Koronavirus

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Orthocoronavirinae
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Mikrograp éléktron virion virus bronhitis inféksius
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Gambaran virion 2019-nCoV
Klasifikasi virus e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Filum: incertae sedis
Ordo: Nidovirales
Kulawarga: Coronaviridae
Subfamili: Orthocoronavirinae
Genera[1]
Sinonim[2][3]
  • Coronavirinae

Coronavirus nyaéta golongan virus anu nyababkeun sasalad ka mamalia jeung manuk. Di manusa, ieu virus ngabalukarkeun inféksi engapan, kaasup salésma anu biasana énténg, nepi ka wangun anu jarang kayaning SARS, MERS, jeung COVID-19 anu bisa matak parna nepi ka maotna. Gejalana béda-béda di rupa-rupa spésiés: di hayam ngabalukarkeun panyakit réspiratori luhur, anapon di sapi jeung céléng ngabalukarkeun muncrut. Nepi ka kiwari, can aya vaksin atawa ubar antivirus pikeun natambaan manusa alatan ieu sasalad.

Coronavirus kaasup subkulawarga Orthocoronavirinae dina kulawarga Coronaviridae, dina ordo Nidovirales. [4] [5] Coronavirus téh virus amplopan nu boga génom RNA utas-tunggal sénse-positip sarta nukléokapsid simétri héliks. Ukuran génom coronavirus antara 26 nepi ka 32 kilobasa, panggedéna pikeun virus RNA.

Pamanggihan[édit | édit sumber]

Golongan Coronavirus anu pertama kali dipanggihkeun di taun 1965 ku Tyrell sareng Bynoe mangrupa virus B814[6]. Partikel virus anu dipanggihkeun ieu miboga ciri saperti ukuran diantara 80-150 mm, pleiomorfik ditutup ku membran, jeung boga permukaan nangtung sapertos pentung. Ilmuwan sejen manggihan sabaabaraha virus anu miboga ciri sarua jeung B814, sapertos bronkitis, hepatitis dina beurit, jeung virus gastroentritis tina babi. Ahirna, sababaraha virus ieu digolongkeun ka golongan Coronavirus[6].

Di taun taun salajengna, sababaraha virus diasupkeun kana golongan Coronavirus, sapertos virus SARS-Cov di taun 2002-2003, HCoV NL63 taun 2004, HKU1 di taun 2005, MERS-CoV di taun 2012, sareng virus SARS-CoV-2 anu kakara dipangihkeun di taun 2019. Sadaya virus ieu nyebabkeun infeksi saluran pernapasan anu parah.

Etimologi jeung Morfologi[édit | édit sumber]

Ngaran "coronavirus" asalna tina Basa Latin corona, hartina makuta atawa halo, anu nujul kana ciri partikel virusna (virion). Bagean nunjul partikelna disebat spike protein (S) anu gaduh iketan jeung reseptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Iketan diantara ACE2 jeung S ngamediasikeun interaksi virus jeung inangna[7].

Umumna, Coronavirus bentukna buleud pleiomorfik anu di sabudeureun permukaanna aya protéin anu nunjul[8]. Diaméter ti virus ieu kira-kira 120 nm[9].

Model melintang struktur Coronavirus
Struktur virion virus korona

Bagian envelope tina virus ieu disusun ti lapisan lipid ganda anu diwangun ku membran (M), envelope (E), dan spike (S). Sababaraha virus korona, hususna betacoronavirus subgrup A boga tunjulan anu leuwih pendek, anu dinamakeun hemaglutinin esterase (HE)[10]. Di jero envelope aya nukleokapsid anu diwangun ku salinan protein nukleokapsid (N), anu ngiket kana genom positive-sense single-stranded RNA dina bentukan konformasi beads-on-a-string[11][12].

Taksonomi[édit | édit sumber]

Pohon filogenetik golongan Coronavirus

Ngaran ilmiah coronavirus nyaéta Orthocoronavirinae atawa Coronavirinae. Coronavirus kaasup ka famili Coronaviridae. Coronavirus dibagi jadi opat génus[13][14]:

Transmisi[édit | édit sumber]

Umumna, virus korona nyebar ti jalma anu ngalakukeun kontak jeung jalma lain dina jarak kurang ti 6 kaki (1,82 méter) liwat tetesan cai ngandung virus anu dihasilkeun tina beresin atawa batuk[15]. Iketan antara protein ti virus jeung reseptor anu aya di jero sél jalmi ningkatkeun keparahan ti infeksi virus ieu[16]. Salah sahiji contona nyaéta virus SARS anu ngiket protein ACE2 di jero sél jalmi[17].


Rujukan[édit | édit sumber]

  1. "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Maret 2019. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 4 Maret 2018. Diakses tanggal 24 Januari 2020. 
  2. "2017.012-015S". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Oktober 2018. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (xlsx) tanggal 14 Méi 2019. Diakses tanggal 24 Januari 2020. 
  3. "ICTV Taxonomy history: Orthocoronavirinae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Diakses tanggal 24 Januari 2020. 
  4. AMQ King; E Lefkowitz; MJ Adams et al., ed. (2011). "Family Coronaviridae". Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier, Oxford. pp. 806–828. ISBN 978-0-12-384684-6. 
  5. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. "ICTV Master Species List 2009 – v10" (xls). 
  6. a b Kahn, Jeffrey S.; McIntosh, Kenneth (2005-11). "History and Recent Advances in Coronavirus Discovery:" (dalam bahasa en). The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 24 (Supplement): S223–S227. doi:10.1097/01.inf.0000188166.17324.60. ISSN 0891-3668. http://journals.lww.com/00006454-200511001-00012. 
  7. Li, Fang; Li, Wenhui; Farzan, Michael; Harrison, Stephen C. (2005-09-16). "Structure of SARS Coronavirus Spike Receptor-Binding Domain Complexed with Receptor" (dalam bahasa en). Science 309 (5742): 1864–1868. doi:10.1126/science.1116480. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 16166518. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/309/5742/1864. 
  8. Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Tatti, Kathleen M.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Comer, James A.; Lee, William W.; Rota, Paul A.; Bankamp, Bettina et al (dalam bahasa en-us). Ultrastructural Characterization of SARS Coronavirus - Volume 10, Number 2—February 2004 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC. doi:10.3201/eid1002.030913. PMC PMC3322934. PMID 15030705. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/10/2/03-0913_article. 
  9. Lai, Michael M. C.; Cavanagh, David (1997-01-01). Maramorosch, Karl; Murphy, Frederick A.; Shatkin, Aaron J., ed. Advances in Virus Research 48. Academic Press. pp. 1–100. doi:10.1016/s0065-3527(08)60286-9. 
  10. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. (2011). Virus taxonomy : ninth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Oxford: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-12-384684-6. OCLC 767516716. 
  11. Fehr, Anthony R.; Perlman, Stanley (2015). Maier, Helena Jane; Bickerton, Erica; Britton, Paul, ed. Coronaviruses: Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. New York, NY: Springer. pp. 1–23. ISBN 978-1-4939-2438-7. PMC PMC4369385 Check |pmc= value (bantuan). PMID 25720466. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7_1. 
  12. Chang, Chung-ke; Hou, Ming-Hon; Chang, Chi-Fon; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng; Huang, Tai-huang (2014-03-01). "The SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein – Forms and functions" (dalam bahasa en). Antiviral Research 103: 39–50. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.12.009. ISSN 0166-3542. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166354213003781. 
  13. "International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Diakses tanggal 2020-03-17. 
  14. Fan, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Shi, Zheng-Li; Zhou, Peng (2019/3). "Bat Coronaviruses in China" (dalam bahasa en). Viruses 11 (3): 210. doi:10.3390/v11030210. PMC PMC6466186. PMID 30832341. https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/11/3/210. 
  15. CDC. "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) - Transmission". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (dalam en-us). Diakses tanggal 2020-03-20. 
  16. Masters, Paul S. (2006-01-01). Advances in Virus Research 66. Academic Press. pp. 193–292. doi:10.1016/s0065-3527(06)66005-3. 
  17. Cui, Jie; Li, Fang; Shi, Zheng-Li (2019-03). "Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses" (dalam bahasa en). Nature Reviews Microbiology 17 (3): 181–192. doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0118-9. ISSN 1740-1534. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41579-018-0118-9. 

Tutumbu kaluar[édit | édit sumber]

Classification



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