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Manusa (Homo sapiens) mangrupakeun hiji spésiés ti Kera Gedé (Great Ape) jeung hiji-hijina spésiés nu salamet ti marga Homo. Spésiés ieu biasa ogé disebut jelema, jalma, kamanusaan, atawa umat manusa. Manusa punjul ku kapinterannana jeung kabisana migunakeun basa.
Asal-usul[édit | sunting sumber]
Artikel utama: Évolusi manusa
Dulur évolusionér nu pangdeukeutna ka manusa nya éta dua spésiés simpanse Pan troglodytes ("common chimp") jeung Pan paniscus ("pygmy chimp" atawa "Bonobo"), sarta ka nu darajat duduluranana leuwih handap hominoid séjénna kayaning orangutan jeung gorilla. Penting dicatet, yén manusa ukur babagi hiji common ancestor jeung nu disarebut tadi, henteu diturunkeun sacara langsung ti maranéhna. Para ahli biologi geus ngabandingkeun runtuyan pasangan basa DNA antara manusa jeung simpanse, sarta ngira-ngira béda genetikna ukur 5%. Hasil ngira-ngira nunjukkeun yén karuhun manusa misah ti simpanse 5 jutaan taun ka tukang, sedengkeun ti gorilla kira 8 juta taun ka tukang. However, recent news reports of a hominid skull approximately 7 million years old already showing a divergence from the ape lineage strongly suggests an earlier divergence. Some scientists argue that bonobos, chimpanzees and, possibly, gorillas should be lumped into the genus Homo, but this is currently a minority opinion.
Loba golongan agamis anu kabeuratan jeung kontroversi ngeunaan tiori évolusi manusa ti hiji common ancestor jeung hominoid séjénna. Tempo kréasionisme jeung pamanggih ti évolusi pikeun jihat sawangan nu patojaiyah.
Ciri fisik[édit | sunting sumber]
The evolution of Homo sapiens is characterized by a number of important trends:
- expansion of the brain cavity and brain itself, which is typically about 1,400 cm³ in volume, well over twice that of a chimpanzee or gorilla. Some physical anthropologists argue that a reorganization of the structure of the brain is more important than cranial expansion itself.
- canine tooth reduction.
- bipedal locomotion
- descent of the larynx (which makes possible the production of the complex sound known as vocal language).
How these trends are related, in what ways they have been adaptive, and what their role is in the evolution of complex social organization and culture, are matters of ongoing debate among physical anthropologists.
Although body size is highly heritable, it is also significantly influenced by environmental and cultural factors such as diet. The mean height of an American adult female is 162 cm (64 in) and the mean weight is 62 kg (137 lb). Males are typically larger: 175 cm (69 in) and 78 kilograms (172 lb). Humans vary substantially around these means, and the means themselves have varied depending on locality and historical factors.
Human children, typically weighing 3-4 kilograms (6-9 pounds) and 50-60 centimetres (20-24 inches) in height, are born after a nine-month gestation period. Helpless at birth, they continue to grow for some years, typically reaching sexual maturity at around 12-15 years of age. Boys continue growing for some time after this, often only reaching their maximum height around the age of 18.
Human life expectancy at birth is approaching 80 years in wealthy nations, with the assistance of science and technology. The number of centenarians in the world was estimated  at about 50,000 in 2003. The maximum human life span is thought to be about 120 years.
See also human physical appearance.
Ciri méntal[édit | sunting sumber]
Manusa nganggap manéhna salaku organisme pangpinterna di karajaan sato. Manusa mibanda nisbah otak nepika ka beurat awak pangbadagna ti sakabéh sato badag (lumba-lumba kadua; hiu pangluhurna di dunya lauk; sedengkeun octopus pangluhurna di dunya invertebrata). Najan ieu teu ngarupakeun ukuran absolut (inasmuch as a minimum brain-mass is necessary for certain "housekeeping" functions), nisbah massa otak ka massa awak mémang méré cicirén nu hadé pikeun kapinteran rélatif (Carl Sagan, The Dragons of Eden, 38).
Kamampuhan manusa kana abstraksi teu paralél na karajaan sato. Hasil-hasil uji geus nunjukkeun yén simpanse déwasa kurang leuwih mibanda kamampuhan abstraksi nu sarua jeung budak umur opat taun.
Pattern recognition is another area for which human beings are mentally well-suited.
Ciri émosional[édit | sunting sumber]
Ciri spiritual[édit | sunting sumber]
Agama miara yén di sagigireun sifat fisik jeung méntalna, umat manusa ogé mibanda sifat spiritual; seueur nu yakin yén ayana sifat spiritual ieu nu ngabédakeun umat manusa ti mahluk séjén. Sabalikna, kaom atéis yakin yén manusa teu mibanda aspék spiritual, sahingga teu bina ti nu séjén.
Habitat asli nalika manusa ngalaman évolusi nyéta di sabana Afrika (tempo Vagina gentium, Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness). Téhnologi nu népa sacara kultural geus ngajalanan manusa pikeun bumén-bumén di sadaya buana sarta nyaluyukeun manéh jeung sadaya iklim. Within the last few decades, humans have been able to temporarily inhabit Antarctica, the ocean depths, and outer space, although permanent habitation of these three environments is not yet possible. Humans, with a population of about six billion, are one of the most numerous mammals on Earth.
Most humans (61%) live in the Asian region. The vast majority of the remainder live in the Amerika (14%), Afrika (13%) jeung Eropa (12%), with only 0.3% in Australia. See list of countries by population and list of countries by population density.
Being primates, humans' original life style is hunting/gathering, which is adapted to the savannah where they evolved. Other human life styles are nomadism (often linked to animal herding) and permanent settlements made possible by the development of agriculture. Humans have a great capacity for altering their habitats by various methods, such as agriculture, irrigation, urban planning and construction, and activities accessory to those, such as transportation and manufacturing goods.
Permanent human settlements are dependent on proximity to water and, depending on the lifestyle, other natural resources such as fertile land for growing crops and grazing livestock or, seasonally by populations of prey. With the advent of large-scale trade and transportation infrastructure, immediate proximity to these resources has become less necessary, and in many places these factors are no longer the driving force behind growth and decline of population.
A sizable minority - around 2.5 of a total of 6.3 billion people - live in urban surroundings. Urbanisation is expected to rise drastically during the 21st century. Problems for humans in cities include various forms of pollution, crime and poverty, especially in inner city and suburban slums.
Humans living on Antarctica, under the ocean, or in space are part of scientific, military, or industrial expeditions, and habitation of these environments is temporary.
Life in space has thus far been temporary living, with up to ten humans in space at a given time (seven on the Space Shuttle, three on Mir) and currently around three in the International Space Station. This is a direct result of humans' vulnerability to ionizing radiation. Prior to 1961, all humans were restricted to the earth; Yuri Gagarin was the first human to travel into space. At various periods between 1969 and 1974, up to two humans spent varying amounts of time on the Moon. As of yet, residencies or human explorations on other planets have not come to be.
Ngabandingkeun Homo sapiens jeung spésiés séjén[édit | sunting sumber]
Humans often consider themselves to be the dominant species on Earth, and the most advanced in intelligence and ability to manage their environment. This belief is especially strong in Western culture, and is based in part on the Biblical Creation story in which Adam is explicitly given dominion over the Earth and all of its creatures.
Biologists and scientists in general, though, do not consider "dominant" to be a useful term, because the adaptive value of any trait or complex of traits depends on the niche and is highly mutable. From a scientific standpoint, Homo sapiens certainly is among the most generalized species on Earth. Smaller and simpler animals such as bacteria and insects greatly surpass humans in population size and diversity of species, but few single species occupy as many diverse environments as humans. Many other species, for example, are adapted to specific environments, whereas humans rely on the use of fire and on tools such as clothing and manufactured shelter, which are themselves often produced and used through complex social interactions.
Various attempts have been made to identify a single behavioral characteristic that distinguishes humans from all other animals, e.g. the ability to make and use tools (building shelter, weaving fabrics for clothing); the ability to alter the environment; language; and the development of complex social relationships and structures. Considered in isolation, however, these differences are not absolute, as ethologists have recorded such behaviors in many species. Apes and even birds, for example, are known to "fish" for insects using blades of grass or twigs, and even to shape the tools for that purpose. For these reasons, the idea that making and using tools is a defining characteristic of humans is often considered outdated, though of course no other animal uses tools to the same degree or with the same flexibility as Homo sapiens. Similarly, other animals often have methods of communication, but the degree to which humans create and use complex grammar and abstract concepts in language has not been seen in any other species.
Chomskian linguistics holds that a distinguishing feature of humans is that they are the only extant species with a language instinct - a genetic predisposition that produces a brain mechanism whose function is to acquire a language by observing those around us. Dolphins may also have this trait as they show dialect.
Some anthropologists think that these readily observable characteristics (tool-making and language) are based on less easily observable mental processes that might be unique among humans: the ability to think symbolically. That is, humans can think abstractly about concepts and ideas. They can question, use logic, understand mathematical concepts, and so on in ways greater than other animals are known to do, although several species have demonstrated some abilities in these areas. In any case, the idea that these abilities distinguish humans from other species is the basis of the name Homo sapiens, sometimes translated as "Man the Thinker". It should be noted, however, that the extinct species of the Homo genus (e.g. Homo neanderthalensis, Homo erectus) were also adept tool makers and there is some evidence that they may have had linguistic skills.
While humans have all these characteristics, from the biological viewpoint the question "What single characteristic distinguishes humans from all other animals?" is an odd one: it is not a question that is usually asked of cats, dolphins, or song sparrows. Finding other species that shape tools or can use sign language may shed light on human evolution, but it doesn't erase the differences or similarities between humans and other species.
Kagiatan manusa[édit | sunting sumber]
- Ngimpi, Saré, Hudang
- Human communication
- Mikir, Pangaweruh
- Paripolah manusa
- Periode manusa
Élmu ngeunaan manusa[édit | sunting sumber]
Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]
- budak & orok
- Évolusi Homo sapiens
- biologi manusa
- kondisi manusa
- ékologi manusa
- karageman manusa
- lalaki & awéwé
Rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]
- Wikipédia basa Inggris, disalin ping 20 Juli 2004.