Éléktronika

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Artikel ieu aya dina widang téhnik/rékayasa. Keur informasi ngeunaan parangkat éléktronik konsumén, tempo Éléktronika konsumén.

Widang éléktronika nyakup studi jeung kagunaan sistim nu dioperasikeun ku jalan ngadalikeun aliran éléktron (atawa pamawa muatan séjénna) dina parangkat saperti klép térmionik jeung sémikonduktor. Rancangan jeung konstruksi sirkuit éléktronik pikeun méréskeun masalah praktis mangrupakeun téhnik integral dina widang téhnik éléktronika jeung ogé kacida pentingna dina rancangan hardware keur téhnik komputer. Sakabéh aplikasi éléktronika ngalibatkeun transmisi informasi atawa power. Nu pangpangna mah ukur nu patali jeung informasi.

Studi parangkat sémikonduktor anyar jeung téhnologi sabudeureunnana kadang-kadang dianggap minangka bagian tina fisika. Artikel ieu ukur fokus kana aspék téhnik tina éléktronika.

Sawangan ngeunaan sistim jeung sirkuit éléktronik[édit | sunting sumber]

Voltméter digital komérsial nu keur dipaké ngecék prototip

Sistim éléktronik digunakeun keur ngawangun rupa-rupa tugas. Kagunaan utama sirkuit éléktronik nyaéta:

  1. keur ngadalikeun jeung mrosés informasi
  2. keur ngarobah tina/kana sarta ngadistribusikeun daya listrik

Sakabéh aplikasi di luhur ngalibetkeun nyieun jeung/atawa ngadetéksi médan éléktromagnétik sarta arus listrik. Sedengkeun énérgi listrik geus dipigunakeun salila sawatara wanci saméméh ahir abad ka-19 keur ngirimkeun data ngaliwatan jalur telegrap jeung telepon, perkembangan dina éléktronika tumuwuh sacara éksponénsial sanggeus datangna radio.

Salasahiji cara nempo sistim éléktronik nyaéta ku jalan ngabagi jadi 3 bagian:

  • Pamrosés sinyal – Sirkuit ieu siap keur manipulasi, narjamahkeun sarta ngarobah sinyal asupan sangkan aya gunana keur aplikasi nu diharepkeun. Kiwari, pamrosésan sinyal nu kompléks geus dibasajankeun ku digunakeunnana Pamrosés Sinyal Digital (Digital Signal Processors, DSP).
  • KaluaranAktuator atawa alat séjén (saperti transduser) nu ngarobah sinyal arus/voltase balik deui kana wangun fisik anu berguna (misalna, ku jalan muterkeun motor listrik).

Contona, sét televisi ngandung 3 bagian. Asupan televisi ngarobah sinyal broadcast (katarima ku anténe atawa asup ngaliwatan kabel) jadi sinyal arus/tegangan nu bisa digunakeun ku parangkat. Sirkuit pamrosésam sinyal dina jero televisi ngabagi-bagi informasi tina sinyal ieu ngajadikeun tingkat brightness, warna jeung sora. Parangkat kaluaran satuluyna garobah informasi ieu balik deui kana wangun fisik. Solobong cahya katoda (cathode ray tube, CRT) ngarobah sinyal listrik jadi gambar nu ketempo dina layar. Speaker nu digerakkeun ku magnét satuluyna ngarobah sinyal jadi sora nu bisa kadéngé.

Parangkat jeung komponén éléktronik[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Komponén éléktronik.
Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

An electronic component is any indivisible electronic building block packaged in a discrete form with two or more connecting leads or metallic pads. Components are intended to be connected together, usually by soldering to a printed circuit board, to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier, radio receiver, or oscillator). Components may be packaged singly (resistor, capacitor, transistor, diode etc.) or in more or less complex groups as integrated circuits (operational amplifier, resistor array, logic gate etc). Active components are sometimes called devices rather than components.

Tipe Sirkuit[édit | sunting sumber]

Sirkuit Analog[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Sirkuit Analog.

Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits. Analog circuits use a continuous range of voltage as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits. The number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge, especially because a 'circuit' can be defined as anything from a single component, to systems containing thousands of components.

Analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in analog circuits such as mixers, modulators etc. Good examples of analog circuits are vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers and oscillators.

Some analog circuitry these days may use digital or even microprocessor techniques to improve upon the basic performance of the circuit. This type of circuit is usually called 'mixed signal'.

Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have elements of both linear and non-linear operation. An example is the comparator which takes in a continuous range of voltage but puts out only one of two levels as in a digital circuit. Similarly, an overdriven transistor amplifier can take on the characteristics of a controlled switch having essentially two levels of output.

Sirkuit Digital[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Sirkuit Digital.

Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. Digital circuits are the most common physical representation of Boolean algebra and are the basis of all digital computers. To most engineers, the terms "digital circuit", "digital system" and "logic" are interchangeable in the context of digital circuits. In most cases the number of different states of a node is two, represented by two voltage levels labeled "Low" and "High". Often "Low" will be near zero volts and "High" will be at a higher level depending on the supply voltage in use.

Computers, electronic clocks, and programmable logic controllers (used to control industrial processes) are constructed of digital circuits. Digital Signal Processors are another example.

Building-blocks:

Highly integrated devices:

Sirkuit Sinyal Campuran[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: IC Sinyal Campuran.

Mixed-signal circuits refers to integrated circuits (ICs) which have both analog circuits and digital circuits combined on a single semiconductor die or on the same circuit board. Mixed-signal circuits are becoming increasingly common. Mixed circuits contain both analog and digital components. Analog to digital converters and digital to analog converters are the primary examples. Other examples are transmission gates and buffers.

Disipasi panas jeung manajemén hawa[édit | sunting sumber]

Heat generated by electronic circuitry must be dissipated to prevent immediate failure and improve long term reliability. Techniques for heat dissipation can include heatsinks and fans for air cooling, and other forms of computer cooling such as liquid cooling for computers. These techniques use convection, conduction, & radiation of heat energy.

Noise[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Noise éléktronik.

Noise patali jeung sakabéh parangkat éléktronik. Noise ilaharna didéfinisikeu minangka sinyal naon baé nu teu dipiharep nu asupkana asupan sirkuit. Noise henteu sarua jeung distorsi sinyal nu disababkeun ku sirkuit.

Téori éléktronika[édit | sunting sumber]

Mathematical methods are integral to the study of electronics. To become proficient in electronics it is also necessary to become proficient in the mathematics of circuit analysis.

Circuit analysis is the study of methods of solving generally linear systems for unknown variables such as the voltage at a certain node or the current though a certain branch of a network. A common analytical tool for this is the SPICE circuit simulator.

Also important to electronics is the study and understanding of electromagnetic field theory.

Alat tés éléktronik[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Alat tés éléktronik.

Electronic test equipment is used to create stimulus signals and capture responses from electronic Devices Under Test (DUTs). In this way, the proper operation of the DUT can be proven or faults in the device can be traced and repaired.

Practical electronics engineering and assembly requires the use of many different kinds of electronic test equipment ranging from the very simple and inexpensive (such as a test light consisting of just a light bulb and a test lead) to extremely complex and sophisticated such as Automatic Test Equipment.

Computer aided design (CAD)[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Otomasi rancangan éléktronik.

Today's electronics engineers have the ability to design circuits using premanufactured building blocks such as power supplies, resistors, capacitors, semiconductors (such as transistors), and integrated circuits. Electronic design automation software programs include schematic capture programs such as ORCAD or Eagle Layout Editor, used to make circuit diagrams and printed circuit board layouts.

Métode konstruksi[édit | sunting sumber]

Loba cara nu béda-béda pikeun ngahubngkeun komponén-komponén nu geus digunakeun mangtaun-taun mimiti tina wiring titik ka titik migunakeun papan képéng nu dipasang dina sasis, maké printed circuit board sarta kiwari dipungkas ku integrated circuit. Sababaraha cara nu kungsi digunakeun nyaéta:

Kaca cabang[édit | sunting sumber]

Tempo Ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Tumbu luar[édit | sunting sumber]

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