Anjing

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Anjing doméstik
Temporal range: Pléistosin Ahir – Kiwari
Labrador Retriever
Status konservasi
Domesticated
Klasifikasi ilmiah
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: C. lupus
Subspecies: C. l. familiaris
Trinomial name
Canis lupus familiaris
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Anjing (Canis lupus familiaris) nyaéta subspésiés doméstikasi srigala hawuk (grey wolf), mamalia ti kulawarga Canidae ordo Carnivora. Istilah ieu nujul boh ka nu liar atawa nu diingu sarta kadang dipaké pikeun anjing liar ti subspésiés atawa spésiés séjén. Anjing doméstik dalit jeung manusa, boh keur diala gawéna atawa pikeun kalangenan, jeung -- pikeun sababaraha masarakat -- pikeun didahar. Di sakuliah jagat, kira-kira aya 400 juta anjing[1].

Kiwari, anjing geus mekar jadi ratusan turunan. Jangkungna (diukur nepi ka tonggong) aya nu ukur sababaraha inci (anjing Chihuahua), tapi aya ogé anu nepi ka sababaraha kaki (Irish Wolfhound); kelirna aya nu bodas, aya ogé nu hideung lestreng; sedengkeun buluna ti nu pondok pisan nepi ka sababaraha sénti, ti nu lempeng nepi ka nu galing[2].

Taksonomi[édit | sunting sumber]

Anjing mimitina diasupkeun kana Canis familiaris jeung "Canis familiarus domesticus" ku Linnaeus taun 1758[3]. Taun 1993, anjing diklasifikasi ulang jadi subspésiés srigala hawuk, Canis lupus, ku Smithsonian Institution jeung American Society of Mammalogists.

Asal-usul[édit | sunting sumber]

Dumasar kana bukti DNA, karuhun anjing misah ti srigala lianna kira 100.000 taun ka tukang[4][5], sarta mimiti diingu tina srigala hawuk kira 15.000 taun ka tukang[6]. Ku kituna, anjing téh jadi spésiés munggaran anu didoméstikasi ku manusa.

Bukti nu aya nunjukkeun yén anjing téh munggaran didoméstikasi di Asia Wétan, sigana di Cina[7], sedengkeun nu aya di Amérika Kalér mah istuning bawaan ti Asia[7].

Nuturkeun ngumbarana manusa ka sakuliah dunya, anjing lahir jadi rupa-rupa. Révolusi tatanén jeung masarakatna lajeng ngadorong tumuwuhna populasi anjing sarta lahirna kabutuh kana anjing anu boga kabisa husus. Kaayaan ieu ngadorong ayana kawin seléktif ngarah ngahasilkeun anjing anu boga kabisa.

Rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Dog. Wikipédia basa Inggris. Disalin 13 Agustus 2008.
  1. Coppinger, Ray (2001). Dogs: a Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution, p352. 0684855305.
  2. The Complete dog book : the photograph, history, and official standard of every breed admitted to AKC registration, and the selection, training, breeding, care, and feeding of pure-bred dogs. New York: Howell Book House, 1992. ISBN 0876054645
  3. ITIS Standard Report Page: Canis familiarus domesticus
  4. Vila, Carles, Carles Vila, Peter Savolainen, Jesus E. Maldonado, Isabel R. Amorim, John E. Rice, Rodney L. Honeycutt, Keith A. Crandall, Joakim Lundeberg, Wayne, Robert F. (1997-01-30; accepted 1997-04-14). "Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog". Science 276: 1687–1689.
  5. Kerstin, Lindblad-Toh, Claire M Wade, Tarjei S. Mikkelsen, Elinor K. Karlsson, David B. Jaffe, Michael Kamal, Michele Clamp, Jean L. Chang, Edward J. Kulbokas III, Michael C. Zody, Evan Mauceli, Xiaohui Xie, Matthew Breen, Robert K. Wayne, Elaine A. Ostrander, Chris P. Ponting, Francis Galibert, Douglas R. Smith, Pieter J. deJong, Ewen Kirkness, Pablo Alvarez, Tara Biagi, William Brockman, Jonathan Butler, Chee-Wye Chin, April Cook, James Cuff, Mark J. Daly, David DeCaprio, Sante Gnerre, Manfred Grabherr, Manolis Kellis, Michael Kleber, Carolyne Bardeleben, Leo Goodstadt, Andreas Heger, Christophe Hitte, Lisa Kim, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Heidi G. Parker, John P. Pollinger, Stephen M. J. Searle, Nathan B. Sutter, Rachael Thomas, Caleb Webber (2005-12-08). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog". Nature 438: 803–819.
  6. McGourty, Christine (2002-11-22). "Origin of dogs traced". BBC News. Diakses pada 29 Nopémber 2006. 
  7. a b Savolainen, Peter, Ya-ping Zhang, Jing Luo, Joakim Lundeberg, and Thomas Leitner (2002-11-22). "Genetic Evidence for an East Asian Origin of Domestic Dogs". Science 298 (5598): 1610–1613.

Bacaan salajengna[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Abrantes, Roger (1999). Dogs Home Alone. Wakan Tanka, 46 pages. ISBN 0-9660484-2-3 (paperback).
  • A&E Television Networks (1998). Big Dogs, Little Dogs: The companion volume to the A&E special presentation, A Lookout Book, GT Publishing. ISBN 1-57719-353-9 (hardcover).
  • Alderton, David (1984). The Dog, Chartwell Books. ISBN 0-89009-786-0.
  • Bloch, Günther. Die Pizza-Hunde (in German), 2007, Franckh-Kosmos-Verlags GmbH & Co. KG, Stuttgart,ISBN 9783440109861
  • Brewer, Douglas J. (2002) Dogs in Antiquity: Anubis to Cerberus: The Origins of the Domestic Dog, Aris & Phillips ISBN 0-85668-704-9
  • Coppinger, Raymond and Lorna Coppinger (2002). Dogs: A New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution, University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-11563-1
  • Cunliffe, Juliette (2004). The Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds. Parragon Publishing. ISBN 0-7525-8276-3.
  • Derr, Mark (2004). Dog's Best Friend: Annals of the Dog-Human Relationship. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-14280-9
  • Donaldson, Jean (1997). The Culture Clash. James & Kenneth Publishers. ISBN 1-888047-05-4 (paperback).
  • Fogle, Bruce, DVM (2000). The New Encyclopedia of the Dog. Doring Kindersley (DK). ISBN 0-7894-6130-7.
  • Grenier, Roger (2000). The Difficulty of Being a Dog. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-30828-6
  • Milani, Myrna M. (1986). The Body Language and Emotion of Dogs: A practical guide to the Physical and Behavioral Displays Owners and Dogs Exchange and How to Use Them to Create a Lasting Bond, William Morrow, 283 pages. ISBN 0-688-12841-6 (trade paperback).
  • Pfaffenberger, Clare (1971). New Knowledge of Dog Behavior. Wiley, ISBN 0-87605-704-0 (hardcover); Dogwise Publications, 2001, 208 pages, ISBN 1-929242-04-2 (paperback).
  • Savolainen, P. et al. (2002). Genetic Evidence for an East Asian Origin of Domestic Dogs. Science 298. 5598: 1610–1613.
  • Shook, Larry (1995). "Breeders Can Hazardous to Health", The Puppy Report: How to Select a Healthy, Happy Dog, Chapter Two, pp. 13–34. Ballantine, 130 pages, ISBN 0-345-38439-3 (mass market paperback); Globe Pequot, 1992, ISBN 1-55821-140-3 (hardcover; this is much cheaper should you buy).
  • Shook, Larry (1995). The Puppy Report: How to Select a Healthy, Happy Dog, Chapter Four, "Hereditary Problems in Purebred Dogs", pp. 57–72. Ballantine, 130 pages, ISBN 0-345-38439-3 (mass market paperback); Globe Pequot, 1992, ISBN 1-55821-140-3 (hardcover; this is much cheaper should you buy).
  • Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall (1993). The Hidden Life of Dogs (hardcover), A Peter Davison Book, Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-66958-8.
  • Verginelli, F. et al. (2005). Mitochondrial DNA from Prehistoric Canids Highlights Relationships Between Dogs and South-East European Wolves. Mol. Biol. Evol. 22: 2541–2551.
  • Trumler, Eberhard. Mit dem Hund auf du; Zum Verständnis seines Wesens und Verhaltens (in German); 4. Auflage Januar 1996; R. Piper GmbH & Co. KG, München
  • Small animal internal medicine, RW Nelson, Couto page 107

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]

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