Apganistan

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جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان
Jamhūrī-ye Islāmī-ye Afġānistān
Républik Islam Apganistan
Bandéra Apganistan Lambang Apganistan
Bandéra Lambang
Lagu
Milli Surood
Surood-e Milli

Location of Apganistan
Ibu kota Kabul
34°31′N 69°08′E
Kota panggedéna Ibu kota
Basa resmi Pérsia (Dari), Pastun
Démonim Apgan
Pamaréntah Républik Islam
 -  Présidén Hamid Karzai
 -  Wakil Présidén (kahiji) Mohammad Qasim Fahim
 -  Wakil Présidén (kadua) Karim Khalili
Merdika ti Britania 
 -  Déklarasi 8 Agustus, 1919 
 -  Diaku 19 Agustus, 1919 
Aréa
 -  Total 647.500 km² (ka-41)
251.772 mil² 
 -  Cai (%) 0
Populasi
 -  Perkiraan  2007 31.889.923 (ka-37)
 -  Sénsus 1979 13.051.358 
 -  Kapadetan 46 /km² (ka-150)
119 /mil²
GDP (PPP) Perkiraan 2006
 -  Total $32,4 miliar (ka-92)
 -  Per kapita $1.490 (ka-158)
HDI (1993) 0.229 (n/a) (teu karengking)
Mata uang Afghani (AFN)
Zona wanci (UTC+4:30)
 -  Usum panas (DST)  (UTC+4:30)
TLD Internét .af
Kode telepon +93

Apganistan, resmina Républik Islam Apganistan (Basa Pérsia: جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان, Basa Pastun: د افغانستان اسلامى جمهوريت ), nya éta hiji nagara singkur nu aya di jajantungna Asia. Dicaturkeun kénéh ngeunaan perenahna Apganistan sacara géograpis, naha aya di Asia Tengah[1][2], Wétan Tengah[3][4][5][6], atawa Asia Kidul[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. Apganistan boga patula patali jeung nagara tatanggana sacara relijieus, kasukuan jeung basa, sarta géograpis. Diwatesan ku Pakistan di wétan jeung ,[15] Iran di kulon, Turkménistan, Uzbékistan, jeung Tajikistan di kalér, sarta Cina jauh di wétan kaléreunnana. Ngaran Apganistan hartina "Lemah Apgan."

Babagian administratif[édit | sunting sumber]

Apganistan administratifna dibagi kana 34 propnsi (wilayats), kalawan unggal propinsi miboga ibu kotana sorangan jeung hiji pamaréntahan kapropinsian. Propinsi-propinsina teras dibagi kana (total: kira-kira 398) distrik.

Gubernur propinsi ditunjuk ku Présidén Apganistan sarta gubernur distrik dipilih ku gubernur propinsi. Gubernur propinsi nyaéta pawakilan pikeun pamaréntah puseur di Kabul sarta mibanda tanggung jawab kana sadaya perkawis pamaréntahan jeung kanegrian dina propinsi-propinsina. Aya ogé déwan propinsi nu dipilih langkung pamilu langsung pikeun jabatan 4 warsih.[16] Kagunaan déwan propinsi nyaéta pikeun nyandak bagian dina rancangan pamekaran propinsi jeung ngring dina ngawasan jeung meunteunan lembaga kapropinsian lian.

Dumasar kana Pasal 140 konstitusi jeung dekrit présidén dina hukum pamilihan, walikota kedah dipilih ;angkung pamilu nu bébas jeung langsung pikeun jabatan 4 warsih. Tapi, ku sabab masalah biaya, pamilu kota teu pernah dilaksanakeun, sarta walikota ditunjuk ku pamaréntah. Pikeun ibu kota nagara, Kabul, walikotana ditunjuk ku Présidén Apganistan.

Di handap nyaéta 34 propinsi di Apganistan dina susunan alfabétis sarta petana kalawan nomer di mana propinsi éta ayana.

Apganistan dibagi kana 34 propinsi sarta unggal propinsi salajengna dibagi kana distrik-distrik
  1. Badakhshan
  2. Badghis
  3. Baghlan
  4. Balkh
  5. Bamyan
  6. Daykundi
  7. Farah
  8. Faryab
  9. Ghazni
  10. Ghor
  11. Helmand
  12. Herat
  13. Jowzjan
  14. Kabul
  15. Kandahar
  16. Kapisa
  17. Khost
  18. Konar
  19. Kunduz
  20. Laghman
  21. Logar
  22. Nangarhar
  23. Nimruz
  24. Nurestan
  25. Oruzgan
  26. Paktia
  27. Paktika
  28. Panjshir
  29. Parvan
  30. Samangan
  31. Sare Pol
  32. Takhar
  33. Wardak
  34. Zabol

Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Perangko

Bibliograpi[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1977). An Historical Guide to Afghanistan. 2nd Edition. Revised and Enlarged. Afghan Tourist Organization.
  • Fowler, Corinne. Chasing Tales: Travel writing, journalism and the history of British ideas about Afghanistan, 2007 (forthcoming), Rodopi, Amsterdam and New York.
  • Ghobar, Mir Gholam Mohammad. Afghanistan in the Course of History, 1999, All Prints Inc. [3]
  • Griffiths, John C. 1981. Afghanistan: A History of Conflict. André Deutsch, London. Updated edition, 2001. Andre Deutsch Ltd, 2002, ISBN 0-233-05053-1.
  • Levi, Peter. 1972. The Light Garden of the Angel King: Journeys in Afghanistan. Collins, 1972, ISBN 0-00-211042-3. Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1973, Indianapolis/New York, ISBN 0-672-51252-1.
  • Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825, Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971. Oxford University Press, 1979, ISBN 0-19-577199-0.
  • Rashid, Ahmed (2000) "Taliban - Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia", Yale University Press
  • Caroe, Olaf. 1958. The Pathans (on the ethnic origin of Afghans).
  • Shahrani, M. Nazif. (1979) The Kirghiz and Wakhi of Afghanistan: Adaptation to Closed Frontiers and War. University of Washington Press. 1st paperback edition with new preface and epilogue (2002). ISBN 0-295-98262-4.
  • Toynbee, Arnold J. 1961. Between Oxus and Jumna. Oxford University Press, London. ISBN B0006DBR44.
  • Wood, John. 1872. A Journey to the Source of the River Oxus. New Edition, edited by his son, with an essay on the "Geography of the Valley of the Oxus" by Henry Yule. John Murray, London. Gregg Division McGraw-Hill, 1971, ISBN 0-576-03322-7.
  • Heathcote, T.A. The Afghan Wars 1839–1999, 1980,2003, Spellmount Staplehurst.
  • Rall, Ted. 2002. "To Afghanistan and Back: A Graphic Travelogue" New York: NBM Publishing.
  • Vogelsang, Willem. 2002. The Afghans. Blackwell Publishers. Oxford. ISBN 0631198415.

Rujukan jeung catetan suku[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. http://web.utah.edu/meca/2007Conf/2007%20MECA-%20Final%20Program.pdf
  2. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/reo/2006/eng/01/mreo0506.pdf
  3. http://menic.utexas.edu/Countries_and_Regions/Afghanistan UT - MENIC
  4. Afghanistan Profile, National Geographic (dicutatd 20 Januari 2006).
  5. Afghanistan, CIA Factbook (dicutat 20 Januari 2006).
  6. Afghanistan, Middle East Institute (dicutat 20 Januari 2006).
  7. Center for South Asia Studies: University of California, Berkeley
  8. Center for South Asia Outreach UW-Madison
  9. Department of South Asia Studies: University of Pennsylvania
  10. South Asia: Data, Projects, and Research
  11. MAPS SHOWING GEOLOGY, OIL AND GAS FIELDS AND GEOLOGICAL PROVINCES OF SOUTH ASIA [1] Includes Afghanistan
  12. Afghanistan-Tajikistan Bridge Links Central, South Asia [2] Refers to Afghanistan as South Asian and Tajikistan as Central Asian
  13. University of Washington Jackson School of International Studies: The South Asia Center http://jsis.washington.edu/advise/catalog/soasia-b.html
  14. Syracruse University: The South Asia Center http://www.maxwell.syr.edu/moynihan/programs/sac/
  15. Catetan suku: The Government of India also considers Afghanistan to be a bordering country. This is because it considers the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir to be a part of India including the portion bordering Afghanistan. A ceasefire sponsored by the United Nations in 1948 froze the positions of Indian and Pakistani held territory. As a consequence, the region bordering Afghanistan is in Pakistani-administered territory.
  16. "Explaining Elections, Independent Election Commission of Afghanistan". Iec.org.af. 9 Oktober 2004. Diakses pada 4 Pébruari 2012. 

Tumbu luar[édit | sunting sumber]

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