Bélgia

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(Basa Walanda) Koninkrijk België
(Basa Perancis) Royaume de Belgique
(Basa Jerman) Königreich Belgien
Karajaan Bélgia
Bandéra Bélgia lambang nagara Bélgia
Motto
Eendracht maakt macht  (Basa Walanda)
L'union fait la force"  (Basa Perancis)
Einigkeit macht stark  (Basa Jerman)
"Kakuatan ngaliwatan Kesatuan"
Lagu
The "Brabançonne"
Location of Bélgia
Lokasi  Bélgia  (dark green)

– di Eropa  (light green & dark grey)
– di the Uni Eropa  (light green)

Ibu kota Brussels
50°54′N 4°32′E
wewengkon metropolitan panggedéna Wewengkon Ibukota Brussels
Basa resmi Walanda, Perancis, Jerman
Démonim Urang Bélgia
Pamaréntah Démokrasi parleméntér jeung Monarki konstitusional
 -  Raja Philippe
 -  Perdana Mentri Elio Di Rupo
Merdika
 -  Deklarasi 4 Oktober 1830 
 -  Diaku 19 April 1839 
Asup ka
 Uni Éropa
25 Maret 1957
 -  Cai (%) 6.4
Populasi
 -  Perkiraan  2007 10,584,534[1]
 (ka-76 [2005])
 -  Sénsus 2001 10,296,350 
GDP (PPP) Perkiraan 2004
 -  Total $316.2 miliar (ka-30)
 -  Per kapita $31,400 (ka-13)
Gini? (2000) 33 (sedeng) (ka-33)
HDI (2005) Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 0.946 (luhur) (ka-17)
Mata uang Euro ()1 (EUR)
Zona wanci CET (UTC+1)
 -  Usum panas (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
TLD Internét .be²
Kode telepon +32
1 Samemeh 1999: Franc Belgia.
2 Domain .eu dipake oge, babagi jeung nagara anggota Uni Eropa lianna.

Karajaan Bélgia nyaeta hiji nagara di Eropa kulon kaler nu diwawatesanan ku Walanda (450 km), Jerman (167 km), Luksemburg (148 km), jeung Perancis (620 km), kalayan gurat basisir nu pondok di Laut Kalér. Belgia mangrupakeun salasahiji nagara nu ngadegkeun Uni Eropa sarta jadi tempat kantor puseurna, di sagedengeun jadi kantor puseur organisasi internasional gede lianna, kaasup NATO.[2] Belgia legana 30,528 kilometer pasagi (11,787 mil pasagi) sarta populasina kurang leuwih 10.5 yuta.

Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

Straddling the cultural boundary between Germanic and Latin Europe, Belgium's two largest regions are Dutch-speaking Flanders in the north, with 58% of the population, and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia, inhabited by 32%. The Brussels-Capital Region is an officially bilingual enclave within the Flemish and near the Walloon Region, and has 10% of the population.[3] A small German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia.[4] Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political and cultural conflicts are reflected in the political history and a complex system of government.[5][6][7]

The name 'Belgium' is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples.[8][9] Historically, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, which used to cover a somewhat larger area than the current Benelux group of states. From the end of the Middle Ages until the seventeenth century, it was a prosperous centre of commerce and culture. From the sixteenth century until the Belgian revolution in 1830, many battles between European powers were fought in the area of Belgium, causing it to be dubbed "the battlefield of Europe"[10] and "the cockpit of Europe"[11] – a reputation strengthened by both World Wars. Upon its independence, Belgium eagerly participated in the Industrial Revolution,[12][13] generating wealth and also a demand for raw materials; the latter was a factor during the era of its African colonies.[14]

Rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]

Catetan suku[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. "Structuur van de bevolking — België / Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest / Vlaams Gewest / Waals Gewest / De 25 bevolkingsrijkste gemeenten (2000–2006)" (dalam bahasa Basa Walanda) (asp). Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Economy — Directorate-general Statistics Belgium. Éror: titimangsa teu valid. Diakses pada 23 Méi 2007. 
  2. Catetan suku: Belgia oge mangrupakeun anggota atawa patali jeung loba organisasi internasional, kaasup ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G-10, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC (observers), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNECE, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB (non-regional), WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC.
  3. Leclerc, Jacques , membre associé du TLFQ (2007-01-18). "Belgique • België • Belgien — Région de Bruxelles-Capitale • Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest" (dalam bahasa French). L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde. Host: Trésor de la langue française au Québec (TLFQ), Université Laval, Quebec. Diakses pada 18 Juni 2007. "C'est une région officiellement bilingue formant au centre du pays une enclave dans la province du Brabant flamand (Vlaams Brabant)" 
    * "About Belgium". Belgian Federal Public Service (ministry) / Embassy of Belgium in the Republic of Korea. Diakses pada 21 Juni 2007. "the Brussels-Capital Region is an enclave of 162 km2 within the Flemish region." 
    * "Flanders (administrative region)". Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft. 31 Agustus 2007. Diakses pada 21 Juni 2007. "The capital of Belgium, Brussels, is an enclave within Flanders." 
    * McMillan, Eric (October 1999). "The FIT Invasions of Mons" (pdf). Capital translator, Newsletter of the NCATA, Vol. 21, No. 7, p. 1. National Capital Area Chapter of the American Translators Association (NCATA). Diarsipkan dari yang asli pada 23 Séptémber 2006. Diakses pada 21 Juni 2007. "The country is divided into three increasingly autonomous regions: Dutch-speaking Flanders in the north; mostly French-speaking Brussels in the center as an enclave within Flanders; and French-speaking Wallonia in the south (plus the German-speaking Cantons de l'Est)." 
    * Van de Walle, Steven, lecturer at University of Birmingham Institute of Local Government Studies, School of Public Policy. "Language Facilities in the Brussels Periphery" (pdf). KULeuven - Leuvens Universitair Dienstencentrum voor Informatica en Telematica. Diarsipkan dari yang asli pada 26 Juni 2007. Diakses pada 21 Juni 2007. "Brussels is a kind of enclave within Flanders – it has no direct link with Wallonia." 
  4. "The German-speaking Community". The German-speaking Community. Diakses pada 5 Méi 2007.  The (original) version in German language (already) mentions 73,000 instead of 71,500 inhabitants.
  5. Morris, Chris (2005-05-13). "Language dispute divides Belgium". BBC News. Diakses pada 8 Méi 2007. 
  6. De Ridder, Paul, Doctor in Medieval History, Royal Library of Belgium. "Linguistic Usages in Brussels before 1794". Vereniging voor Brusselse Geschiedenis (Society for History of Brussels). Diakses pada 1 Méi 2007. 
  7. Petermann, Simon, Professor at the University of Liège, Wallonia, Belgium — at colloquium IXe Sommet de la francophonie — Intitiatives 2001 — Ethique et nouvelles technologies, session 6 Cultures et langues, la place des minorités, Bayreuth (2001-09-25). "Langues majoritaires, langues minoritaires, dialectes et NTIC" (dalam bahasa French). Diakses pada 4 Méi 2007. 
  8. Bunson, Matthew (1994). Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire, Hardcover 352pp, p. 169, Facts on File, New York.
  9. Footnote: The Celtic and/or Germanic influences on and origin(s) of the Belgae remains disputed. Further reading e.g. Witt, Constanze Maria (May 1997). "Ethnic and Cultural Identity". Barbarians on the Greek Periphery? — Origins of Celtic Art. Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, University of Virginia. Diakses pada 6 Juni 2007. 
  10. "Belgian economy". Belgium. Belgian Federal Public Service (ministry) of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation. Diakses pada 21 Méi 2007. 
  11. Haß, Torsten, Head of the Fachhochschule (University of Applied Sciences) of Kehl Library, Kehl, Germany (2003-02-17). "Rezention zu (Review of) Cook, Bernard: Belgium. A History ISBN 0-8204-5824-4" (dalam bahasa German). FH-Zeitung (journal of the Fachhochschule). Diakses pada 24 Méi 2007. "die Bezeichnung Belgiens als „the cockpit of Europe” (James Howell, 1640), die damals noch auf eine kriegerische Hahnenkampf-Arena hindeutete"  – The book reviewer, Haß, attributes the expression in English to James Howell in 1640. Howell's original phrase "the cockpit of Christendom" became modified afterwards, as shown by:
       Carmont, John. "The Hydra No.1 New Series (November 1917) — Arras And Captain Satan". War Poets Collection. Napier University’s Business School. Diakses pada 24 Méi 2007.  – and as such coined for Belgium:
       Wood, James (1907). "Nuttall Encyclopaedia of General Knowledge — Cockpit of Europe". Diakses pada 24 Méi 2007. "Cockpit of Europe, Belgium, as the scene of so many battles between the Powers of Europe."  (See also The Nuttall Encyclopaedia)
  12. Fitzmaurice, John, at the Secretariat-General of the European Commission, teached at the Université Libre de Bruxelles (1996). "New Order? International models of peace and reconciliation – Diversity and civil society". Democratic Dialogue Northern Ireland's first think tank, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK. Diakses pada 12 Agustus 2007. 
  13. "Belgium country profile". EUbusiness, Richmond, UK. Éror: titimangsa teu valid. Diakses pada 12 Agustus 2007. 
  14. Karl, Farah (text); Stoneking, James (course) (1999). "Chapter 27. The Age of Imperialism (Section 2. The Partition of Africa)" (pdf). World History II. Appomattox Regional Governor's School (History Department), Petersburg, VA, USA. Diarsipkan dari yang asli pada 2 Oktober 2006. Diakses pada 16 Agustus 2007. 

Sumber online umum[édit | sunting sumber]

Bibliograpi[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Arblaster, Paul (2005-12-23). A History of the Low Countries, Hardcover 312pp, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
  • Blom, J. C. H., Dutch State Institute for War Documentation, ed.; Lamberts, Emiel, Professor in Modern History KULeuven, ed.; Kennedy, James C., translator (May 1999). History of the Low Countries, Hardcover 503pp, Berghahn Books, Oxford/New York.
  • Cammaerts, Émile L. [1913] (1921). A History of Belgium from the Roman Invasion to the Present Day, 357pp, D. Appleton and Co, New York. OCLC 1525559 Citakan:ASIN [Also editions [1913], London, OCLC 29072911; (1921) D. Unwin and Co., New York OCLC 9625246; also published (1921) as Belgium from the Roman invasion to the present day, The Story of the nations, 67, T. Fisher Unwin, London, OCLC 2986704 Citakan:ASIN].
  • Cook, Bernard A., Professor of History at Loyola University New Orleans, LA, USA (c2002 or May 2004). Belgium: A History, Paperback 205pp, Peter Lang Pub, New York.
  • de Kavanagh Boulger, Demetrius C. [1902] (2001-06-28 or 2006-03-30). The History of Belgium: Part 1. Cæsar to Waterloo, Paperback 493pp, Adamant Media (Delaware corporation), Boston, MA, USA..Ib. [1909] (2001-06-28 or 2006-03-30). Ib. Part 2. 1815-1865. Waterloo to the Death of Leopold I, Paperback 462pp, Ib.
  • Fitzmaurice, John (March 1996). The Politics of Belgium: A Unique Federalism, Paperback 284pp, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, USA. OCLC 30112536.
  • Kossmann-Putto, Johanna A.; Kossmann Ernst H.; Deleu Jozef H. M., ed.; Fenoulhet Jane, translator [of: (1987). De Lage Landen : geschiedenis van de Noordelijke en Zuidelijke Nederlanden. Vlaams-Nederlandse Stichting Ons Erfdeel, Rekkem] [1987] (January 1993). The Low Countries: History of the Northern and Southern Netherlands, 3rd Rev. edition Paperback 64pp, Flemish-Netherlands Foundation "Stichting Ons Erfdeel", Rekkem, Belgium.

Tempo oge[édit | sunting sumber]

Tumbu luar[édit | sunting sumber]

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Tempo oge: section References, subsection General online sources

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Kaanggotaan internasional
Citakan:UN Security Council

Citakan:Dutch Language Union (Nederlandse Taalunie)

Lianna

Citakan:Romance-speaking nations of Europe Citakan:Germanic-speaking regions of Europe