Nagara Islam Irak jeung Syam

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Nagara Islam Irak jeung Syam (NIIS atawa ISIL; Basa Arab: الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام‎), dipikawanoh ogé ku sebutan Nagara Islam Irak jeung Suriah (NIIS atawa ISIS), Nagara Islam Irak jeung asy-Syam,[1] Daesh, atawa Nagara Islam (NI atawa IS),[2] nyaéta kelompok militan jihadiyah salafiyah Wahhabi.[3] NIIS dipingpin sarta didominasi ku Arab Sunni ti Irak jeung Suriah.[4] {{NIIS ngawasaan wewengkon nu pangeusina 10 juta urang di Irak jeung Suriah.[4] NIIS ogé ngawasaan saeutik wewengkon di Libya, Nigéria, jeung Afghanistan.[4] NISS ogé gawé bareng jeung babaraha nagara di sakuliah dunya, di antarana Afrika Kalér jeung Asia Kulon.[5][6][7][8][9]

Dina istilah bahasa arab NIIS dipikawanoh ku ngaran Daesh (داعشdāʿish, IPA: [ˈdaːʕiʃ]), nu mana ieu ngaran téh mangrupa singgetan tina ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām (الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام‎).[10] Tanggal 29 Juni 2014, ieu kelompok ngaklaim yén manéhna minangka nagara Islam sakaligus minangka kaholifahan dunya anu dipingpin ku Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi minangka holifahna sarta ngarobah ngaran jadi ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah (الدولة الإسلامية, "Nagara Islam" (NI)).[4] Minangka kaholifahan, NIIS ngaklaim dina ngatur agama, pulitik, sarta militér pikeun sakabéh muslim di sakuilah dunia, ogé "kaabsahan sakabéh kaamiran, kelompok, nagara, jeung organisasi téh teu diaku deui sanggeus ieu kakawasaan khilafah ngalegaan jeung pasukanna nepi di wewengkon maranéhna".[1][4][11][12] Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa nyebut yén NIIS téh geus ngalanggar hak asasi manusa jeung kajahatan perang.[4]Amnésti Internasional ngalaporkeun yén NIIS geus ngabersihan étnis "nu skalana gedé pisan".[4] NIIS dicap minangka organisasi téroris ku PBB, Uni Éropah jeung nagara-nagara anggotana, Amérika Serikat, India, Indonésia, Israél, Turki, Arab Saudi, Suriah, jeung nagara-nagara séjén.[4] Para inohong muslim di sakuliah dunya ngutuk idéologi jeung aksi-aksi NIIS; sarta ngedalkeun yén ieu kelompok téh geus jauh tina ajaran Islam anu saéstuna jeung sagala lalampahanna teu ngeunteungkeun ajaran atawa niléy-niléy anu dibawa ieu agama.[13][14]

Rujukan[édit | édit sumber]

  1. a b Tharoor, Ishaan (Citakan:ISO date/en). "ISIS or ISIL? The debate over what to call Iraq's terror group". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2014/06/18/isis-or-isil-the-debate-over-what-to-call-iraqs-terror-group/?_ga=1.75244306.1823250761.1403224335. Diakses pada 23 Januari 2016 
  2. "What is Islamic State?". BBC News. Citakan:ISO date/en. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29052144. Diakses pada 23 Januari 2016 
  3. Fouad al-Ibrahim (Citakan:ISO date/fr2). "Why ISIS is a threat to Saudi Arabia: Wahhabism’s deferred promise". Al Akhbar. http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/21234 
  4. a b c d e f g h "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi: The man who would be caliph". The Week. Citakan:ISO date/en. http://theweek.com/article/index/267920/abu-bakr-al-baghdadi-the-man-who-would-be-caliph. Diakses pada 23 Januari 2016 
  5. "Kurds accused of 'ethnic cleansing' by Syria rebels". CBS News. Citakan:ISO date/en. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/kurds-accused-ethnic-cleansing-syria-rebels-isis/. Diakses pada 23 Januari 2016 
    Islamic State is not a state, since it lacks international recognition. See: "Statehood (international law)". Wex. Cornell University. Diakses tanggal 1/23/2016. 
  6. "Islamic State-controlled parts of Syria, Iraq largely out of reach: Red Cross". Reuters. Citakan:ISO date/en. http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/03/13/us-mideast-crisis-syria-icrc-idUSKBN0M921N20150313. Diakses pada 23 Januari 2016 
  7. "Exclusive: In turf war with Afghan Taliban, Islamic State loyalists gain ground". Reuters. Citakan:ISO date/en. http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/06/29/us-afghanistan-islamic-state-idUSKCN0P91EN20150629. Diakses pada 23 Januari 2016 
  8. "Militant Attack and Support Zones in Afghanistan". Institute for the Study of War. Citakan:ISO date/en. http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/Militant%20Sanctuary%20in%20Afghanistan%20Map_090915%20%283%29_0.pdf. Diakses pada 23 Januari 2016 
  9. "Pakistan Taliban splinter group vows allegiance to Islamic State". Reuters. Citakan:ISO date/en. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/18/us-pakistan-militants-is-idUSKCN0J20YQ20141118. Diakses pada 23 Januari 2016 
  10. Guthrie, Alice (2/19/2015). "Decoding Daesh: Why is the new name for ISIS so hard to understand?". Free Word Centre. Diakses tanggal 1/23/2016. 
  11. Withnall, Adam (Citakan:ISO date/en). "Iraq crisis: Isis changes name and declares its territories a new Islamic state with 'restoration of caliphate' in Middle East". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/isis-declares-new-islamic-state-in-middle-east-with-abu-bakr-albaghdadi-as-emir-removing-iraq-and-syria-from-its-name-9571374.html. Diakses pada 29 June 2014 
  12. Roggio, Bill (Citakan:ISO date/en). "ISIS announces formation of Caliphate, rebrands as 'Islamic State'". Long War Journal. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/06/isis_announces_formation_of_ca.php 
  13. al-Taie, Khalid. "Iraq churches, mosques under ISIL attack". Al-Shorfa. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 19 February 2015. Diakses tanggal 27 February 2015. 
  14. Hasan, Mehdi. Mehdi Hasan: How Islamic is Islamic State?. New Statesman. Retrieved on 23 Januari 2016.
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