Kokain

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Kokain - Cocaine.svg
Cocaine-from-xtal-1983-3D-balls.png
Kokain
Ngaran sistimatik (IUPAC)
métil (1R,2R,3S,5S)-3- (bénzoiloksi)-8-métil-8-azabisiklo[3.2.1] oktana-2-karboksilat
Identifiers
Nomer CAS 50-36-2
Sandi ATC N01BC01 R02AD03, S01HA01, S02DA02
PubChem 5760
DrugBank APRD00080
ChemSpider 5557
Data kimia
Rumus C17H21NO4 
Mass. mol. 303.353 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Synonyms métilbénzoilékgonin, bénzoilmétilékgonin
Data fisika
Titik lééh 195 °C (383 °F)
Kelarutan dina Cai 1800 mg/mL (20 °C)
Data farmakokinetik
Bioavailabilitas Oral: 33%[1]
Insufflated: 60[2]–80%[3]
Nasal Spray: 25[4]–43%[1]
Metabolism CYP3A4 hépatik
Half life 1 jam
Excretion Rénal (bénzoilékgonin jeung ékgonin métil éster)
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

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Legal status
Dependence Liability Luhur
Routes Topikal, Oral, Insuflasi, IV, PO

Kokain (bénzoilmétilékgonin) nyaéta alkaloid tropana kristalin nu diala tina daun tangkal koka[5]. Ngaran 'kokain' dicokot tina ngaran tangkalna ditambah ahiran alkaloid -in (-ina, numutkeun aturan baku), jadi kokain. Ieu alkaloid téh stimulan sistem saraf puseur, hususna salaku inhibitor reuptake dopamin, norépinéfrin, jeung serotonin. ku sabab mangaruhan jalur reward mésolimbik, kokain jadi matak nyandu[6].

kokain tré tré bon pouir toi

Watesan[édit | édit sumber]

Produksi, distribusi, jeung jual-beuli produk kokain diwates pisan (lolobana mah kaasup ilégal). Sababaraha nagara, kayaning Péru jeung Bolivia ngawenangkeun tatanén daun koka pikeun konsumsi tradisional ku masarakat pituin. Di Éropah jeung Australia, kokain olahan diwenangkeun pikeun kaperluan kadokteran.

Pamaké[édit | édit sumber]

Numutkeun laporan PBB taun 2007, kokain panglobana dipaké di Spanyol (3,0% ti jalma sawawa)[7]. Nagara séjén anu pamakéanana sahanteuna 1,5% nyaéta AS (2,8%), Inggris (2,4%), Kanada (2,3%), Italia (2,1%), Bolivia (1,9%), Cili (1,8%), jeung Skotlandia (1,5%)[7].

Baca ogé[édit | édit sumber]

Rujukan[édit | édit sumber]

  • Cocaine (dicutat 16 Séptémber 2009)
  1. a b Fattinger K, Benowitz NL, Jones RT, Verotta D (July 2000). "Nasal mucosal versus gastrointestinal absorption of nasally administered cocaine". Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 56 (4): 305–10. PMID 10954344. 
  2. Barnett G, Hawks R, Resnick R (1981). "Cocaine pharmacokinetics in humans". J Ethnopharmacol 3 (2-3): 353–66. PMID 7242115. 
  3. Jeffcoat AR, Perez-Reyes M, Hill JM, Sadler BM, Cook CE (1989). "Cocaine disposition in humans after intravenous injection, nasal insufflation (snorting), or smoking". Drug Metab. Dispos. 17 (2): 153–9. PMID 2565204. http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=2565204. 
  4. Wilkinson P, Van Dyke C, Jatlow P, Barash P, Byck R (March 1980). "Intranasal and oral cocaine kinetics". Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 27 (3): 386–94. PMID 7357795. 
  5. Aggrawal, Anil. Narcotic Drugs. National Book Trust, India (1995), p. 52-3. ISBN 81-237-1383-5.
  6. Fattore L, Piras G, Corda MG, Giorgi O (April 2009). "The Roman high- and low-avoidance rat lines differ in the acquisition, maintenance, extinction, and reinstatement of intravenous cocaine self-administration". Neuropsychopharmacology 34 (5): 1091–101. doi:10.1038/npp.2008.43. PMID 18418365. 
  7. a b World Drug Report 2007 (PDF), New York: United Nations, 2007 , k. 243.

Tumbu kaluar[édit | édit sumber]


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