Éropa

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Perenah buana Éropa dina peta dunya

Éropa nyaéta salasahiiji tina tujuh buana tradisional di Marcapada. Sacara fisik jeung géologis, Éropa mangrupakeun semenanjung pangkulonna tina Érasia, di kuloneun Asia. Éropa diwatesan ku Samudra Arktik di beulah kaléreunnana, Samudra Atlantik di kuloneunnana, Laut Méditerania di kiduleunnana, sarta di wétan kidulna ku jalan cai nu ngahubungkeun Méditerania kana jeung kaasup Laut Hideung jeung PAgunungan Kaukasus. DI beulah wétanna, Éropa kapisahkeun ti Asia ku babagian cai Pagunungan Ural jeung Laut Kaspia.

Numutkeun legana, Éropa téh minangka buana pangleutikna kadua sanggeus Australia, ngawengku 10.400.000 kilométer pasagi atawa 2,0% tina beungeut Bumi. Numutkeun populasina, ieu buana téh katilu pangbadagna (sanggeus Asia jeung Aprika) kalawan populasi 710 juta atawa kira 11% ti populasi sadunya.

Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

However, the term continent can refer to a cultural and political distinction or a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europe's precise borders, area, and population.

The European Union – comprising 27 member states, and 3 candidates in accession negotiations (Republic of Macedonia,Turkey and Croatia) – is the largest political and economic entity covering the European continent, while Russia (excluding portions in Asia) is the second largest entity and Europe's largest state in area and population. The European Union also featured the world's largest economy with an estimated nominal GDP of 13.4 trillion USD.[1]

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Étimologi[édit | sunting sumber]

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In Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess who was abducted by Zeus in bull form and taken to the island of Crete, where she gave birth to Minos. For Homer, Europe (Greek: Εὐρώπη Eurṓpē; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was a mythological queen of Crete, not a geographical designation. Later Europa stood for mainland Greece, and by 500 BC its meaning had been extended to lands to the north.

In etymology one theory suggests the name Europe is derived from the Greek words meaning broad (eurys) and face (ops) – broad having been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion; see Prithvi (Plataia). A minority, however, suggest this Greek popular etymology is really based on a Semitic word such as the Akkadian erebu meaning "sunset"[2] (see also Erebus). From the Middle Eastern vantagepoint, the sun does set over Europe, the lands to the west. Likewise, Asia is sometimes thought to have derived from a Semitic word such as the Akkadian asu, meaning "sunrise",[3] and is the land to the east from a Middle Eastern perspective.

The majority of major world languages use words derived from "Europa" to refer to the continent – e.g. Chinese uses the word Ōuzhōu (歐洲), which is an abbreviation of the transliterated name Ōuluóbā zhōu (歐羅巴洲).

Sajarah[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Sajarah Éropa.

The origins of Western democratic and individualistic culture are often attributed to Ancient Greece, though numerous other distinct influences, in particular Christianity, can also be credited with the spread of concepts such as egalitarianism and universality of law.

After the decline of the Roman Empire, Europe entered a long period of changes arising from what is known as the Age of Migrations. That period has been known as the "Dark Ages" to Renaissance thinkers. Isolated monastic communities in Ireland and elsewhere carefully safeguarded and compiled written knowledge accumulated previously.

During this time, the western part of the Roman Empire was "reborn" as the Holy Roman Empire, later called Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The eastern part of the Roman Empire became known in the west as the Byzantine Empire. The 'Byzantines' themselves still called themselves Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Romaiōn - the Empire of the Romans. In 1453, when the Ottoman Empire conquered the Byzantine capital Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire ceased to exist, with a small hold out state of Trebizond which lasted until 1461.

The Renaissance and the New Monarchs marked the start of a period of discovery, exploration, and increase in scientific knowledge. In the 15th century, Portugal opened the age of discoveries, soon followed by Spain. They were later joined by France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom in building large colonial empires with vast holdings in Africa, the Americas, and Asia.

After the age of discovery, the ideas of democracy took hold in Europe. Struggles for independence arose, most notably in France during the period known as the French Revolution. This led to vast upheaval in Europe as these revolutionary ideas propagated across the continent. The rise of democracy led to increased tension within Europe on top of the tension already existing due to competition within the New World. The most famous of these conflicts happened when Napoleon Bonaparte rose to power and set out on a conquest, forming a new French Empire, which soon collapsed. After these conquests Europe stabilised, but the old foundations were already beginning to crumble.

The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain in the late 18th century, leading to a move away from agriculture, much greater general prosperity and a corresponding increase in population. Many of the states in Europe took their present form in the aftermath of World War I. From the end of World War II through the end of the Cold War, Europe was divided into two major political and economic blocks: Communist nations in Eastern Europe and Capitalist countries in Southern Europe, Northern Europe and Western Europe. About 1990, with the fall of the Berlin Wall, the wider Iron Curtain, and the Soviet Union the Eastern Block disintegrated.

European integration has been a theme in European relations since the end of the second World War, and has accelerated since the end of the Cold War. The European Union, the successor to the European Community, has enlarged from 6 original founding members to 27 today. The potential admission of Turkey is contentious, as it involves a transcontinental country with a predominantly Muslim population. Turkey is also in dispute with an existing member, Greece, over the future of Cyprus. Negotiations are therefore expected to be lengthy. The European Union has developed from a trade-oriented organisation into one resembling a confederation in a number of respects. European membership of NATO has also increased since the end of the Cold War, with the admission of number of Eastern European countries.

Géografi jeung legana[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Géografi Éropa.
Europe at its furthest extent, reaching to the Urals.
Political map (neighbouring countries in Asia and Africa also shown)
Mount Elbrus, the highest mountain in Europe.
Shoreline in Mediterranean Greece.
View of the Caucasus Mountains in Svaneti, Georgia
Dettifoss, the most powerful waterfall in Europe, is located in northeastern Iceland.
Thorsmork in Iceland in the fall

Physiographically, Europe is the northwestern constituent of the larger landmass known as Eurasia, or Africa-Eurasia: Asia occupies the eastern bulk of this continuous landmass (save the Suez Canal separating Asia and Africa) and all share a common continental shelf. Europe's eastern frontier is now commonly delineated by the Ural Mountains in Russia (Strabo, Geography 11.1, took the Tanais River to be the boundary, as did early Judaic sources). The south-east boundary with Asia is not universally defined. Most commonly the Ural or, alternatively, the Emba River serve as possible boundaries. The boundary continues to the Caspian Sea, the crest of the Caucasus Mountains or, alternatively, the Kura River in the Caucasus, and on to the Black Sea; the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles conclude the Asian boundary. However, numerous geographers consider Azerbaijan's and Armenia's southern border with Iran and Turkey's southern and eastern border with Syria, Iraq and Iran as the boundary between Asia and Europe because of political and cultural reasons. The Mediterranean Sea to the south separates Europe from Africa. The western boundary is the Atlantic Ocean; Iceland, though nearer to Greenland (North America) than mainland Europe, is generally included in Europe. There is ongoing debate on where the geographical centre of Europe is. For detailed description of the boundary between Asia and Europe see here.

Due to sociopolitical and cultural differences, there are various descriptions of Europe's boundary; in some sources, some territories are not included in Europe, while other sources include them. For instance, geographers from Russia and other post-Soviet states generally include the Urals in Europe while including Caucasia in Asia.

In another usage, Europe is increasingly being used as a short-form for the European Union (EU) and its members, currently consisting of 27 member states and the candidate countries negotiating for membership, and several other countries expected to begin negotiations in the future (see Enlargement of the European Union). This definition, however, excludes non-members such as Switzerland, Norway and Russia.

Géografi fisis[édit | sunting sumber]

Land relief in Europe shows great variation within relatively small areas. The southern regions, however, are more mountainous, while moving north the terrain descends from the high Alps, Pyrenees and Carpathians, through hilly uplands, into broad, low northern plains, which are vast in the east. This extended lowland is known as the Great European Plain, and at its heart lies the North German Plain. An arc of uplands also exists along the north-western seaboard, beginning in the western British Isles and continuing along the mountainous, fjord-cut spine of Norway.

This description is simplified. Sub-regions such as Iberia and Italy contain their own complex features, as does mainland Europe itself, where the relief contains many plateaus, river valleys and basins that complicate the general trend. Iceland and the British Isles are special cases. The former is a land unto itself in the northern ocean which is counted as part of Europe, while the latter are upland areas that were once joined to the mainland until rising sea levels cut them off.

Biodiversitas[édit | sunting sumber]

Having lived side-by-side with agricultural peoples for millennia, Europe's animals and plants have been profoundly affected by the presence and activities of man. With the exception of Scandinavia and northern Russia, few areas of untouched wilderness are currently found in Europe, except for various national parks.

The main natural vegetation cover in Europe is forest. The conditions for growth are very favourable. In the north, the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Drift warm the continent. Southern Europe could be described as having a warm, but mild climate. There are frequent summer droughts in this region. Mountain ridges also affect the conditions. Some of these (Alps, Pyrenees) are oriented east-west and allow the wind to carry large masses of water from the ocean in the interior. Others are oriented south-north (Scandinavian Mountains, Dinarides, Carpathians, Apennines) and because the rain falls primarily on the side of mountains that is oriented towards sea, forests grow well on this side, while on the other side, the conditions are much less favourable. Few corners of mainland Europe have not been grazed by livestock at some point in time, and the cutting down of the pre-agricultural forest habitat caused disruption to the original plant and animal ecosystems.

Eighty to ninety per cent of Europe was once covered by forest. It stretched from the Mediterranean Sea to the Arctic Ocean. Though over half of Europe's original forests disappeared through the centuries of deforestation, Europe still has over one quarter of its land area as forest, such as the taiga of Scandinavia and Russia, mixed rainforests of the Caucasus and the Cork oak forests in the western Mediterranean. During recent times, deforestation has been slowed and many trees have been planted. However, in many cases monoculture plantations of conifers have replaced the original mixed natural forest, because these grow quicker. The plantations now cover vast areas of land, but offer poorer habitats for many European forest dwelling species which require a mixture of tree species and diverse forest structure. The amount of natural forest in Western Europe is just 2–3% or less, in European Russia 5–10%. The country with the smallest percentage of forested area (excluding the micronations) is the Republic of Ireland (8%), while the most forested country is Finland (72%).

In temperate Europe, mixed forest with both broadleaf and coniferous trees dominate. The most important species in central and western Europe are beech and oak. In the north, the taiga is a mixed spruce-pine-birch forest; further north within Russia and extreme northern Scandinavia, the taiga gives way to tundra as the Arctic is approached. In the Mediterranean, many olive trees have been planted, which are very well adapted to its arid climate; Mediterranean Cypress is also widely planted in southern Europe. The semi-arid Mediterranean region hosts much scrub forest. A narrow east-west tongue of Eurasian grassland (the steppe) extends eastwards from Ukraine and southern Russia and ends in Hungary and traverses into taiga to the north.

Glaciation during the most recent ice age and the presence of man affected the distribution of European fauna. As for the animals, in many parts of Europe most large animals and top predator species have been hunted to extinction. The woolly mammoth and aurochs were extinct before the end of the Neolithic period. Today wolves (carnivores) and bears (omnivores) are endangered. Once they were found in most parts of Europe. However, deforestation caused these animals to withdraw further and further. By the Middle Ages the bears' habitats were limited to more or less inaccessible mountains with sufficient forest cover.

Tamariz beach - Portugal

Today, the brown bear lives primarily in the Balkan peninsula, Scandinavia, and Russia; a small number also persist in other countries across Europe (Austria, Pyrenees etc.), but in these areas brown bear populations are fragmented and marginalised because of the destruction of their habitat. In addition, polar bears may be found on Svalbard, an autonomous Norwegian island region far north of Scandinavia. The wolf, the second largest predator in Europe after the brown bear, can be found primarily in Eastern Europe and in the Balkans, with a handful of packs in Spain and Scandinavia.

Other important European carnivores are Eurasian lynx, European wild cat, foxes (especially the red fox), jackal and different species of martens, hedgehogs, different species of snakes (vipers, grass snake...), different birds (owls, hawks and other birds of prey).

Important European herbivores are snails, amphibian larvae, fish, different birds, and mammals, like rodents, deer and roe deer, boars, and living in the mountains, marmots, steinbocks, chamois among others.

Sea creatures are also an important part of European flora and fauna. The sea flora is mainly phytoplankton. Important animals that live in European seas are zooplankton, molluscs, echinoderms, different crustaceans, squids and octopuses, fish, dolphins, and whales.

Démografis[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Démografis Éropa.
The population growth/decline of European countries
Linguistik Europa
Regione Europe
Europa 1000

Since the Renaissance, Europe has had a dominating influence in culture, economics and social movements in the world. European demographics are important not only historically, but also in understanding current international relations and population issues.

Some current and past issues in European demographics have included religious emigration, race relations, economic immigration, a declining birth rate and an ageing population. In some countries, such as the Republic of Ireland and Poland, access to abortion is currently limited; in the past, such restrictions and also restrictions on artificial birth control were commonplace throughout Europe. Furthermore, two European countries (currently The Netherlands and Switzerland) have allowed a limited form of voluntary euthanasia. It remains to be seen how much demographic impact this may have.

In 2005, the population of Europe was estimated to be 728 million according to the United Nations, which is slightly more than one-ninth of the world's population. A century ago, Europe had nearly a quarter of the world's population. The population of Europe has grown in the past century, but in other areas of the world (in particular Africa and Asia) the population has grown far more quickly.[4] According to UN population projection (medium variant), Europe's share will fall to 7% in 2050, numbering 653 million.[5]

Géografi pulitis[édit | sunting sumber]

Lega[édit | sunting sumber]

Territories of Europe (also see transcontinental nation): ██ Europe ██ Extension into Asia of the continuous territory of a European state ██ Armenia and Cyprus, geographically in Asia, member of the Council of Europe.

Téritori jeung wewengkon[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Tingali ogé: Démografis Éropa.
Wewengkon Europe as delineated by the United Nations (other categorisations may vary): ██ Northern Europe ██ Western Europe ██ Eastern Europe ██ Southern Europe

The countries in this table are categorised according to the scheme for geographic subregions used by the United Nations, and data included are per sources in cross-referenced articles. Where they differ, provisos are clearly indicated.

According to different definitions, such as consideration of the concept of Central Europe, the following territories and regions may be subject to various other categorisations.

Ngaran wewengkon[6] and
territory, with flag
Aréa
(km²)
Populasi
(1 Juli 2002 est.)
Kapadetan populasi
(per km²)
Ibu kota
Éuropa Wétan:
Bélarus Bélarusia 207,600 10,335,382 49.8 Minsk
Bulgaria Bulgaria 110,910 7,621,337 68.7 Sofia
Citakan:Country data Czech Republic Républik Céko 78,866 10,256,760 130.1 Prague
Citakan:Country data Hungary Hungaria 93,030 10,075,034 108.3 Budapest
Moldova Moldova[7] 33,843 4,434,547 131.0 Chişinău
Polandia Polandia 312,685 38,625,478 123.5 Warsaw
Romania Romania 238,391 21,698,181 91.0 Bucharest
Rusia Rusia[8] 3,960,000 106,037,143 26.8 Moscow
Slovakia Slovakia 48,845 5,422,366 111.0 Bratislava
Ukraina Ukraina 603,700 48,396,470 80.2 Kiev
Éropa Kalér:
Citakan:Country data Åland Åland (Finlandia) 1,552 26,008 16.8 Mariehamn
Dénmark Dénmark 43,094 5,368,854 124.6 Copenhagen
Éstonia Éstonia 45,226 1,415,681 31.3 Tallinn
Citakan:Country data Faroe Islands Kapuloan Faroe (Dénmark) 1,399 46,011 32.9 Tórshavn
Finlandia Finlandia 336,593 5,157,537 15.3 Helsinki
Citakan:Country data Guernsey Guernsey[9] 78 64,587 828.0 St Peter Port
Citakan:Country data Iceland Islandia 103,000 307,261 2.7 Reykjavík
Irlandia Irlandia 70,280 3,883,159 55.3 Dublin
Citakan:Country data Isle of Man Isle of Man[10] 572 73,873 129.1 Douglas
Citakan:Country data Jersey Jersey[11] 116 89,775 773.9 Saint Helier
Latvia Latvia 64,589 2,366,515 36.6 Riga
Lituania Lituania 65,200 3,601,138 55.2 Vilnius
Norwégia Norwégia 324,220 4,525,116 14.0 Oslo
Norwégia Svalbard jeung Jan
Mayen Islands
(Norway)
62,049 2,868 0.046 Longyearbyen
Swédia Swédia 449,964 9,090,113 19.7 Stockholm
Britania Raya United Kingdom 244,820 60,201,000 244.2 London
Éropa Kidul:
Albania Albania 28,748 3,544,841 123.3 Tirana
Andorra Andora 468 68,403 146.2 Andorra la Vella
Bosnia jeung Hérzégovina Bosnia jeung Hérzégovina 51,129 3,964,388 77.5 Sarajevo
Citakan:Country data CRO Kroasia 56,542 4,390,751 77.7 Zagreb
Citakan:Country data Gibraltar Gibraltar (UK) 5.9 27,714 4,697.3 Gibraltar
Citakan:Country data Greece Yunani 131,940 10,645,343 80.7 Athens
Italia Itali 301,230 58,751,711 191.6 Rome
Makédonia Makédonia 25,333 2,054,800 81.1 Skopje
Malta Malta 316 397,499 1,257.9 Valletta
Citakan:Country data Montenegro Monténégro[12] 13,812 616,258 44.6 Podgorica
Portugal Portugal[13] 91,568 10,084,245 110.1 Lisbon
San Marino San Marino 61 27,730 454.6 San Marino
Citakan:Country data Serbia Sérbia[14] 88,361 9,663,742 109.4 Belgrade
Slovénia Slovénia 20,273 1,932,917 95.3 Ljubljana
Spanyol Spanyol[15] 498,506 40,077,100 80.4 Madrid
Citakan:Country data Vatican City Kota Vatikan 0.44 900 2,045.5 Vatican City
Éropa Kulon:
Austria Austria 83,858 8,169,929 97.4 Vienna
Bélgia Bélgia 30,510 10,274,595 336.8 Brussels
Perancis Prancis[16] 547,030 59,765,983 109.3 Paris
Jérman Jérman 357,021 83,251,851 233.2 Berlin
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 160 32,842 205.3 Vaduz
Citakan:Country data Luxembourg Luksemburg 2,586 448,569 173.5 Luxembourg
Citakan:Country data Monaco Monako 1.95 31,987 16,403.6 Monaco
Walanda Walanda[17] 41,526 16,318,199 393.0 Amsterdam
Suis Swiss 41,290 7,301,994 176.8 Bern
Asia Tengah:
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan[18] 370,373 15,233,244 14 Astana
Asia Kulon:[19]
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan[20] 39,730 4,198,491 105.7 Baku
Géorgia Georgia[21] 49,240 2,447,176 49.7 Tbilisi
Turki Turki[22] 24,378 11,044,932 453.1 Ankara
Total 10,396,619 708,903,245 68.1

Basa jeung budaya[édit | sunting sumber]

Europe countries in local languages.
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 Artikel utama: Basa-basa di Éropa.
Tempo ogé: Eurolinguistik

There are several linguistic groups widely recognised in Europe. These sometimes (but not always) coincide with cultural and historical connections between the various nations, though in other cases religion is considered a more significant distinguishing factor.

Basa Romawi[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Éropa Latén.

Romance languages are spoken more or less in south-western Europe, as well as Romania and Moldova which are situated in Eastern Europe. This area consists of: Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Romania, Moldova, French-speaking Belgium (Wallonia, partly Brussels), French-speaking Switzerland (Romandy), Romansh-speaking Switzerland, and Italian-speaking Switzerland. All Romance languages are derived from the Roman language, Latin.

Basa Jermanik[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Éropa Jermanik.

Germanic languages are spoken more or less in north-western Europe and some parts of central Europe. This region consists of: Norway, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, Denmark, the Netherlands, Austria, Liechtenstein, most of Switzerland, Iceland, Flanders and the German-speaking areas of Wallonia, the Faroe Islands, Luxembourg, the Swedish-speaking municipalities of Finland, and South Tyrol in Italy.

Basa Slavik[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Éropa Slavik.

Slavic languages are spoken in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. This area consists of: Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Saxony and Brandenburg in Germany, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine.

Basa Uralik[édit | sunting sumber]

The Uralic languages are divided into three main groups, two of which have representatives in Europe. The Finno-Permic languages are spoken in Finland, Estonia, and parts of Sweden, Norway, Latvia, and European Russia while the Ugric languages are spoken in Hungary and parts of Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, and Siberian Russia. These two groups comprise the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic language family.

Basa Altaik[édit | sunting sumber]

Turkic languages are spoken in Turkey, Azerbaijan, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (recognised only by Turkey), parts of Bulgaria, parts of Greece, parts of Romania, parts of Macedonia, parts of Moldova, parts of Russia, parts of Ukraine, parts of the Caucasus and in Turkish diaspora communities in several other European countries (most notably Germany, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands).

The Mongolic branch of the Altaic phylum is represented in Europe by the Kalmyk language, which is spoken by the Kalmyk people in Kalmykia, a constituent republic of the Russian Federation.

Basa Baltik[édit | sunting sumber]

Baltic languages are spoken in Lithuania and Latvia. (Estonia's national language is part of the Finno-Ugric family even though it is a Baltic state geographically.)

Basa Céltik[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Celtic Europe.

"Celtic language" was originally used only to describe the Gaelic language in Ireland; however, the term now extends to the other Gaelic and Brythonic languages. Celtic Europe is comprised of those countries and regions where Celtic languages are spoken. The Celtic nations are: Ireland, Scotland (UK), Wales (UK), Cornwall (UK), the Isle of Man (a British Crown dependency) and Brittany (within France). These are all nations where a Celtic language is spoken and share in Celtic organisations (see Pan Celticism).

Sometimes considered Celtic nations are Galicia and Asturias (both autonomous communities of Spain), as well as northwest Portugal. Ireland and Some regions of England (in addition to Cornwall) have retained a degree of Celtic influence in their regional dialects (see Cumbric and Hiberno-English), although England's Celtic languages died out as recently as the 18th century in Devon and Cornwall.

Basa séjénna[édit | sunting sumber]

Outside of these seven main linguistic groups one can find:

Ageman[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Ageman di Éropa.

The most popular religions of Europe are the following:

Other religions are practised by smaller groups in Europe, including:

Millions of Europeans profess no religion or are atheist or agnostic. The largest non-confessional populations (as a percentage) are found in Sweden, the Czech Republic, and France, although most former communist countries have significant non-confessional populations. Attendance at church is a minority activity in most Western European countries - as an example, the Church of England attracts around 1 million worshippers on a Sunday [1], which corresponds to about 2% of the population of England.

Ageman resmi[édit | sunting sumber]

A number of countries in Europe have official religions, including Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, Vatican City (Catholic), Greece (Eastern Orthodox); Denmark, Iceland, and Norway (Lutheran). In Switzerland, some cantons are officially Catholic, others Reformed Protestant. Some Swiss villages even have their religion as well as the village name written on the signs at their entrances.

Georgia has no established church, but the Georgian Orthodox Church enjoys "de facto" privileged status. In Finland, both Finnish Orthodox Church and Lutheran church are official. England, a part of the UK, has Anglicanism as its official religion. Scotland, another part of the UK, has Presbyterianism as the 'National' church, but is no longer "official", and in Sweden, the 'National' church is Lutheran, but no longer "official". Azerbaijan, France, Portugal, Romania, and Turkey are officially "secular".

Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

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Baca ogé pedaran Wikikamus ngeunaan kecap
Deutsche Bank in Frankfurt, one of the major financial centres in the world.

Daptar jeung tabel[édit | sunting sumber]

Umum[édit | sunting sumber]

Déografis[édit | sunting sumber]

Ékonomi[édit | sunting sumber]

A view of the City of London and Canary Wharf. London, UK is the largest financial centre in Europe, it handled 31% of global currency transactions in 2005 — an average daily turnover of US$753 billion — with more US dollars traded in London than New York City, and more Euros traded than in every other city in Europe combined.

Pulitik[édit | sunting sumber]

Géografi[édit | sunting sumber]

Séjénna[édit | sunting sumber]

Catetan[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. "EU GDP, World Monetary Fund". Diakses pada 3 Nopémber 2006. 
  2. "Etymonline: European". Diakses pada 10 Séptémber 2006. 
  3. "Etymonline: Asia". Diakses pada 10 Séptémber 2006. 
  4. UNPP, 2004 Revision World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision Population Database. United Nations Population Division, 2005. Last accessed October 25, 2006.
  5. http://esa.un.org/unpp/p2k0data.asp
  6. Continental regions as per UN categorisations/map. Depending on definitions, various territories cited below (notes 5, 11, 13-14, 16-20) may be in one or both of Europe and Asia, Africa, or Oceania.
  7. Kaasup Transnistria, a region that has declared, and de facto achieved, independence; however, it is not recognised de jure by sovereign states.
  8. Rusia is generally considered a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe (UN region) and Asia, with European territory west of the Ural Mountains and both the Ural and Emba rivers; population and area figures are for European portion only.
  9. Guernsey is a crown dependency affiliated with the United Kingdom.
  10. Isle of Man is a crown dependency affiliated with the United Kingdom.
  11. Jersey is a crown dependency affiliated with the United Kingdom.
  12. Montenegro declared independence from the union of Serbia and Montenegro on 3 June 2006.
  13. Figures for Portugal include the Azores east of Portugal but exclude the Madeira Islands, west of Morocco in Africa.
  14. Figures for Serbia include Kosovo and Metohia, a province administrated by the UN (UNMIK) as per Security Council resolution 1244.
  15. Figures for Spain exclude the Canary Islands, west of Morocco in Africa, and the exclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, which are on the northwest of the African continent.
  16. Figures for France include only metropolitan France: some politically integral parts of France are geographically located outside Europe.
  17. Netherlands population for July 2004. Population and area details include European portion only: Netherlands and two entities outside Europe (Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles, in the Caribbean) constitute the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Amsterdam is the official capital, while The Hague is the administrative seat.
  18. Kazakhstan is sometimes considered a transcontinental country in Central Asia (UN region) and Eastern Europe, with European territory west of the Ural Mountains and both the Ural and Emba rivers; population and area figures are for European portion only.
  19. Arménia and Cyprus are sometimes considered transcontinental countries: both are physiographically in Western Asia but have historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe.
  20. Azerbaijan is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia (UN region) and Eastern Europe; population and area figures are for European portion only (north of the crest of the Caucasus and the Kura River). This excludes the exclave of Nakhichevan and Nagorno-Karabakh (a region that has declared, and de facto achieved, independence; however, it is not recognised de jure by sovereign states).
  21. Georgia is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia (UN region) and Eastern Europe; population and area figures are for European portion only (north of the crest of the Caucasus and the Kura River). Also includes Abkhazia and South Ossetia, two regions that have declared, and de facto achieved, independence; however, they are not recognised de jure by sovereign states.
  22. Turki is generally considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia (UN region) and Southern Europe: the region of Rumelia (Trakya) – which includes the provinces of Edirne, Kirklareli, Tekirdag, and the western parts of the Çanakkale and Istanbul Provinces – is west and north of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles; population and area figures are for European portion only, including all of Istanbul.

Tumbu luar[édit | sunting sumber]

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