Républik Démokratik Kongo

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Koordinat: 2°52′48″S 23°39′22″E / -2.88, 23.656

République Démocratique du Congo
Repubilika ya Kongo Demokratika
Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo
Republiki ya Kongó Demokratiki
Ditunga día Kongu wa Mungalaata
Républik Démokratik Kongo
Bandéra Républik Démokratik Kongo Coat of Arms Républik Démokratik Kongo
Motto
Justice – Paix – Travail
Lagu
"Debout Congolais"
Location of Républik Démokratik Kongo
Ibu kota
(jeung kota panggedéna)
Kinshasa
4°19′S 15°19′E
Basa resmi
(Basa nasional)
Basa Perancis
(Basa Lingala, Basa Kikongo, Basa Swahili, Basa Tshiluba)
Démonim Congolese
Pamaréntah Républik semi-présidénsial
 -  Présidén Joseph Kabila
 -  Perdana Mentri Adolphe Muzito
Kamerdikaan
 -  ti Bélgia 30 Juni 1960[1] 
Aréa
 -  Total 2.345.409 km² (ka-11)
905.355 mil² 
 -  Cai (%) 4,3
Populasi
 -  Perkiraan  2011 71,712,867[1] (ka-19)
 -  Kapadetan 29,3 /km² (ka-182)
75,9 /mil²
GDP (PPP) Perkiraan 2010
 -  Total $23.117 billion[2] 
 -  Per kapita $328[2] 
GDP (nominal) Perkiraan 2010
 -  Total $13,125 milyar[2] 
 -  Per kapita $186[2] 
HDI (2011) Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 0.286[3] (handap) (ka-187)
Mata uang Franc Kongo (CDF)
Zona wanci WAT, CAT (UTC+1 nepi ka +2)
 -  Usum panas (DST) teu kaobsérvasi (UTC+1 nepi ka +2)
TLD Internét .cd
Kode telepon +243

Républik Démokratik Kongo (Basa Prancis: République démocratique du Congo) nya éta hiji nagara anu aya di Afrika Tengah. Nagara ieu mangrupakeun nagara ieu mangrupakeun nagara anu panggedéna kadua di Afrika, upami di dunya, anu kasawelas. Kalawan populasi anu leuwih ti 71 yuta,[1] Républik Démokratik Kongo mangrupakeun nagara anu panglobana padumukna kadalapan welas di dunya, anu kaopat di Afrika.

Nagara ieu tepung wates jeung Républik Afrika Tengah sareng Sudan Kidul di kalér; Uganda, Rwanda, sareng Burundi di wétan; Zambia sareng Angola di kidul; jeung teras Républik Kongo, Kabinda, jeung Samudra Atlantik di kulon; sarta kapisah ti Tanzania ku Dano Tanganyika di beulah wétan.[1] Nagara ieu miboga aksés ka samudra liwat sela sapanjang +40 km di Muanda kana Samudra Atlantik sarta kasarna 9 km lébar muara Wahangan Kongo anu muka ka Teluk Guinéa.

Perang Kongo Kadua, mimiti dina 1998, ngancurkeun nagara ieu jeung kadang dilandi "Perang Dunya Afrika" sabab mimilukeun 9 bangsa Afrika jeung kira-kira 20 grup senjata.[4] Sanajan aya tanda karapihan dina 2003, patempuran tetep limangsung dina bagian nagara beulah wétan. Di Kongo wétan, tingkat kajahatan séksual dipeunteunan salaku anu panggoréngna sadunya.[5] Perang ieu mangrupakeun konflik anu pangbahayana sadunya ti Perang Dunya II, nelasan 5,4 yuta urang ti 1998.[6][7] Kalobaannana pupus ku lantaran malaria, diaré, pneumonia, malnutrisi.[8]

Républik Démokratik Kongo baheulana, dina runtuyannana, Nagara Bébas Kongo, Kongo Bélgia, Kongo-Léopoldville, Kongo-Kinshasa, jeung Zaire (Zaïre dina Basa Perancis).[1] Ngaran-ngaran baheula ieu kadang dirujuk salaku ngaran teu resmi, kalawan pangacualian kateudaékan Mobutu kana Zaire, bareng jeung singketan lianna, saperti, Congo, Congo-Kinshasa, DR Congo, jeung DRC. Sanajan nagara ieu aya di subrégion PBB Afrika Tengah, nagara ieu ékonomi jeung régionalna kahubung jeung Afrika bagian kidul salaku anggota ti Komunitas Pamekaran Afrika Kidul (SADC).

Propinsi[édit | sunting sumber]

Nagara ieu dibagi kana 10 propinsi jeung 1 kota-propinsi:[1]

DCongoNumbered.png
  1. Bandundu
  2. Bas-Congo
  3. Équateur
  4. Kasai-Occidental
  5. Kasai-Oriental
  6. Katanga
  7. Kinshasa (kota-propinsi)
  8. Maniema
  9. Nord-Kivu
  10. Orientale
  11. Sud-Kivu

Propinsi-propinsina teras dibagi deui kana distrik-distrik anu salajengna dibagi kana wewengkon.

Kinshasa, Kongo. (Gambar ti 2003)
Populasi kota-kota utami (2008)
Kota Populasi (2008)
Kinshasa 7.500.000
Mbuji-Mayi 2.500.000
Lubumbashi 1.700.000
Kananga 1.400.000
Kisangani 1.200.000
Kolwezi 1.100.000
Mbandaka 850.000
Likasi 600.000
Boma 600.000


Réferénsi[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. a b c d e f Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Congo, Democratic Republic of the". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Diakses pada 5 Oktober 2011. 
  2. a b c d "Democratic Republic of the Congo". International Monetary Fund. Diakses pada 21 April 2011. 
  3. "Human Development Report 2011". United Nations. 21 Agustus 2011. Diakses pada 3 Nopémber 2011. 
  4. See "Rumblings of war in heart of Africa" ku Abraham McLaughlin jeung Duncan Woodside The Christian Science Monitor 23 Juni 2004 sarta "World War Three" ku Chris Bowers My Direct Democracy 24 Juli 2006
  5. McCrummen, Stephanie, "Prevalence of Rape in E.Congo Described as Worst in World", Washington Post, 2007-09-09. Disalin 2010-05-02.
  6. Robinson, Simon, "The deadliest war in the world", Time.com, 2006-05-28. Disalin 2010-05-02.
  7. Bavier, Joe, "Congo War driven crisis kills 45,000 a month", Reuters, 2008-01-22. Disalin 2010-05-02.
  8. Report on the crisis Full report at IRC Mortality Facts ti International Rescue Committee

Bacaan salajengna[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Clark, John F., The African Stakes of the Congo War, 2004.
  • Devlin, Larry (2007). Chief of Station, Congo: A Memoir of 1960–67, New York: PublicAffairs..
  • Drummond, Bill and Manning, Mark, The Wild Highway, 2005.
  • Edgerton, Robert, The Troubled Heart of Africa: A History of the Congo. St. Martin's Press, December 2002.
  • Hochschild, Adam, King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa, 1998.
  • Exenberger, Andreas/Hartmann, Simon. The Dark Side of Globalization. The Vicious Cycle of Exploitation from World Market Integration: Lesson from the Congo, Working Papers in Economics and Statistics 31, University Innsbruck 2007; availability: http://eeecon.uibk.ac.at/wopec2/repec/inn/wpaper/2007-31.pdf.
  • Exenberger, Andreas/Hartmann, Simon. Doomed to Disaster? Long-term Trajectories of Exploitation in the Congo, Paper to be presented at the Workshop “Colonial Extraction in the Netherlands Indies and Belgian Congo: Institutions, Institutional Change and Long Term Consequences”, Utrecht December 3-4, 2010; availability: http://vkc.library.uu.nl/vkc/seh/research/Lists/Events/Attachments/6/Paper.ExenbergerHartmann.pdf.
  • Gondola, Ch. Didier, "The History of Congo", Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002.
  • Joris, Lieve, translated by Waters, Liz, The Rebels' Hour, Atlantic, 2008.
  • Justenhoven, Heinz-Gerhard; Ehrhart, Hans Georg. Intervention im Kongo: eine kritische Analyse der Befriedungspolitik von UN und EU. Stuttgart : Kohlhammer, 2008. (In German) ISBN 978-3-17-020781-3.
  • Kingsolver, Barbara. The Poisonwood Bible HarperCollins, 1998.
  • Larémont, Ricardo René, ed. 2005. Borders, nationalism and the African state. Boulder, Colorado and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Lemarchand, Reni and Hamilton, Lee; Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide. Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1994.
  • Mealer, Bryan: "All Things Must Fight To Live", 2008. ISBN 1-59691-345-2.
  • Melvern, Linda, Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide and the International Community. Verso, 2004.
  • Miller, Eric: "The Inability of Peacekeeping to Address the Security Dilemma", 2010. ISBN 978-3-8383-4027-2.
  • Mwakikagile, Godfrey, Nyerere and Africa: End of an Era, Third Edition, New Africa Press, 2006, "Chapter Six: Congo in The Sixties: The Bleeding Heart of Africa", pp. 147 – 205, ISBN 978-0-9802534-1-2; Mwakikagile, Godfrey, Africa and America in The Sixties: A Decade That Changed The Nation and The Destiny of A Continent, First Edition, New Africa Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-9802534-2-9.
  • Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges, The Congo from Leopold to Kabila: A People's History, 2002.
  • O'Hanlon, Redmond, Congo Journey, 1996.
  • O'Hanlon, Redmond, No Mercy: A Journey into the Heart of the Congo, 1998.
  • Prunier, Gérard, Africa's World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe, 2011 (also published as From Genocide to Continental War: The Congolese Conflict and the Crisis of Contemporary Africa: The Congo Conflict and the Crisis of Contemporary Africa).
  • Renton, David; Seddon, David; Zeilig, Leo. The Congo: Plunder and Resistance, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84277-485-4.
  • Reyntjens, Filip, The Great African War: Congo and Regional Geopolitics, 1996–2006 , 2009.
  • Rorison, Sean, Bradt Travel Guide: Congo  — Democratic Republic/Republic, 2008.
  • Schulz, Manfred. Entwicklungsträger in der DR Kongo: Entwicklungen in Politik, Wirtschaft, Religion, Zivilgesellschaft und Kultur, Berlin : Lit, 2008, (in German) ISBN 978-3-8258-0425-1.
  • Stearns, Jason: Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: the Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africa, Public Affairs, 2011.
  • Tayler, Jeffrey, Facing the Congo, 2001.
  • Turner, Thomas, The Congo Wars: Conflict, Myth and Reality, 2007.
  • Wrong, Michela, In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in Mobutu's Congo.
  • Osman,Mohamed Omer Guudle(November,2011) Africa: A rich Continent where poorest people live, The Case of DR Congo and the exploitation of the World Market

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]

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