Élmu komputer

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Dina basa nu umum, élmu komputer nyaéta élmu ngeunaan komputasi jeung information processing, boh dina hal hardware atawa software.

Pangwanoh[édit | sunting sumber]

Pikeun kaperluan praktis, élmu komputer kaasup ogé topik-topik anu aya hubunganana jeung komputer, tina hal saperti analisa algoritma abstrak, formal grammars, jeung salian ti eta, nepi ka subyék anu kongkrit saperti programming language, software, jeung hardware komputer. Sabagé disiplin élmu, loba bédana jeung matematik, programming, rékayasa software, sarta rékayasa komputer, sanajan kadang-kadang ngabingungkeun. Edsger Dijkstra nyebutkeun yén:

"Computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes."

Dilengkepan ku physicist Richard Feynman nyebutkeun:

"Computer science is not as old as physics; it lags by a couple of hundred years. However, this does not mean that there is significantly less on the computer scientist's plate than on the physicist's: younger it may be, but it has had a far more intense upbringing!"

Tesis Church-Turing thesis nyebutkeun yen sakabeh tipe paradigma kanyaho anu reasonable tina komputasi ngarupakeun hal anu sarua pentingnya salila bisa ngagawekeun sanajan aya variasi efisien dina waktu jeung ruang. Tesis ieu lain teorema matematika anu bisa dibuktikeun, tapi a statement based on empirical observation that two distinct computational schemes do in fact have the same computational power. This thesis is a fundamental principle of computer science.

Most research in computer science has been related to von Neumann computers or Turing machines (computers that do one small, deterministic task at a time). These models resemble most real computers in use today. Computer scientists also study other kinds of machines, some practical (like parallel machines) and some theoretical (like random, oracle, and quantum machines).

Computer scientists study what programs can and cannot do (see computability and artificial intelligence), how programs should efficiently perform specific tasks (see algoritma), how programs should store and retrieve specific kinds of information (see data structures and data bases), and how programs and people should communicate with each other (see human-computer interaction and user interfaces).

Computer science has roots in electrical engineering, mathematics and linguistics. In the last third of the 20th century computer science has become recognized as a distinct discipline and has developed its own methods and terminology.

The first computer science department in the United States was founded at Purdue University in 1962. The University of Cambridge in England, among others, taught CS prior to this, however at the time, CS was seen as a branch of mathematics, and not a separate department. Cambridge claims to have the world's oldest taught qualification in computing. Most universities today have specific departments devoted to computer science.

The highest honor in computer science is the Turing Award.

Lapang nu patali[édit | sunting sumber]

Élmu komputer deukeut patalina jeung sawatara wilangan lapang séjénna. Lapang-lapang éta kacida pentingna, sanajan aya sababaraha kapentingan nu béda-béda.

  • Élmu informasi nyaéta pangajian ngeunaan data jeung informasi, kaasup cara nganafsirkeun, nganalisis, neundeun, jeung nyokotna. Élmu Informasi dimimitian ku mangrupa yayasan analisis ilmiah ngeunaan komunikasi jeung basis data.
  • Pemprograman komputer atawa pangwangunan piranti-lunak nyaéta nyusun/nulis kodeu program.
  • Leksikografi jeung leksikografi nu dikhusukeun museurkeun regepan kana pangajian karya-karya rujukan leksikografik jeung ogé kaasup pangajian éléktronika jeung kamus nu dumasar-Internét.
  • Linguistika nyaéta pangajian ngeunaan basa, konvergén (sarua museurna) jeung élmu komputer dina wilayah-wilayah parancangan [[bahasa pemprograman] jeung prosésing bahasa alami.
  • Rékayasa piranti lunak nganekenkeun analisis, parancangan, konstruksi, jeung pangujian kana piranti-piranti lunak nu mangfaat. Rékayasa piranti lunak kaasup cara-cara pangwangunan (di antarana modél air-terjun jeung pemprograman ékstrém) jeung pangalolaan projék.
  • Sistem informasi (SI) nyaeta aplikasi komputasi pikeun ngadukung kalangsungan organisasi: pangoperasian, pamasangan, jeung parawatan komputer, piranti lunak, jeung data.
  • Matematika méré ka lapangan séjén teknik-teknik jeung topik-topik ngeunaan élmu komputer, tapi leuwih umum. Dina sababaraha citarasa, ÉS mangrupakeun matematika-na komputasi.
  • Logika nyaeta sistem nalar resmi, jeung prinsip-prinsip pangajian nu aya dina dasar-dasar mesin nalar/komputasi, boh nyaeta piranti heuras (logika digital) atawa tingkatan-tingkatan piranti lunak (pamariksaan, AI jeung sajabana.). Cabang lapangan logika disebut logika komputabilitas nyadiakeun jawaban nu sistematik jang patanyaan-patanyaan nu dasar-pisan ngeunaan naon nu bisa dikomputasi jeung kumaha carana.
  • Rekayasa komputer nyaeta analisis, parancangan, jeung konstruksi piranti heuras komputer.
  • Kaamanan informasi nyaeta analisis jeung terapan kaamanan sistem informasi, kaasup kriptografi.

Widang-widang utama anu penting dina élmu komputer[édit | sunting sumber]

Tatapakan matematika[édit | sunting sumber]

Téori élmu komputer[édit | sunting sumber]

Hardware[édit | sunting sumber]

(tingali ogé rékayasa listrik)

Computer systems organization[édit | sunting sumber]

(see also electrical engineering)

Software[édit | sunting sumber]

Data and information systems[édit | sunting sumber]

Computing methodologies[édit | sunting sumber]

Computer applications[édit | sunting sumber]

Computing milieux[édit | sunting sumber]

History[édit | sunting sumber]

Prominent pioneers in computer science[édit | sunting sumber]

See list of computer scientists for many more notables.

Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]