Panah

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Wangun modérn, tina fiberglass jeung kai, jujutan bahan bahan gondéwa

Panah nyaéta pakarang anggang nu sistemna ngawengku pakakas paluncur (gondéwa) jeung proyéktil (jamparing). Pamakéan gondéwa jeung jamparing biasana ajang moro jeung pangperangan, malah dina pangperangan mah nyangkaruk dina sajarah karekam sarta ilahar di sakumna budaya. Ari papanahan mah mangrupa seni, latihan sarta kaparigelan dina ngagunakeun gondéwa mangsa ngabelesatkeun jamparing.[1], ari jalma nu purah manah disebutna pamanah.

Ari nu sok nyieun gondéwa disebut tukang gondéwa,[2] mun nu sok nyieun jamparing disebut tukang jamparing[3], mun nu mroduksi ruruhit tungtung jamparing disebut tukang ngaruruhitan.[4]

Pedaran[édit | édit sumber]

Gondéwa mangrupa gagang panjang nu élastis kawas rancatan anu dicangreudan ku tali di pada tungtungna kalawan nyambung. Nalika tali gondéwa dibetot ka tukang, puhu gondéwa milu melendoy, nendeun énérgi élastis. Jamparing nu mangrupa proyéktil panjang mibanda cécépét di puhuna nu distabilkeun ku ruruhit ditungtungna, tuluy diposisikeun ku cara neundeun puhuna nu aya cécépétan téh kana tali gondéwa. Tali nu dikaitan ku jamparing téh dibetot ka tukang tuluy dileupaskeun, élastisitas tungtung pada tungtung gondéwa ngarobah énérgi poténsial nu kateundeun jadi énérgi kinétik, nu saterusna ditransmisikeun liwat tali gondéwa kana jamparing, nu ngabelesatkeun jamparing kalawan gancang pisan.[5]

Panah téh pakarang perang nu penting di sabagian loba paradaban mangsa sajarah kuna. Saprak périodeu modérn awal, ieu panah téh arang langka kapanggih lantaran kasilih ku pakarang seuneu nu loba dipaké dina pangperangan. Kiwari, gondéwa jeung jamparing utamana mah dipaké pikeun kaperluan moro jeung olahraga papanahan.

Sajarah[édit | édit sumber]

Scythians nodongkeun gondéwa, Panticapeum (Kertch modérn), abad ka-4 SM.

Bijilna panah téh kira-kira ti jaman paléolitik luhur nepi ka jaman mésolitikum. Di lokasi Nataruk di Turkana County, Kénya, sempalan obsidian kapanggih aya dina jero tangkorak jeung dina di jero rongga toraks rorongkong lianna, kajudi geus dipaké jamparing nu tungtungna diruruhitan batu minangka pakarang mangsa harita.[6] Dina période glasial pamungkas katompérnakeun, pamakéan gondéwa kasampak geus sumebar ka sakuliah buana nu didumuk, kaasup lebahan kulon, iwal Australi.[7]

Cutatan[édit | édit sumber]

  • Collins, Desmond (1973). Background to archaeology: Britain in its European setting (Revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20155-1.  CS1 maint: Extra text (link)
  • Elmer, R. P. (1946). Target Archery: With a History of the Sport in America. New York: A. A. Knopf. OCLC 1482628. 
  • Heath, E. G. (1978). Archery: The Modern Approach. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-04957-5. 
  • Paterson, W. F. (1984). Encyclopaedia of Archery. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-24585-8. 
  • Sorrells, Brian J. (2004). Beginner's Guide to Traditional Archery. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-3133-1. 
  • Stone, George Cameron (1999) [1934]. A Glossary of the Construction, Decoration, and Use of Arms and Armor in All Countries and in All Times (Reprint ed.). Mineola: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-40726-8. 

Rujukan[édit | édit sumber]

  1. Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 17
  2. Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 31
  3. Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 56
  4. Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 20
  5. Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery pp. 27-28
  6. Lahr, M. Mirazón; Rivera, F.; Power, R. K.; Mounier, A.; Copsey, B.; Crivellaro, F.; Edung, J. E.; Fernandez, J. M. Maillo et al. (2016). "Inter-group violence among early Holocene hunter-gatherers of West Turkana, Kenya". Nature 529 (7586): 394–398. doi:10.1038/nature16477. PMID 26791728. http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature16477. 
  7. M. H. Monroe, Aboriginal Weapons and Tools "The favoured weapon of the Aborigines was the spear and spear thrower. The fact that they never adopted the bow and arrow has been debated for a long time. During post-glacial times the bow and arrow were being used in every inhabited part of the world except Australia. A number of reasons for this have been put forward [...] Captain Cook saw the bow and arrow being used on an island close to the mainland at Cape York, as it was in the Torres Strait islands and New Guinea. But the Aborigines preferred the spear. "

Bacaan salajengna[édit | édit sumber]

  • Gad Rausing, "Ruku", Universitas Lund Acta Archaéologica Lundensia Serie di 8° No 6, 1967
  • Tradisional Bowyers Alkitab Volume 1. 1992 Lyons Pencet. Citakan:Catalog lookup linkGalat skrip: tidak ada modul tersebut.1-58574-085-3
  • Tradisional Bowyers Alkitab Volume 2. 1992 Lyons Pencet. Citakan:Catalog lookup linkGalat skrip: tidak ada modul tersebut.1-58574-086-1
  • Tradisional Bowyers Alkitab Jilid 3. 1994 Lyons Pencet. Citakan:Catalog lookup linkGalat skrip: tidak ada modul tersebut.1-58574-087-X
  • Tradisional Bowyers Alkitab Volume 4. 2008 Lyons Pencet. Citakan:Catalog lookup linkGalat skrip: tidak ada modul tersebut.978-0-9645741-6-8
  • U. Stodiek/H. Paulsen, "Mit dem Pfeil, dem Bogen..." Techniken der steinzeitlichen Jagd. (Oldenburg 1996).
  • Abu, David, "Bows of the World". Nu Lyons Press, 2002. Citakan:Catalog lookup linkGalat skrip: tidak ada modul tersebut.1-58574-478-6.
  • Comstock, Paul. "Nu Ngagulung Lengket"

Tutumbu luar[édit | édit sumber]