Irak

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جمهورية العراق
Jumhūriyyat ul-ʿIrāq
Jomhūrī-ye Īrāq
Républik Irak
Bandéra Irak Lambang Irak
Motto
الله أكبر   (Basa Arab)
"Allahu Akbar"  (transliterasi)
"Gusti nu Maha Agung"
Lagu
Mawtini  (new)
Ardh Alforatain  (previous)1
Location of Irak
Ibu kota Baghdad2
33°20′N 44°26′E
Kota panggedéna ibu kota
Basa resmi Arab, Kurdi3, Aramaik
Démonim Irak
Pamaréntah Developing parliamentary democracy
 -  Presiden Jalal Talabani
 -  Perdana Mentri Nouri al-Maliki
Merdika
 -  ti Kakaisaran Usmani
1 Oktober 1919 
 -  ti United Kingdom
3 Oktober 1932 
 -  Cai (%) 1.1
Populasi
 -  Perkiraan  2006 26,783,3834 (ka-40)
GDP (PPP) Perkiraan 2006
 -  Total $89.8 miliar (ka-61)
 -  Per kapita $2,900 (ka-130)
Mata uang Dinar Irak (IQD)
Zona wanci AST (UTC+3)
 -  Usum panas (DST) ADT (UTC+4)
TLD Internét .iq
Kode telepon +964
1 Urang Kurdi make Ey Reqîb.
2 Ibu kota Kurdistan Irak nyaeta Arbil.
3 Basa Arab jeung Kurdi mangrupakeun basa resmi dina pamarentahan Irak. Dumasar kana Artikel 4, Bagéan 4 Undang-undang Dasar Irak, Assyrian (Syriac) (a dialect of Aramaic) and Iraqi Turkmen (a dialect of Southern Azerbaijani) languages are official in areas where the respective populations they constitute density of population.
4 CIA World Factbook

Republik Irak, biasana katelah Irak (Basa Arab: العراق , IPA: ʕiˈrɑːq), nyaeta hiji nagara di Wétan Tengah nu ngampar kalolobaannana di tungtung kulon kaler Pagunungan Zagros-, bagean wetan Gurun Siria sarta bagean kaler Gurun Arabia. Irak diwatesan ku Kuwait jeung Saudi Arabia di beh kidul, Jordania di kulon, Suriah di kulon kaler, Turki di beh kaler sarta Iran di wetaneunnana. Irak boga bagean basisir nu heureut di Umm Qasr di Teluk Persia. Aya dua walungan nu ngalir: Tigris jeung Éfrat. Dua walungan ieu nyababkeun lemah Irak bisa dipake tatanen, patukang tonggong jeung lanskap gurun nu nutupan kalolobaan wewengkon di Wétan Tengah.

Iraq is a developing parliamentary democracy composed of 18 governorates (known as muhafadhat). The capital city, Baghdad, is in the center-east. Iraq's rich history dates back to ancient Mesopotamia. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers is identified as the Fertile Crescent—the cradle of civilization—and the birthplace of writing. During its long history, Iraq has been the center of the Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian and Abbasid empires, and part of the Achaemenid, Macedonian, Parthian, Umayyad, Sassanid, Ottoman and British empires.

Since an invasion in 2003, a multinational coalition of forces, mainly American and British, has occupied Iraq. The invasion has had wide-reaching consequences: increased civil violence, political breakdown, the removal and execution of former president Saddam Hussein, and national problems in the development of political balance, economy, infrastructure, and use of the country's huge reserves of oil. According to the 2007 Failed States Index, produced by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace's Foreign Policy magazine and the Fund for Peace, Iraq has recently emerged as the world's second most unstable country,[1] after Sudan.[2]

Tempo oge[édit | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]

Bacaan salajengna[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Interview with Refugees International's Sean Garcia on the plight of hundreds of thousands of Iraqi refugees [1]
  • Shadid, Anthony 2005. Night Draws Near. Henry Holt and Co., NY, USA. ISBN 0-8050-7602-6
  • Hanna Batatu, "The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq", Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978
  • Iraq was one of the major settings for the John J. Rust science fiction novel "Epsilon"
  • A Dweller in Mesopotamia, being the adventures of an official artist in the garden of Eden, by Donald Maxwell, 1921. (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format)
  • By Desert Ways to Baghdad, by Louisa Jebb (Mrs. Roland Wilkins) With illustrations and a map, 1908 (1909 ed). (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format)

Tumbu luar[édit | sunting sumber]

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