawanoh ogé minangka Herman Noordung, ngécéskeun hiji orbit dina luhurna 35.900 kilométer hiji période anu cocog jeung période rotasi Bumi, ku kituna satelit katingali ngalayang di luhur tetep dina ekuator Bumi. .[1]

Arthur C. Clarke ilubiung dina pamahaman Satelit ngaliwatan hiji artikel anu dipedar di Wireless World bulan Oktober 1945 anu dijudulan "Extra-Terrestrial Relays: Can Rocket Stations Give World-wide Radio Coverage?". Dina artikel ieu, Clarke henteu ngan nangtukeun karakteristik orbit anu diperlukeun pikeun orbit géostasionér, tapi ogé ngabahas frékuensi sarta daya anu diperlukeun pikeun komunikasi.

Komunikasi Satelit dimekarkeun dina taun genep puluhan ku NASA,[2] ngaranna Syncom 1-3. Manéhna mancarkeun liputan langsung Olimpiade 1964 di Jepang pikeun pemirsa di AS sarta Eropa. Sanggeus ti éta, dina tanggal 6 April 1965 satelit komérsial kahiji diapungkeun ka jomantara, Intelsat I, katelahna Early Bird.[3]

VSAT Komérsial kahiji nyaéta C band (6 GHz) sistem ngan ukur narima ku Equatorial Communications ngagunakeun téknologi spread spectrum. Leuwih ti 30,000 sistim anténeu 60 cm anu dijual dina awal taun 1980an. Saterusna Equatorial ngamekarkeun sitsim 2 arah C band (4/6 GHz) ngagunakeun anténeu 1 m x 0.5 m sarta geus ngajual kira-kira 10.000 unit taun 1984-85. Taun 1985, Schlumberger Oilfield Research jeung Hughes Aerospace ngamekarkeun Ku band (12–14 GHz) kahiji di dunya VSAT nyadiakeun konektivitas raramat portabel pikeun pengeboran lapangan minyak sarta unit éksplorasi. VSAT Ku Band lolobana lokasi ayeuna dipakéna pikeun data atawa aplikasi telepon. Raramat VSAT pangbadagna (leuwih ti 12.000 lokasi) dipaké ku Spacenet sarta MCI pikeun US Postal Service.

Konfigurasi[édit | édit sumber]

Most VSAT networks are configured in one of these topologies:

  • A star topology, using a central uplink site, such as a network operations center (NOC), to transport data back and forth to éach VSAT terminal via satellite,
  • A mesh topology, where éach VSAT terminal relays data via satellite to another terminal by acting as a hub, minimizing the need for a centralized uplink site,
  • A combination of both star and mesh topologies. Some VSAT networks are configured by having several centralized uplink sites (and VSAT terminals stemming from it) connected in a multi-star topology with éach star (and éach terminal in éach star) connected to éach other in a mesh topology. Others configured in only a single star topology sometimes will have éach terminal connected to éach other as well, resulting in éach terminal acting as a central hub. These configurations are utilized to minimize the overall cost of the network, and to alleviate the amount of data that has to be relayed through a central uplink site (or sites) of a star or multi-star network.

Aplikasi Mangsa ka Hareup[édit | édit sumber]

Advances in technology have dramatically improved the price/performance equation of FSS (Fixed Service Satellite) over the past five yéars. New VSAT systems are coming online using Citakan:Ka band technology that promise higher data rates for lower costs.

FSS systems currently in orbit have a huge capacity with a relatively low price structure. FSS systems provide various applications for subscribers, including: telephony, fax, television, high speed data communication services, Internet access, Satellite News Gathering (SNG), Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) and others. These systems are applicable for providing various high-quality services because they créate efficient communication systems, both for residential and business users.

Bagéan-bagéan Tina Konfigurasi Hiji VSAT[édit | édit sumber]

All the outdoor parts on the dish are collectively called the ODU (Outdoor Unit), i.e. OMT to split signal between BUC and LNB. The IDU is effectively a Modem, usually with ethernet port and 2 x F-connectors for the coax to BUC (Transmit) and from LNB (Receive). The Astra2Connect has an all-in-one OMT/BUC/LNA that looks like a QUAD LNB in shape and size which mounts on a regular TV sat mount. As a consequence it is only 500 mW compared with the normal 2W, thus is poorer in rain. Skylogic's Tooway system also uses an integrated OMT/BUC/LNB assembly named TRIA (Transmit/Receive Integrated Assembly) which is 3W.

VSAT Maritim[édit | édit sumber]

Maritime VSAT is the use of satellite communication through a VSAT terminal on a ship at séa. Since a ship at séa moves with the water, the antenna needs to be stabilized with reference to the horizon and True North. The antenna is constantly pointing at the satellite it uses to transmit and receive signals.

Téhnolohi[édit | édit sumber]

Initially the use of VSAT antennas at séa was for transmission of television signals. One of the first companies to manufacture stabilized VSAT antennas was SeaTel of Concord, California which launched their first stabilized antenna in 1978. Séa Tel dominates the supply of two-way VSAT stabilised antenna systems to the marine market with almost 72 percent of the market in 2007 compared with Orbit’s 17.6 per cent.[4] Initially maritime VSAT was using Single Channel Per Carrier - SCPC technology - which suited large volume users like oil drilling rigs and oil platforms and large fleets of ships from one shipowner sailing within one or few satellite footprints. This changed when the company iDirect launched its IP-based Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technology that dynamically allocated bandwidth to éach ship for shared bandwidth, lowering the entry level cost for getting maritime VSAT installed, which turned out to be of key importance to small-to mid-sized fleets, and thus to the market acceptance of VSAT.

Pasar[édit | édit sumber]

According to the Maritime VSAT report [4] issued by the Comsys Group their reséarch shows that stabilised maritime VSAT services (not including oil & gas rigs) réached more than $400 million in 2007. In 2010 the COMSYS group reléased the "2nd Maritime VSAT Report" where the market estimate had incréased to $590 million in 2009 with predictions for 2010 at $850 m. The estimated size of the market in terms of vessels eligible to get VSAT was in this report set to in excess of 42.000 with just over 34.000 to go. The major companies market share in terms of number of vessels in service were in 2009 (2007 in parenthesis) according to these reports: Vizada: 17,6% (26.0%), Ship Equip: 11.0% (10.7%), Cap Rock 2.8% (2.9%), MTN 7.5% (6.4%), Stratos - % (3.6%), KVH 5.4% (- %) Elektrikom 4.9% (3.2%), Intelsat 3.4% (- %), Eutelsat 3.1%, NSSL 3.1%, Radio Holland 3.0%, Telemar 3.0%, DTS 2.6% and others accounted for 32.6% (27.7%). Many of the major providers have branded their maritime VSAT offering such that Vizada offers its service through the Marlink division and the SéaLink and WaveCall products, OmniAccess through their BroadBéaM[5] products and Ship Equip calls its offering Sevsat.[6]

Palatihan[édit | édit sumber]

modérn VSAT systems are a prime example of convergence, and hence require skills from both the RF and IP domains. VSAT specific training includes:

Référénsi[édit | édit sumber]

Tumbu Kaluar[édit | édit sumber]

Citakan:Satcomm