Sarébu Hiji Peuting

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Buku Sarébu Hiji Peuting (basa Pérsia: هزار افسانه Hezār Afsaneh atawa Hezār wa-Yek Shab, Basa Arab: كتاب ألف ليلة و ليلةKitāb 'Alf Layla wa-Layla; atawa kasohor ogé minangka The Book of a Thousand Nights and a Night, One Thousand and One Nights, 1001 Arabian Nights, Arabian Nights, The Nightly Entertainments atawa basajanna The Nights) mangrupakeun épik sastra Wétan Tengah abad pertengahan nu nyaritakeun kisah Scheherazade (Shahrzad dina basa Pérsia), ratu Sassanid, nu kudu ngahubungkeun rangkéan sajarah ka salakina nu dengki, Raja Shahryar, pikeun nunda éksekusi. Kisah ieu dicaritakeun salila leuwih ti sarébu hiji peuting, sarta unggal peuting sang Ratu nungtungan carita ku kaayaan nu ngagantung, nu maksa Raja ngingkeun Ratu sina hirup nepi ka poé satuluyna. Kisah ieu dijieun leuwih ti mangabad-abad katukang, ku loba jelema tur loba gaya, sarta geus jadi kacida kasohorna. Conto nu kacatet kaasup diantarana Aladin, Ali Baba jeung Opat puluh Rampog, sarta Tujuh Palayaran Sinbad si Palaut.

Sajarah[édit | sunting sumber]

Inti sajarah diwangun ku buku basa Pérsia Sassanid Pahlavi nu disebut Hazār Afsānah[1] ("Sarébu Mitos", dina basa Pérsia: هزارافسانه). Salila kakawasaan khalifah Abbasiyah Harun al-Rashid dina abad ka-8, Baghdad geus jadi kota kosmopolitan penting. Sodagar-sodagar ti Pérsia, Cina, India, Afrika, jeung Éropa sakabéhna bisa pinanggih di Baghdad. Hal ieu nu ngajadikeun salila mangsa ieu, loba carita, nu sabenerna mah carita kuno, kapikir pikeun dikumpulkeun tina biwir ka biwir salila mangtaun-taun sarta satuluyna dikumpulkeun jadi hiji buku. Panyusun jeung panarjamah kana basa Arab pangahirna nyaéta tukang dongéng nu kasohor Abu abd-Allah Muhammed el-Gahshigar dina abad ka-9. Sajarah karangka Shahrzad katingali ditambahkeun dina abad ka-14. Susunan basa Arab modéren munggaran, dijieun ku panulis Mesir, diterbitkeun di Kairo taun 1835.

Sinopsis[édit | sunting sumber]

Carita nyokot tempat nalika jaman Sassanid sarta dimimitian ku raja Pérsia Shahryar. Raja maréntah pulo nu euweuh ngaranan "antara India jeung Cina" (dina édisi modéren dumasar naskah basa Arab, raja maréntah India jeung Cina). Nalika Shahryar nganyahoankeun yén istrina jeung kabogohna boga niat maéhan manéhna, éta pasangan téh ahirna diéksekusi. Alatan raja boga kayakinan yén kabéh awéwé bakal kawas kitu hianatna, raja nugaskeun vizier-na pikeun méré sang raja pamajikan anyar unggal peuting (dina sababaraha vérsi, unggal tilu peuting). Sanggeus méakkeun sapeuting jeung panganténna, éta pamajikan anyar téh diéksekusi nalika subuh. Prakték ieu nerus keur sababaraha lilana, nepikeun ka anak awéwé vizier nu pinter Sheherazade ("Scheherazade" dina basa Ingggris, atawa "Shahrastini", ngaran basa Pérsia) ngarencanakeun sarta jadi sukarélawati pikeun jadi garwa raja satuluyna. Kalayan bantuan dulurna Dunyazad, unggal peuting sanggeus pernikahannana, ieu wanoja téh ngadongéng keur raja mangjam-jam lilana, tapi unggal nepi ka subuh, dongéng diahiran ku carita nu ngagantung, nu nyababkeun raja panasaran hayang ngadéngé kumaha sésa dongéng satuluyna. Ahirna, Sheherazade bisa nepikeun ka ngalahirkeun tilu budak lalaki. Raja yakin kana kasatiaannana sarta ahirna raja nyabut putusannana.

Dongéng ieu loba rupana; ngawengku dongéng sajarah, cinta, tragédi, komédi, sajak, burlesque jeung legenda rélijieus Muslim. Sababaraha carita nu kasohor dina tarjamah kulon nyaéta Lampu Aladin, Sindbad si Palaut urang Pérsia, jeung dongéng Ali Baba jeung Opat puluh Rampog; Aladin jeung Ali Baba paktana diasupkeun ngan dina abad ka-18 ku Antoine Galland, oriéntalis Perancis, nu ngaku kungsi ngadéngé dongéng ieu liwat lisan ti tukang dongéng Maronite ti Aleppo di Syria. Mangjumlah-jumlah carita ngagambarkeun jin, méjik, jeung tempat legendaris, numana sering nyampur jeung jalma beneran sarta géografina; kholifah Harun al-Rasyid mangrupakeun protagonis nu ilahar, saperti ogé tukang sajak pangadilanana Abu Nuwas sarta vizierna, Ja'far al-Barmaki. Kadang-kaadng karakter dina dongeng Scheherazade mimiti nyaritakeun karakter lianna minangka carita soranganana, sarta carita eta bisa jadi nu lian nyaritakeun oge, hasilna tekstur naratifna jadi manglapis-lapis lobana.

Dina peuting pamungkas (kasarebu hiji) Sheherazade ngahadiahan Sang Raja ku tilu urang anakna sarta menta ampunan. Raja ngabulkeun pamentana sarta maranehannana hirup dina suka bungah jeung kagumbiraan.

Édisi[édit | sunting sumber]

Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

The work is made up of a collection of stories thought to be from traditional Persian, Arabic, and Indian stories. The core stories probably originated in an Iranic Empire and were brought together in a Persian work called Hazar Afsanah ("A Thousand Legends"). The Arabic compilation Alf Layla (A Thousand Nights), originating about 850 AD, was in turn probably an abridged translation of Hezar Afsaneh. Some of its elements appear in the Odyssey. The present name Alf Layla wa-Layla (literally a "A Thousand Nights and a Night", i.e. "1001 Nights") seems to have appeared at an unknown time in the Middle Ages, and expresses the idea of a transfinite number since 1000 represented conceptual infinity within Arabic mathematical circles.

The first European version (and first printed edition) was a translation into French (1704 - 1717) by Antoine Galland from an earlier compilation that was written in Arabic. This 12 volume book, Les Mille et une nuits, contes arabes traduits en français ("Thousand and one nights, Arab stories translated into French") probably included Arabic stories known to the translator but not included in the Arabic compilation. Aladdin's Lamp and Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves appeared first in Galland's translation and cannot be found in the original writings. He wrote that he heard them from a Syrian Christian storyteller from Aleppo, a Maronite scholar, Youhenna Diab, whom he called 'Hanna'.

John Payne, Alaeddin and the Enchanted Lamp and Other Stories, (London 1901) gives details of Galland's encounter with 'Hanna' in 1709 and of the discovery in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris of two Arabic manuscripts containing Aladdin and two more of the 'interpolated' tales. He instances Galland's own experience to demonstrate the lack of regard for such entertainments in the mainstream of Islamic scholarship, with the result that

…complete copies of the genuine work were rarely to be met with, collections… and the fragmentary copies which existed were mostly in the hands of professional story-tellers, who were extremely unwilling to part with them, looking upon them as their stock in trade, and were in the habit of incorporating with the genuine text all kinds of stories and anecdotes from other sources, to fill the place of the missing portions of the original work. This process of addition and incorporation, which has been in progress ever since the first collection of the Nights into one distinct work and is doubtless still going on in Oriental countries, (especially such as are least in contact with European influence,) may account for the heterogeneous character of the various modern manuscripts of the Nights and for the immense difference which exists between the several texts, as well in actual contents as in the details and diction of such stories as are common to all.

Perhaps the best-known translation to English speakers is that by Sir Richard Francis Burton, entitled The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (1885). Unlike previous editions, his ten volume translation was not bowdlerized. Though printed in the Victorian era, it contained all the erotic nuances of the source material, replete with sexual imagery and pederastic allusions added as appendices to the main stories by Burton. Burton circumvented strict Victorian laws on obscene material by printing an edition for subscribers only rather than formally publishing the book. The original ten volumes were followed by a further six entitled The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Night which were printed between 1886 and 1888.

More recent versions are that of the French doctor J. C. Mardrus, translated into English by Powys Mathers, and, notably, a critical edition based on the 14th century Syrian manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, compiled in Arabic by Muhsin Mahdi and rendered into English by Husain Haddawy, the most accurate and elegant of all to this date.

The Book of One Thousand and One Nights has an estranged cousin: The Manuscript Found in Saragossa, by Jan Potocki. A Polish noble of the late 18th century, he traveled the Orient looking for an original edition of The Book... but never found it. Upon returning to Europe, he wrote his masterpiece, a multi-leveled frame tale.

Adaptasi[édit | sunting sumber]

Film jeung televisi[édit | sunting sumber]

There have been many adaptations of the Nights, for both television and the big screen, with varying degrees of faithfulness to the original stories.

The atmosphere of the Nights influenced such films as Fritz Lang's 1921 Der müde Tod, the 1924 Hollywood film The Thief of Bagdad starring Douglas Fairbanks, and its 1940 British remake. It also influenced The Adventures of Prince Achmed (1926), the first surviving feature-length animated film.

One of Hollywood's first feature films to be based on the Nights was in 1942, with the movie named Arabian Nights. It starred Maria Montez as Scheherazade, Sabu Dastagir as Ali Ben Ali and Jon Hall as Harun al-Rashid. The storyline bears virtually no resemblance to the traditional version of the Nights. In the film Scheherazade is a dancer, who attempts to overthrow Caliph Harun al-Rashid and marry his brother. Unfortunately Scheherazade’s initial coup attempt fails and she is sold into slavery, many adventures then ensue. Maria Montez and Jon Hall also starred in the 1944 film Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves.

The 1980s "1001 Erotic Nights", starring Annette Haven as Scheherazade and John Leslie as Shahryar, was supposedly the first X-rated movie with a million-dollar budget.

The most commercially successful movie based on the Nights was Aladdin, the 1992 animated movie by the Walt Disney Company, which starred Scott Weinger and Robin Williams. The film led to several sequels and a television series of the same name.

The Voyages of Sinbad have been adapted for television and film several times, the most recent of which was in the 2003 animated feature Sinbad: Legend of the Seven Seas, which starred Brad Pitt and Catherine Zeta-Jones. Perhaps the most famous Sinbad film was the 1958 movie The Seventh Voyage of Sinbad, produced by the stop-motion animation pioneer Ray Harryhausen.

A recent well-received television adaptation was the Emmy award winning miniseries Arabian Nights, directed by Steve Barron and starring Mili Avital as Scheherazade and Dougray Scott as Shahryar. It was originally shown over two nights on April 30, and May 1, 2000 on ABC in the United States and BBC One in the United Kingdom.

Other notable versions of the Nights include the famous 1974 Italian movie Il fiore delle mille e una notte by Pier Paolo Pasolini and the 1990 French movie Les 1001 nuits, which starred Catherine Zeta-Jones as Scheherazade. There are also numerous Bollywood movies, such as Aladdin and Sinbad in which the two named heroes get to meet and share in each other's adventures; in this version, the lamp's djin is female and Aladdin marries her rather than the princess (she becomes a mortal woman for his sake).

Musik[édit | sunting sumber]

In 1888, Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov completed his Op. 35 Scheherazade, in four movements, based upon four of the tales from the Arabian Nights; The Sea and Sinbad's Ship, The Kalendar Prince, The Young Prince and The Young Princess, and Festival At Baghdad.

In 1975, the band Renaissance released an album called Scheherazade and Other Stories. The second half of this album consists entirely of the Song Of Scheherazade, an orchestral-rock composition based on the Arabian Nights stories.

In 2003, Nordic experimental indie pop group When released an album called "Pearl Harvest" with lyrics from Arabian Nights. "Ebony Horse", "Goose poor Goose, "Prince Kamar" and "Keys" are all taken directly from Arabian Nights. The music is also an ironic reflection on it, combining Beach Boys rock & roll with plunderphonics.

Catetan[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. Abdul Hussein Sayyidian, "Lemah cai jeung Rahayat Iran" p. 447

Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Tumbu luar[édit | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]

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Tumbu film jeung televisi[édit | sunting sumber]