Kamerun

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République du Cameroun
Républik Kamerun
Bandéra Kamerun Coat of Arms Kamerun
Motto
"Paix – Travail – Patrie"
"Rapih – Gawé – Lemah Cai"
Lagu
Ô Cameroun, Berceau de nos Ancêtres
O Kamerun, Lemah Cai pun Bapa 1

Location of Kamerun
Lokasi  Kamerun  (héjo kolot)

– di Afrika  (paul & kulawu kolot)
– di Uni Afrika  (paul)  —  [Legenda]

Ibu kota Yaoundé[1]
3°52′N 11°31′E
Kota panggedéna Douala[1]
Basa resmi Basa Perancis jeung Inggris (de facto)
Démonim Cameroonian
Pamaréntah Républik
 -  Présidén Paul Biya[1]
 -  Perdana Mentri Philémon Yang
Kamerdikaan ti Perancis 
 -  Didéklarasikeun 1 Januari 1960 
 -  Anéksasi urut Kamerun Britania 1 Oktober 1961 
Aréa
 -  Total 475.442 km² (ka-54)
183.568 mil² 
 -  Cai (%) 1,3
Populasi
 -  Perkiraan  Juli 2009 19.100.000 (ka-58)
 -  Sénsus 2003 15.746.179 
 -  Kapadetan 39,7 /km² (ka-167)
102,8 /mil²
GDP (PPP) Perkiraan 2010
 -  Total $44,327 milyar[2] 
 -  Per kapita $2.170[2] 
GDP (nominal) Perkiraan 2010
 -  Total $22,478 milyar[2] 
 -  Per kapita $1.100[2] 
Gini? (2001) 44,6[3] (sedeng
HDI (2010) Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 0,460 (handap[4]) (ka-131)
Mata uang Franc CFA Afrika Tengah (XAF)
Zona wanci WAT (UTC+1)
 -  Usum panas (DST) teu kaobsérvasi (UTC+1)
TLD Internét .cm
Kode telepon +237
1 Judul ieu sakumaha disebutkeun dina Constitution of the Republic of Cameroon, Pasal X. Vérsi basa Perancisna kadang disebut "Chant de Ralliement", sakumaha dina National Anthems of the World, jeung vérsi basa Inggrisna "O Cameroon, Cradle of Our Forefathers", sakumaha dina DeLancey jeung DeLancey 61.

Kamerun, resmina Républik Kamerun (Basa Prancis: République du Cameroun), mangrupakeun hiji nagara di Afrika Tengah kulon. Nagara ieu tepung wates jeung Nigeria di kulon; Chad di kalér-wétan; Républik Afrika Tengah di wétan; sarta Guinéa Khatulistiwa, Gabon, jeung Républik Kongo di kidul. Basisirna Kamerun wawatesan jeung Teluk Bonny, bagian ti Teluk Guinéa jeung Samudra Atlantik. Nagara ieu kalandi "Miniatur Afrika" pikeun bébéda géologis jeung kabudayaanna. Objék alami saperti basisir, sagara, gunung, leuweung hujan, jeung savana. Titik nu pangluhurna nya éta Gunung Kamerun di beulah kidul-kulon, sarta kota panggedéna nya éta Douala, Yaoundé, jeung Garoua. Kamrun miboga leuwih ti 200 grup basa nu bébéda. Nagara ieu katelah tina gaya musik aslina, utamina makossa jeung bikutsi, sarta tina tim maén bal nasionalna nu suksés. Basa Perancis jeung Basa Inggris mangrupakeun basa resmi.

Padumuk awal ti wewengkon ieu kaasup Paadaban Sao di sabundereun Dano Chad jeung pamoro-pangumpul Baka dina leuweung hujan tenggara. Panjelajah Portugis nepi ka basisirna dina abad ka-15 jeung méré ngaran wewengkon éta Rio dos Camarões ("Walungan Hurang"), ngaran ti mana dibeunangkeun ngaran Kamerun. Tentara Fula[5] ngadegkeun Emirat Adamawa di beulah kalér dina abad ka-19, jeung rupa-rupa grup étnis ti kulon jeung kalér-kulon ngadegkeun séké-séké jeung kafonan. Kamerun jadi jajahan Jérman dina 1884.

Sanggeus Perand Dunya I, wewengkon ieu dibagi antara Perancis jeung Britania salaku mandat Liga Bangsa-Bangsa. Partéy pulitik Union des Populations du Cameroun ngadukung kamerdikaan tapi teu disahkeun ku Perancis dina 1950-an. Dina 1960, Perancis ngadministradi sabagian Kamerun jadi merdika salaku Républik Kamerun dina Présidén Ahmadou Ahidjo. Bagian kidulna, Kamerun Britania, ngagabung dina 1961 pikeun ngawangun Républik Féderal Kamerun. Nagara ieu diganti ngaranna kana Républik Kahijian Kamerun dina 1972 sarta teras Républik Kamerun dina 1984.

Dibandingkeun nagara Afrika lianna, Kamerun miboga stabilitas pulitis jeung sosial nu rélatif luhur. Hal ieu ngidinkeun kamekaran tatanén, jalan, rél, jeung industri ageung minyak bumi sarta kai. Tapi, raloba urang Kamerun anu miskin salaku patani. Kakawasaan aya dina présidén otoritér ti 1982, Paul Biya, jeung partéyna, Pagerakan Démokratik Urang Kamerun.

Région[édit | sunting sumber]

Artikel utama: Région di Kamerun, Divisi Kamerun
Kamerun dibagi kana 10 région.

Konstitusi ngabagi Kamerun kana 10 région semi-otonom, masing-masing dina administrasi Déwan Régional. Dekrét présidénsial 12 Nopémber 2008 resmi nyarankeun parobihan ti propinsi ka région.[6] Région-régionna dibagi deui kana (total) 58 divisi (départements). Divisi-divisina salajengna dibagi deui kana sub-divisi (arrondissements).

Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Catetan[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. a b c "Cameroon". Infoplease. Diakses pada 27 Méi 2011. 
  2. a b c d "Cameroon". International Monetary Fund. Diakses pada 21 April 2011. 
  3. "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. Diakses pada 1 Séptémber 2009. 
  4. Country profile of human development indicators – Cameroon. Hdrstats.undp.org. Retrieved on 2011-09-24.
  5. Dina Basa Fula: Fulɓe; dina Basa Prancis: Peul atawa Peuhl.
  6. Décret N° 2008/376 du 12 novembre 2008, President of the Republic website. Accessed 9 June 2009.

Réferénsi[édit | sunting sumber]

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  • "Cameroon". Amnesty International Report 2006. Amnesty International Publications. Accessed 6 April 2007.
  • "Cameroon". Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 6 March 2007. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State. Accessed 6 April 2007.
  • "Cameroon". Human Development Report 2006. United Nations Development Programme. Accessed 6 April 2007.
  • "Cameroon". The World Factbook. United States Central Intelligence Agency. 15 March 2007. Accessed 6 April 2007.
  • "Cameroon". UNAIDS. Accessed 6 April 2007.
  • "Cameroon (2006)". Country Report: 2006 Edition. Freedom House, Inc. Accessed 6 April 2007.
  • "Cameroon – Annual Report 2007". Reporters without Borders. Accessed 6 April 2007.
  • "CAMEROON: New anti-corruption drive leaves many sceptical". 27 January 2006. IRIN. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Accessed 6 April 2007.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Cameroon (English and French versions). 18 January 1996. Accessed 6 April 2007.
  • "Corruption Perceptions Index 2007". Transparency International. Accessed 28 September 2007.
  • DeLancey, Mark W., and Mark Dike DeLancey (2000): Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon (3rd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press.
  • Demographic Yearbook 2004. United Nations Statistics Division.
  • "2006 Elections to the Human Rights Council: Background information on candidate countries". May 2006. Amnesty International Publications. Accessed 6 April 2007.
  • Fanso, V. G. (1989). Cameroon History for Secondary Schools and Colleges, Vol. 1: From Prehistoric Times to the Nineteenth Century. Hong Kong: Macmillan Education Ltd.
  • Fitzpatrick, Mary (2002). "Cameroon." Lonely Planet West Africa, 5th ed. China: Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd.
  • Fomensky, R., M. Gwanfogbe, and F. Tsala, editorial advisers (1985) Macmillan School Atlas for Cameroon. Malaysia: Macmillan Education Ltd.
  • Fonge, Fuabeh P. (1997). Modernization without Development in Africa: Patterns of Change and Continuity in Post-Independence Cameroonian Public Service. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, Inc.
  • Geschiere, Peter (1997). The Modernity of Witchcraft: Politics and the Occult in Postcolonial Africa. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
  • Gwanfogbe, Mathew, Ambrose Meligui, Jean Moukam, and Jeanette Nguoghia (1983). Geography of Cameroon. Hong Kong: Macmillan Education Ltd.
  • "Highest Average Annual Precipitation Extremes". Global Measured Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation, National Climatic Data Center, 9 August 2004. Accessed 6 April 2007.
  • Hudgens, Jim, and Richard Trillo (1999). West Africa: The Rough Guide. 3rd ed. London: Rough Guides Ltd.
  • International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (28 May 2007). "Cameroon: Population Movement; DREF Bulletin no. MDRCM004". ReliefWeb. Accessed 18 June 2007.
  • Kandemeh, Emmanuel (17 July 2007). "Journalists Warned against Declaring Election Results", Cameroon Tribune. Accessed 18 July 2007.
  • Lantum, Daniel M., and Martin Ekeke Monono (2005). "Republic of Cameroon", Who Global Atlas of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine. World Health Organization.
  • MacDonald, Brian S. (1997). "Case Study 4: Cameroon", Military Spending in Developing Countries: How Much Is Too Much? McGill-Queen's University Press.
  • Matthews, Andy (12 March 2008). "Cameroon protests in USA", Africa News. Accessed 13 March 2008.
  • Mbaku, John Mukum (2005). Culture and Customs of Cameroon. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
  • Musa, Tansa (8 April 2008). "Biya plan to keep power in Cameroon clears hurdle". Reuters. Accessed 9 April 2008.
  • Musa, Tansa (27 June 2007). "Gunmen kill one, kidnap 22 in Cameroon near CAR". Reuters. Accessed 27 June 2007.
  • Neba, Aaron (1999). Modern Geography of the Republic of Cameroon, 3rd ed. Bamenda: Neba Publishers.
  • Niba, Francis Ngwa (20 February 2007). "New language for divided Cameroon". BBC News. Accessed 6 April 2007.
  • Njeuma, Dorothy L. (no date). "Country Profiles: Cameroon". The Boston College Center for International Higher Education. Accessed 11 April 2008.
  • Nkemngu, Martin A. (11 March 2008). "Facts and Figures of the Tragic Protests", Cameroon Tribune. Accessed 12 March 2008.
  • Nkolo, Jean-Victor, and Graeme Ewens (2000). "Cameroon: Music of a Small Continent". World Music, Volume 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East. London: Rough Guides Ltd.
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  • Sa'ah, Randy Joe (23 June 2006). "Cameroon girls battle 'breast ironing'". BBC News. Accessed 6 April 2007.
  • Swarovski Orchestra (2004). National Anthems of the World. Koch International Classics. Audio CD.
  • Volet, Jean-Marie (10 November 2006). "Cameroon Literature at a glance". Reading women writers and African literatures. Accessed 6 April 2007.
  • West, Ben (2004). Cameroon: The Bradt Travel Guide. Guilford, Connecticut: The Globe Pequot Press Inc.
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  • World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision Population Database. 2006. United Nations Population Division. Accessed 6 April 2007.

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]

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