James Bond

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Sean Connery sebagai pemeran pertama karakter James Bond.
Pierce Brosnan sebagai pemeran James Bond kelima.

James Bond 007 (leuwih terkenal ku sebatan James Bond, Agen 007 atanapi JB) mangrupakeun salahsa hiji karakter fiksi nu diciptakeun taun 1953 ku panulis Inggris, Ian Fleming, dimana karakter ieu saterasna muncul dina dua belas novel daring dua koleksi carita pondok versi asli.[1] Karakter ieu teras dianggo dina waralaba media film terlaris jeung tersukses di dunya sampai ka kiwari, dimimiti taun 1962 dina Dr. No.[2][3][4]

Saatos Fleming tilar dunya di taun 1964, panulisan novel James Bond diteraskeun ku Kingsley Amis (sabagai Robert Markham), John Pearson, John Gardner, Raymond Benson jeung Sebastian Faulks. Salain ti eta, Christopher Wood menovelisasi dua film janten novel, Charlie Higson menulis carita tentang Young James Bond, sareng beberapa penulis lain meunang hak kapercayaan keur ngembangkeun carita James Bond non-resmi.[5]

Aya 22 film nu dirilis jeung kaasup dina seri produksi "resmi" EON Productions, nu terakhir jeung paling anyar nyaeta Quantum of Solace nu dirilis kaping 31 Oktober 2008 (keur kawasan Inggris).[6][7] Salain ti versi EON, pihak produser lain oge nyobaan ngadamel sareng ngembangkeu carita James Bond dina beberapa variasi, nyaeta dina sandiwara radio, komik, dan video game.

Film-film produksi EON Productions disebat oge sabagai film resmi (official), saatos hak produksinya dipeser ku produser Harry Saltzman di akhir 1950-an.[8]

Sejarah dan inspirasi[édit | sunting sumber]

Komandan Sir James Bond, (KCMG, RNVR) nyaeta mangrupakeun saorang agen rahasia intelejen Inggris (Secret Intelligence Service, disingkat SIS, atanapi disebat oge sabagai MI6). Anjeunna diciptakan di sasih Januari 1952 ku jurnalis Inggris, Ian Fleming ketika anjeunna sedang berlibur di Jamaika. Nami James Bond dicandak tina saorang ahli burung asal AS, oge tina saorang pengamat manuk ti Karibia.[9]

Roger Moore, pemeran ketiga James Bond setelah George Lazenby.

Kolot James Bond nyaeta Andrew Bond, saorang Skotlandia, jeung Monique Delacroix nu asalna ti Canton de Vaud, Swiss. Asal ti kaduana disebatkeun dina On Her Majesty's Secret Service. Fleming nambihkeun unsur Skotlandia ka James Bond saatos anjeunna ninggali karakter Sean Connery dina Dr. No. Samentara karakter Swiss ditambihkeun ku sabab Ian Fleming masih keneh miboga darah Swiss.[10] Hiji rencana, tapi gagal direalisasikeun, sempat Fleming pikirkeun nyaeta nulis sebuah novel Bond nu nyaritakeun asal usul ibunda Bond. Dina biografi fiksi tentang agen 007, John Pearson mere poean lahir Bond di 11 November 1920 (Hari Gencatan Senjata). Bagian awal dina film "For Your Eyes Only" mere katerangan yen istrina James Bond lahir di 1943. Dina You Only Live Twice Tanaka nerangkeun ka Bond bahwa ia babar di Year of the Rat (1924/25 atanapi 1912/13). Dina novel On Her Majesty's Secret Service, slogan kulawarga Bond nyaeta "Orbis non sufficit" ("The world is not enough" – Dunia saja tidaklah cukup).[11]

Novel dan sejenisnya[édit | sunting sumber]

Bulan Februari 1952, Ian Fleming mimitian nulis James Bond. Saat itu anjeunna sedang ngajabat sabagai manajer keur harian Kemsley, nu mangrupakan induk perusahaan ti The Daily Express di London. Sateuacan narima tawaran jabatan manajer, Fleming sempet ngajukeun salah satu syarat, nyaeta dua sasih liburan dina sataun dina kontrak kerjanya tersebut. Ketika anjeunna ngadapatkeun waktos berliburnya tersebut, anjeunna lantas milih Jamaika, dimana akhirnya anjeunna nemukeun inspirasi keur nulis James Bond. Antara 1953 sampai hari wafatna di taun 1964, Fleming atos nulis jeung nerbitkeun 12 novel jeung hiji carita pendek (hijina deui diterbitkeun saatos wafatna Fleming). Salanjutna kalanjutan novel James Bond ditulis ku Kingsley Amis (sabagai Robert Markham), John Gardner, Charlie Higson, Raymond Benson, nu kemudian janten orang non-Inggris pertama nu janten pangarang James Bond (Benson berasal ti AS). Hiji deui kisah lain, judulna The Young Bond series dimimiti taun 2005 ku Charlie Higson.[12][13]

Bulan Juli 2007, diumumkeun bahwa Sebastian Faulks atos ngadapet izin keur nulis beberapa novel James Bond anyar, salahsahijina keur ngenang 100 taun kalahiran Ian Fleming. Buku 100 tahun Fleming tersebut berjudul Devil May Care, diterbitkan jeung dirilis sacara resmi kaping 27 Mei 2008.

Novel Ian Fleming[édit | sunting sumber]

Adaptasi[édit | sunting sumber]

Produksi EON[édit | sunting sumber]

Film buatan EON Productions dimimiti taun 1962 ku Dr. No. Saterasna sampai ka kiwari tos aya 22 film nu dirilis ku EON Productions. Film-film buatan EON Productions disebat sabagai film resmi, ku sabab hak film eta tos dipeser ku produser Harry Saltzman sejak akhir 1950-an.

Nomor Judul Tahun Aktor Sutradara Total Box Office Anggaran Penyesuaian Inflasi
Total Box Office**
1 Dr. No 1962 Sean Connery Terence Young $59.600.000 $1.200.000 $425.488.741
2 From Russia with Love 1963 $78.900.000 $2.500.000 $555.909.803
3 Goldfinger 1964 Guy Hamilton $124.900.000 $3.500.000 $868.659.354
4 Thunderball 1965 Terence Young $141.200.000 $11.000.000 $966.435.555
5 You Only Live Twice 1967 Lewis Gilbert $111.600.000 $9.500.000 $720.388.023
6 On Her Majesty's Secret Service 1969 George Lazenby Peter R. Hunt $87.400.000 $7.000.000 $513.445.231
7 Diamonds Are Forever 1971 Sean Connery Guy Hamilton $116.000.000 $7.200.000 $617.520.987
8 Live and Let Die 1973 Roger Moore $161.800.000 $12.000.000 $785.677.477
9 The Man with the Golden Gun 1974 $97.600.000 $13.000.000 $426.826.774
10 The Spy Who Loved Me 1977 Lewis Gilbert $187.300.000 $28.000.000 $666.367.656
11 Moonraker 1979 $210.300.000 $34.000.000 $624.527.272
12 For Your Eyes Only 1981 John Glen $202.800.000 $28.000.000 $481.005.579
13 Octopussy 1983 $187.500.000 $27.500.000 $405.873.493
14 A View to a Kill 1985 $157.800.000 $30.000.000 $316.186.616
15 The Living Daylights 1987 Timothy Dalton $191.200.000 $40.000.000 $362.876.056
16 Licence to Kill 1989 $156.200.000 $42.000.000 $271.586.451
17 GoldenEye 1995 Pierce Brosnan Martin Campbell $353.400.000 $60.000.000 $499.954.330
18 Tomorrow Never Dies 1997 Roger Spottiswoode $346.600.000 $110.000.000 $465.588.535
19 The World Is Not Enough 1999 Michael Apted $390.000.000 $135.000.000 $504.705.882
20 Die Another Day 2002 Lee Tamahori $456.000.000 $142.000.000 $546.490.272
21 Casino Royale 2006 Daniel Craig Martin Campbell $599.200.000 $150.000.000 $640.803.677
22 Quantum of Solace 2008 Marc Forster $515.588.687 $230.000.000 $515.588.687
Total Film 1-22 $4.739.157.447 $1.123.000.000 $11.615.711.960

* Data kaping 6 Mei 2007 (sumber - commanderbond.net).
** Data ngarujuk kana kurs dollar taun 2008, tepatna kaping 24 Maret 2008, sumber dari Consumer Price Index.
*** Semua data dina Dollar AS[28]

Sanes EON-Productions[édit | sunting sumber]

Salain produksi EON, aya oge sababarahiji carita James Bond dina bentuk sandiwara radio, film TV sareng film layar lebar nu dijieun ku produser lain.

Tahun Judul Type Aktor Total Box Office Anggaran Penyesuaian Inflasi
Total Box Office**
1954 Casino Royale Episode TV Barry Nelson n/a $25.000 n/a
1956 Moonraker Radio Bob Holness n/a n/a
1967 Casino Royale Film David Niven $44.400.000 $12.000.000 $286.605.987
1983 Never Say Never Again Film Sean Connery $160.000.000 $36.000.000 $346.345.380
1990 You Only Live Twice Radio Michael Jayston n/a n/a
1991 James Bond Jr. Serial kartun TV Corey Burton n/a n/a
2008 Dr. No Radio Toby Stephens n/a n/a
Total $204.400.000 $48.000.000 $602.860.000

Aktor[édit | sunting sumber]

Produksi resmi EON[édit | sunting sumber]

Produksi non-resmi[édit | sunting sumber]

Catatan kaki[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. Understanding 007. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
  2. Copyright 1998-2007. "MI6:: The Home Of James Bond 007". Mi6.co.uk. Diakses pada 6 Januari 2009. 
  3. By. "'Harry Potter' toots box office horn - Entertainment News, Los Angeles, Media - Variety", Variety.com, 2008-12-30. Disalin 2009-01-06.
  4. Agent James Bond 007 - Quantum of Solace
  5. Copyright 1998-2007. "MI6:: The Home Of James Bond 007", Mi6.co.uk, 1953-04-13. Disalin 2009-01-06.
  6. "BBC NEWS | Entertainment | New Bond film title is confirmed". BBC News. 24 Januari 2008. Diakses pada 6 Januari 2009. 
  7. "BBC NEWS | Entertainment | Next Bond film gets early release". BBC News. 19 Maret 2008. Diakses pada 6 Januari 2009. 
  8. Winder, Simon (2006). The Man Who Saved Britain, Picador.
  9. Chancellor, Henry (2005). James Bond: The Man and His World, John Murray.
  10. Zacharek, Stephanie, "Bond, by the book | Salon Books", Salon.com, 2006-11-25. Disalin 2009-01-06.
  11. "Biography of the Literary James Bond". 
  12. "Charlie Higson interview with CommanderBond.net". The Charlie Higson CBn Interview. Diakses pada 23 Pébruari 2005. 
  13. Benson, Raymond (1984). The James Bond Bedside Companion, Dodd, Mead.
  14. Fleming, Ian (13 April 1953). Ian Fleming Publications Inc. Casino Royale, Jonathan Cape.
  15. Fleming, Ian (5 April 1954). Ian Fleming Publications Inc. Live and Let Die, Jonathan Cape.
  16. Fleming, Ian (7 April 1955). Ian Fleming Publications Inc. Moonraker, Jonathan Cape.
  17. Fleming, Ian (26 March 1956). Ian Fleming Publications Inc. Diamonds Are Forever, Jonathan Cape.
  18. Fleming, Ian (8 April 1957). Ian Fleming Publications Inc. From Russia with Love, Jonathan Cape.
  19. Fleming, Ian (31 March 1958). Ian Fleming Publications Inc. Dr. No, Jonathan Cape.
  20. Fleming, Ian (23 March 1959). Ian Fleming Publications Inc. Goldfinger, Jonathan Cape.
  21. Fleming, Ian (11 April 1960). Ian Fleming Publications Inc. For Your Eyes Only, Jonathan Cape.
  22. Fleming, Ian (27 March 1961). Ian Fleming Publications Inc. Thunderball, Jonathan Cape.
  23. Fleming, Ian (16 April 1962). Ian Fleming Publications Inc. The Spy Who Loved Me, Jonathan Cape.
  24. Fleming, Ian (1 April 1963). Ian Fleming Publications Inc. On Her Majesty's Secret Service, Jonathan Cape.
  25. Fleming, Ian (16 March 1964). Ian Fleming Publications Inc. You Only Live Twice, Jonathan Cape.
  26. Fleming, Ian (1 April 1965). Ian Fleming Publications Inc. The Man with the Golden Gun, Jonathan Cape.
  27. Fleming, Ian (1966). Ian Fleming Publications Inc. Octopussy and The Living Daylights, Jonathan Cape.
  28. Bond franchise Box Office numbers, [1], Casino Royale Box Office numbers (1967), Box Office numbers + Inflation

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]

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