Somalia

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Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya
جمهورية الصومال
Jumhūriyyat as-Sūmāl
Républik Somalia
Bandéra Somalia Lambang Somalia
Lagu
Soomaaliyeey toosoo

Location of Somalia
Ibu kota
(jeung kota panggedéna)
Mogadishu
2°02′N 45°21′E
Basa resmi
Grup étnis 
Démonim Somali;[2] Somalian[3]
Pamaréntah Pamaréntahan koalisi
 -  Présidén Sharif Sheikh Ahmed
 -  Perdana Mentri Abdiweli Mohamed Ali
Pawangunan
 -  Somaliland Britania 1884 
 -  Somaliland Italia 1889 
 -  Kahijian jeung kamerdikaan 1 Juli 1960[2] 
 -  Konstitusi 25 Agustus 1979[2] 
Aréa
 -  Total 637.657 km² (ka-43)
246.200 mil² 
Populasi
 -  Perkiraan  2011 9.925.640[2] (ka-86)
 -  Kapadetan 16,12[4] /km² (199)
6,22 /mil²
GDP (PPP) Perkiraan 2010
 -  Total $5,896 milyar[2] (ka-158)
 -  Per kapita $600[2] (ka-223)
HDI (2010) t/s (teu karéngking)
Mata uang Shilling Somalia (SOS)
Zona wanci EAT (UTC+3)
 -  Usum panas (DST) teu kaobsérvasi (UTC+3)
TLD Internét .so
Kode telepon +252
1 Piagam Féderal Transisi Républik Somalia

Somalia (basa Somali: Soomaaliya; Basa Arab: الصومالaṣ-Ṣūmāl), resmina Républik Somalia (basa Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, Basa Arab: جمهورية الصومالJumhūriyyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl) jeung baheulana kawanoh salaku Républik Démokratik Somalia dina kakawasaan sosialis, nyaéta hiji nagara nu aya di Tanduk Afrika. TI mimitina Perang Sadulur Somalia dina 1991 teu aya kakawasaan pamaréntah puseur kana kalobannnana bagian nagara ieu.[2] Pamaréntah Féderal Transisi nu diakuan ku dunya internasional ngan ngawasaan sabagian leutik nagara. Somalia geus dikategorikeun asalaku nagara gagal jeung salasahiji nagara nu pangmiskinna jeung pangripuhna di dunya.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

Somalia aya di bagian pangwétanna ti buana Afrika. Nagara ieu wawatesan jeung Djibouti di kalér-kulon, Kénya di kidul-kulon, sarta Teluk Aden kalawan Yaman di kalér, Samudra Hindia di wétan, jeung Étiopia di kulon. Nagara ieu miboga garis basisir nu pangpanjangna sabuanana[13]. Daratanna utamina diwangun ti plato, dataran, jeung Daratan luhur.[2] Kaayaan panas aya sapanjang taun, bareng angin muson usuman jeung hujan nu teu tangtu.[14]

Baheula, Somalia mangrupakeun salasahiji puseur padagangan penting di dunya kuna,[15][16] jeung dumasar kana raloba ahli,[17][18] wewengkon ieu aya dina daptar lokasi nu meureun mangrupakeun tempatna Nagri Punt.[19][20] Basa Jaman Patengahan, sababaraha kakaisaran Somali ngadominasi padagangan régional, kaasup Nagara Ajuuraan, Kasultanan Adal, Kasultanan Warsangali, jeung Dinasti Gobroon. Dina ahir abad ka-19, Britania jeung Italia ngawasaan bagian-bagian basisir, sarta ngawangun Somaliland Britania jeung Somaliland Italia[21] Di bagian jerona, Nagara Dervish Muhammad Abdullah Hassan hasil ngéléhkeun Kakaisaran Britania 4 kali jeung maksaanna sangkan mundur ka wewengkon basisir,[22] tapi Dervish ahirna éléh dina 1920 ku pasukan udara Britania.[23] Italia miboga kadali pinuh kana bagian wewengkon ieu dina 1927. Panjajahan ieu réngsé dina 1941, basa diganti ku administrasi militér Britania. Somalia Kalér bakal tetep jadi hiji protéktorat, samentawis Somalia kidul jadi hiji wewengkon pawalian. Dina 1960, 2 wewengkon ieu dihijikeun sangkan ngawangun Républik Somalia merdika dina pamaréntahan sipil.[24] Mohamed Siad Barre mibanda kakawasaan dina 1969 jeung ngadegkeun Républik Démokratik Somalia. Dina 1991, pamaréntahannanan ripuh jeung Perang Sadulur Somalia mimiti.

Saprak 1991, taya pamaréntahan puseur nu ngawasaan sadaya bagian nagara, sanajan aya sababaraha usaha pikeun ngadegkeun hiji pamaréntahan puseur.[25] Bagian kalér-kulon nagara ieu lumayan stabil dina, nagara daulat Somaliland, nu teu diakuan sacara internasional.[26] Wewengkon Puntland aya di bagian kalér-wétan nagara ieu. Wewengkon éta nyebutkeun manéhna otonom, tapi teu merdika ti Somalia.[2] Grup Islam Al-Shabaab ngawasaan sabagian gedé ti bagian kidul nagara ieu. Tanpa hiji pamaréntahan puseur, padumuk Somalia teras balik ka bentuk lokal ti résolusi masalah, perang sadulur, Islam, atawa adat.[2] Pamaréntahan Féderal Transisi nu diakuan sacara internasional ngan ngawasaan ibu kota jeung sababaraha wewengkon di bagian tengah nagara ieu, jeung geus ngadegkeun deui sababaraha lembaga nasional saperti Angkatan Pakarang, jeung keur nyiapkeun pamilu nasional dina 2012, basa mandat pamaréntahan interim béak.[27][28] Dina 2 dekade perang jeung kirangna pamaréntahan, Somalia miboga ékomomi teu resmi, dumasarna kana utamina ingon, pausahaan pangintunan uang/transfer uang, jeung telekomunikasi.[2][29]

Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. According to article 7 of The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic: The official languages of the Somali Republic shall be Somali (Maay and Maxaatiri) and Arabic. The second languages of the Transitional Federal Government shall be English and Italian.
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Somalia". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Diakses pada 5 Oktober 2011. 
  3. Paul Dickson, Labels for locals: what to call people from Abilene to Zimbabwe, (Merriam-Webster: 1997), p. 175.
  4. CIA World Factbook 2011 – Population density. Photius.com (2011-05-25). Retrieved on 2011-12-15.
  5. Bronwyn E. Bruton. Somalia: A New Approach. Volume 52 of Council Special Report. Council on Foreign Relations, 2010
  6. David Blair. "Somalia: Analysis of a failed state" The Telegraph. 18 November2008
  7. "2010 Failed States Index." Foreign Policy.
  8. Fareed Zakaria. "The failed-state conundrum" The Washington Post. July 19, 2010.
  9. Jon Lee Anderson. "The Most Failed State." The New Yorker. December 14, 2009
  10. Human Development Report 2010 – Data Tables. United Nations.
  11. "Somali violence uproots 80,000 civilians in January alone, reports UN agency" UN News Centre. 2 February 2010
  12. "Piracy is just one of the many hazards in Somalia, which tops this year's list of the world's most dangerous countries." Zack O'Malley Greenburg. "World's Most Dangerous Countries." Forbes. 03.04.09
  13. International Traffic Network, The world trade in sharks: a compendium of Traffic's regional studies, (Traffic International: 1996), p.25.
  14. "Somalia – Climate", countrystudies.us, 14 may 2009.
  15. John Kenrick, Phoenicia, (B. Fellowes: 1855), p. 199.
  16. Jeanne Rose, John Hulburd, The aromatherapy book: applications & inhalations, (North Atlantic Books: 1992), p. 94.
  17. Charnan, Simon (1990). Explorers of the Ancient World, Childrens Press. URL accessed 2011-08-07.
  18. (1984). "The Mariner's mirror". The Mariner's Mirror 66–71.|accessdate=2011-08-07
  19. Christine El Mahdy, Egypt : 3000 Years of Civilization Brought to Life, (Raincoast Books: 2005), p.297.
  20. Stefan Goodwin, Africa's legacies of urbanization: unfolding saga of a continent, (Lexington Books: 2006), p. 48.
  21. Mariam Arif Gassem, Somalia: clan vs. nation, (s.n.: 2002), p. 4
  22. Kevin Shillington, Encyclopedia of African history‎, (CRC Press: 2005), p. 1406.
  23. Samatar, Said Sheikh (1982). Oral Poetry and Somali Nationalism, 131 & 135, Cambridge University Press.
  24. Greystone Press Staff, The Illustrated Library of The World and Its Peoples: Africa, North and East, (Greystone Press: 1967), p. 338.
  25. Somalia – CIA World Factbook.
  26. "The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic". University of Pretoria. 1 Pébruari 2004. Diakses pada 26 Juli 2011. 
  27. Gettleman, Jeffrey, "Harvard-Educated Technocrat Chosen as Somalia Premier", 2011-06-23. Disalin 2011-06-23.
  28. Central Intelligence Agency, The CIA World Factbook 2010, Book 2010, (Skyhorse Publishing Inc.: 2009), p. 620.
  29. "Central Bank of Somalia – Economy and Finance". Somalbanca.org. Diakses pada 30 Désémber 2010. 

Bibliograpi[édit | sunting sumber]

Bacaan salajengna[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Cassanelli, Lee V., The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600–1900, (University of Pennsylvania Press: 1982)
  • Cerulli, Enrico, Somalia: Scritti Vari Editi ed Inediti, (Istituto poligrafico dello Stato: 1957)
  • Hess, Robert L., Italian Colonialism in Somalia, (University of Chicago: 1966)
  • Hoehne, Markus and Luling, Virginia, Milk and Peace, Drought and War: Somali Culture, Society and Politics, (C. Hurst & Co. Publishers Ltd, 2010)
  • Ismail, Ismail Ali, Governance:The Scourge and Hope of Somalia, (Trafford: 2011)
  • Lewis, I.M., A Modern History of the Somali: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa (James Currey, 2002)
  • Lewis, I.M., Pastoral Democracy: A study on Pastoralism and Politics among the Northern Somali clans, (Ohio University Press: 1958)
  • Mauri, Arnaldo, Banking Development in Somalia, SSRN 958442 (1971).
  • Menkhaus, Ken, Somalia: State Collapse and the Threat of Terrorism, (Routledge, 2005)
  • Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji, Arabic Sources on Somalia, (Somali National University: 1987).
  • Osman, Abdulahi A. and Souare, Issaka K., Somalia at the Crossroads: Challenges and Perspectives in Reconstituting a Failed State, (Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd, 2007)
  • Van Notten, Michael, The Law of the Somalis: A Stable Foundation for Economic Development in the Horn of Africa, First Printing edition, (The Red Sea Press: 2005)

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]

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