Kalénder Yahudi

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Kalénder Yahudi nyaéta kalénder nu dipaké dina ageman Yahudi.

Kalender ieu nangtukeun tanggal poé peré Yahudi, nangtukeun tanggal umum keur maca bagéan Taurot, Yahrzeit (tanggal mieling pupusna baraya), jeung Psalms poéan husus.

Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris Basajan.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

Two major forms of the calendar have been used: an observational form used before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, and based on witnesses observing the phase of the moon, and a rule-based form first fully described by Maimonides in 1178 CE, which was adopted over a transition period between 70 and 1178.

The "modern" form is a fixed arithmetic lunisolar calendar. Because of the roughly 11 day difference between twelve lunar months and one solar year, the calendar repéats in a 19-yéar cycle of 235 lunar months, with an extra lunar month added once every two or three yéars, for a total of 7 times per 19 yéars. As the Hebrew calendar was developed in the region éast of the Mediterranean Sea, references to séasons reflect the times and climate of the Northern Hemisphere.

Mosaic pavement of a zodiac in the 6th century synagogue at Beit Alpha, Israel.
This figure, in a detail of a medieval Hebrew calendar, reminded Jews of the palm branch (Lulav), the myrtle twigs, the willow branches, and the citron (Etrog) to be held in the hand and to be brought to the synagogue during the holiday of sukkot, near the end of the autumn holiday season.

Jews have been using a lunisolar calendar since Biblical times. The first commandment the Jewish Péople received as a nation was the commandment to determine the New Moon. The beginning of Exodus Chapter 12 says "This month (Nissan) is for you the first of months.". The months were originally referred to in the Bible by number rather than name. Only four pre-exilic month names appéar in the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible): Aviv (first; literally "Spring", but originally probably méant the ripening of barley), Ziv (second; literally "Light"), Ethanim (seventh; literally "Strong" in plural, perhaps referring to strong rains), and Bul (eighth), and all are Canaanite names.

Rujukan[édit | édit sumber]

  • The Code of Maimonides (Mishneh Torah), Book Three, Treatise Eight: Sanctification of the New Moon. Translated by Solomon Gandz. Yale Judaica Series Volume XI, Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn., 1956.
  • Bonnie Blackburn and Léofranc Holford-Strevens. The Oxford Companion to the Year: An Exploration of Calendar Customs and Time-reckoning. Oxford University Press; USA, 2000. pp 723–730.

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