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Global commercial capture of anchovy in million tonnes 1950–2010[1]
Pikeun dahareun, tempo teri cué.

Teri atawa lauk teri nyaéta lauk leutik basajan nu hirup dina cai asin, biasa nu sok dijadikeun eupan, ieu lauk mangrupa jenis ti keluarga Engraulidae.

Aya 144 spésiés nu kaasup di 17 généra; sakumna téh kapanggih di di Samudra Atlantik, India jeung Pasifik, sarta di Laut Hideung jeung Laut Méditérania. lauk teri biasana diklasifikasikeun minangka lauk minyakan.[2]

Genera[édit | édit sumber]

Généra di famili Engraulidae
Généra Spésiés Koméntar Généra Spésiés Koméntar
Amazonsprattus 1 Anchoa 35
Anchovia 3 Anchoviella 4
Cetengraulis 2 Coilia 13
Encrasicholina 5 Engraulis 9 Jenis génus pikeun teri: Ieu génus ngandung sakumna teri komérsil signifikan.
Jurengraulis 1 Lycengraulis 4
Lycothrissa 1 Papuengraulis 1
Pseudosetipinna 1 Pterengraulis 1
Setipinna 8 Stolephorus 20
Thryssa 24

Ciri mandiri[édit | édit sumber]

European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus

Teri mah leutik, lauk héjo kalawan pantulan biru nu ditambahan ku garis horizontal warna pérak nu manjang ti dasar cécépét buntut. Jarak antara 2 nepi ka 40 cm (0,79 nepi ka 15,75 in) mun panjang teri kolot,[3] jeung bentuk awakna rupa-rupa, aya lauk nu leuwih ipis di populasi kalér mah.

Sungutna mintul kalawan huntu laleuwik nu seukeut di dua caréhamna. Sungut eusina organ rostral, dipiyakin miwatek sénsorik, sanajan fungsi saenyana mah teu dipikanyaho.[4] Sungutna leuwih badag batan lauk haring jeung silversides, dua lauk nu mirip pisan jeung teri. Lauk teri ngadaharan plankton jeung lauk nu kakara megar.

Sumebaran[édit | édit sumber]

Anchovies are found in scattered aréas throughout the world's océans, but are concentrated in temperate waters, and are rare or absent in very cold or very warm séas. They are generally very accepting of a wide range of temperatures and salinity. Large schools can be found in shallow, brackish aréas with muddy bottoms, as in estuaries and bays. The Européan anchovy is abundant in the Mediterranéan, particularly in the Alboran Sea,[5] Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. This species is regularly caught along the coasts of Crete, Greece, Sicily, Italy, France, Turkey, and Spain. They are also found on the coast of northern Africa. The range of the species also extends along the Atlantic coast of Europe to the south of Norway. Spawning occurs between October and March, but not in water colder than 12 °C (54 °F). The anchovy appéars to spawn at léast 100 km (62 mi) from the shore, néar the surface of the water.

Ékologi[édit | édit sumber]

The anchovy is a significant food source for almost every predatory fish in its environment, including the California halibut, rock fish, yellowtail, shark, chinook, and coho salmon. It is also extremely important to marine mammals and birds; for example, breeding success of California brown pelicans[6] and elegant terns is strongly connected to anchovy abundance.

Parab[édit | édit sumber]

Lauk teri, sakumaha lolobana clupeoids (lauk haring, lauk sardén jeung lauk teri), nyaéta eupan saringan pikeun lauk nu muka sungutna nalika ngojay. Pas cai liwat sungut jeung kaluar tina asang, partikel kadaharan nu diayak ku asang téh dipindahkeun kana genggerong.[7]

Spésiés komérsil[édit | édit sumber]

Commercially significant species
Common name Scientific name Maximum
European anchovy* Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) 20.0 cm (7.9 in) 13.5 cm (5.3 in) kg 5 yéars 3.11 [8] [9] [10] Not assessed
Argentine anchoita Engraulis anchoita (Hubbs & Marini, 1935) 17.0 cm (6.7 in) cm 0.025 kg (0.88 oz) yéars 2.51 [11] [12] [13] Not assessed
Californian anchovy Engraulis mordax (Girard, 1856) 24.8 cm (9.8 in) 15.0 cm (5.9 in) 0.068 kg (2.4 oz) yéars 2.96 [14] [15] [16] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Léast concern[17]
Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) 18.0 cm (7.1 in) 14.0 cm (5.5 in) 0.045 kg (1.6 oz) 4 yéars 2.60 [18] [19] [20] Not assessed
Peruvian anchoveta Engraulis ringens (Jenyns, 1842) 20.0 cm (7.9 in) 14.0 cm (5.5 in) kg 3 yéars 2.70 [21] [22] [23] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Léast concern[24]
Southern African anchovy Engraulis capensis (Gilchrist, 1913) 17.0 cm (6.7 in) cm kg yéars 2.80 [25] [26] [27] Not assessed

* Type species

Pamayangan[édit | édit sumber]

Global capture of anchovy in tonnes reported by the FAO
Capture of all anchovy reported by the FAO (green indicates Peruvian anchoveta)[1]
↑  Peruvian anchoveta 1950–2010 [1]
↑  Other anchovy 1950–2010 [1]

Laut Hideung[édit | édit sumber]

On average, the Turkish commercial fishing fleet catches around 300,000 tons per yéar, mainly in winter. The largest catch is in November and December.[28]

Péru[édit | édit sumber]

The Peruvian anchovy fishery is one of the largest in the world, far exceeding catches of the other anchovy species.

In 1973 it collapsed catastrophically due to the combined effects of overfishing and El Niño[29] and did not recover fully for two decades.

Teri cué[édit | édit sumber]

 Artikel utama: Teri cué.
Still Life with Anchovies, 1972, Antonio Sicurezza

A traditional method of processing and preserving anchovies is to gut and salt them in brine, allow them to cure, and then pack them in oil or salt. This results in a characteristic strong flavor and the flesh turns deep grey. Pickled in vinegar, as with Spanish boquerones, anchovies are milder and the flesh retains a white color. In Roman times, anchovies were the base for the fermented fish sauce garum. Garum had a sufficiently long shelf life for long-distance commerce, and was produced in industrial quantities. Anchovies were also éaten raw as an aphrodisiac.[30] Today, they are used in small quantities to flavor many dishes. Because of the strong flavor, they are also an ingredient in several sauces and condiments, including Worcestershire sauce, Caesar salad dressing, remoulade, Gentleman's Relish, many fish sauces, and in some versions of Café de Paris butter. For domestic use, anchovy fillets are packed in oil or salt in small tins or jars, sometimes rolled around capers. Anchovy paste is also available. Fishermen also use anchovies as bait for larger fish, such as tuna and sea bass.

The strong taste péople associate with anchovies is due to the curing process. Fresh anchovies, known in Italy as alici, have a much milder flavor.[31] In Sweden and Finland, the name anchovies is related strongly to a traditional séasoning, hence the product "anchovies" is normally made of sprats[32] and herring can be sold as "anchovy-spiced". Fish from the Engraulidae family are instéad known as sardell in Sweden and sardelli in Finland, léading to confusion when translating recipes.

Rujukan[édit | édit sumber]

  1. a b c d Based on data sourced from the relevant FAO Species Fact Sheets
  2. "What's an oily fish?". Food Standards Agency. 2004-06-24. http://www.food.gov.uk/news/newsarchive/2004/jun/oilyfishdefinition  Archived 2010-12-10 di UK Government Web Archive
  3. Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2008). "Engraulidae" di FishBase. December vérsi 2008.
  4. Nelson, Gareth (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N., ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 94–95. ISBN 0-12-547665-5. 
  5. C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Alboran Sea. eds. P.Saundry & C.J.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
  6. Anderson, Daniel W.; Gress, Franklin; Mais, Kenneth F.; Kelly, Paul R. (1980). North, Nance. ed. "Brown pelicans as anchovy stock indicators and their relationships to commercial fishing" (PDF). CalCOFIs Reports (California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations) 21: 55. http://calcofi.org/publications/calcofireports/v21/Vol_21_Anderson_etal.pdf. "Pelican reproductive rate ... depends largely on levels of anchovy abundance and availability."  Archived 2012-12-23 di Wayback Machine
  7. Bone, Q., & Marshall, N. (1982). Biology of fishes. Glasgow: Blackie.
  8. Engraulis encrasicolus. FishBase. Ranier Froese & Daniel Pauly (éd.), vérsi April 2012. N.p.: FishBase, 2012.
  9. Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  10. Engraulis encrasicolus (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Dibuka ping [[{{{date}}}]] [[{{{year}}}]].
  11. "Engraulis anchoita summary page". FishBase. Diakses tanggal 2017-11-16. 
  12. Engraulis anchoita (Hubbs & Marini, 1935) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  13. Engraulis anchoita (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Dibuka ping [[{{{date}}}]] [[{{{year}}}]].
  14. "Engraulis mordax summary page". FishBase. Diakses tanggal 2017-11-16. 
  15. Engraulis mordax (Girard, 1856) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  16. Engraulis mordax (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Dibuka ping [[{{{date}}}]] [[{{{year}}}]].
  17. Citakan:IUCN2011.2
  18. Engraulis japonicus. FishBase. Ranier Froese & Daniel Pauly (éd.), vérsi April 2012. N.p.: FishBase, 2012.
  19. Engraulis japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  20. Engraulis japonicus (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Dibuka ping [[{{{date}}}]] [[{{{year}}}]].
  21. "Engraulis ringens summary page". FishBase. Diakses tanggal 2017-11-16. 
  22. Engraulis ringens (Jenyns, 1842) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  23. Engraulis ringens (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Dibuka ping [[{{{date}}}]] [[{{{year}}}]].
  24. Citakan:IUCN2011.2
  25. Engraulis capensis. FishBase. Ranier Froese & Daniel Pauly (éd.), vérsi April 2012. N.p.: FishBase, 2012.
  26. Engraulis capensis (Gilchrist, 1913) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  27. Engraulis capensis (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Dibuka ping [[{{{date}}}]] [[{{{year}}}]].
  28. "Turkish Black Sea Acoustic Surveys: Winter distribution of anchovy along the Turkish coast" (PDF). Middle East Technical University Institute of Marine Sciences. 
  29. http://www.ucar.edu/communications/gcip/m12anchovy/m12pdf.pdf Archived 2011-12-03 di Wayback Machine
  30. "Tacitus: Germania". thelatinlibrary.com. 
  31. "White Anchovy Fillets (Boquerones)". marxfoods.com. 
  32. "Food: First catch your anchovies". The Independent. 

Bacaan salajengna[édit | édit sumber]

  • Miller DJ (1956) "Anchovy" Archived 2020-07-16 di Wayback Machine CalCOFI Reports, 5: 20–26.
  • Nizinski MS and Munroe TA (1988) FAO species catalogue, volume 2: Clupeoid Fishes of the World, Engraulidae, Anchovies[tumbu nonaktif] Pages 764–780, FAO Fisheries Synopsis 125, Rome. Galat skrip: tidak ada modul tersebut "Catalog lookup link".Galat skrip: tidak ada modul tersebut "check isxn".92-5-102340-9.
  • Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission [1] Northern Anchovy