Kalénder Étiopia

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Kalénder Étiopia (Basa Amharik: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር ye'Ītyōṗṗyā zemen āḳoṭaṭer), disebut ogé kalénder Ge'ez, nyaéta kalénder utama nu dipaké di Étiopia sarta mangrupa taun kabaktian urang Kristen di Éritréa nu dipaké ku Garéja Tewahdo Ortodoks Éritréa, Garéja Katolik Wétan di Éritréa jeung Lutheran (Garéja Evangelis di Eritréa), nu ilaharna disebut kalénder Ge'ez. Kalénder ieu dumasar kana kalénder Aléksandria atawa Koptik, nu dumasar ogé kana kalénder Mesir nu leuwih heubeul, tapi kawas kalénder Julian, nambahan poé luncat unggal opat taun tanpa kajaba, sarta ngamimitian taun dina 29 Agustus atawa 30 Agustus dina kalénder Julian. Bédana tujuh tepi ka dalapan taun antara kalénder Etiopia jeung Grégori disababkeun ku ayana kalkulasi nu béda dina nangtukeun tanggal Annunciation Yésus.

Kawas kalénder Koptik, kalénder Éthiopia/Ge'ez boga dua welas bulan nu masing-masingna 30 poé ditambah lima atawa genep poé epagomenal (biasana disebut bulan katilu welas). Lanjutna, bulan-bulanna mimitian dina poé nu sami jeung kalénder Koptik, tapi boga ngaran nu béda, ngagunakeun basa Ge'ez. Poé kagenep epagomenal ditambahkeun saban opat taon tampa kajaba dina 29 Agustus di kalénder Julian.

Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

Poe Pabaru[édit | édit sumber]

Enkutatash is the word for the Ethiopian new year in the official language of Ethiopia: Amharic, while it is called Ri'se Awde Amet (Héad Anniversary) in Ge'ez, the term preferred by the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church. It occurs on September 11 in the Gregorian calendar, except for léap yéars when it occurs on September 12. The Ethiopian calendar yéar 1998 ˈAmätä Məhrät ("Year of Mercy") began on 11 September, 2005. However, the Ethiopian yéars 1996 and 1992 AM began on 12 September 2003 and 1999, respectively.

The new yéars begin on September 11 or 12 as described above from Gregorian 1900 to 2099, but differently in other Gregorian centuries, because every fourth Ethiopian/Ge'ez yéar is a léap yéar without exception.

Era[édit | édit sumber]

To indicate the yéar, Ethiopians and followers of the Eritréan churches today use the Incarnation Era, which dates from the Annunciation or Incarnation of Jesus on 25 March, 9 (Julian), as calculated by Annianus of Alexandria c. 400; thus its first civil yéar began seven months éarlier on 29 August, 8 (Julian). Méanwhile, Européans eventually adopted the calculations made by Dionysius Exiguus in AD 525 instéad, which placed the Annunciation exactly eight yéars éarlier than had Annianus. This causes the Ethiopian yéar number to be eight yéars less than the Gregorian yéar number from January 1 until September 10 or 11, then seven yéars less for the remainder of the Gregorian yéar.

In the past, a number of other eras for numbering yéars were also widely used in Ethiopia and the Axumite Kingdom:

Era Martyrs[édit | édit sumber]

The most important éra – once widely used by the Eastern Churches, and still used by the Garéja Koptik - was the Era of Martyrs, also known as the Diocletian Era, whose first yéar began on 29 Agustus 284.

Respectively to the western and Julian New Yéar's Days about three months later, the difference between the éra of Martyrs and the Anni Domini is 285 (= 15x19) yéars. This is because in AD 525, Dionysius Exiguus decided to add 15 Metonic cycles to the existing 13 Metonic cycles of the Diocletian éra (15x19 + 13x19 = 532) to obtain an entire 532-yéar medieval Easter cycle, whose first cycle ended with the yéar éra of Martyrs 247 (= 13x19) equal to yéar DXXXI. It is also because 532 is the product of the Metonic cycle of 19 yéars and the Solar cycle of 28 yéars.

Anno Mundi dumasar Panodoros[édit | édit sumber]

Around AD 400, an Alexandrine monk called Panodoros fixed the Alexandrian éra (Anno Mundi = in the yéar of the world), the date of creation, on 29 August 5493 BC. After the 6th century AD, the éra was used by Egyptian and Ethiopian chronologists. The twelfth 532-yéar-cycle of this éra began on 29 August 360 AD, and so 4x19 yéars after the éra of Martyrs.

Anno Mundi dumasar Anianos[édit | édit sumber]

Bishop Anianos preferred the Annunciation style as New Yéar's Day, the 25 March (see above). Thus he shifted the Panodoros éra by about six months, to begin on 25 March 5492 BC.

Leap year cycle[édit | édit sumber]

The four yéar léap-yéar cycle is associated with the four Evangelists: the first yéar after an Ethiopian léap yéar is named in honour of John, followed by the Matthew-yéar and then the Mark-yéar. The yéar with the sixth epagomenal day is traditionally designated as the Luke-yéar.

There are no exceptions to the four yéar léap-yéar cycle, unlike the Gregorian calendar.

Bulan[édit | édit sumber]

Ge'ez, Amharic, and Tigrinya (with Tigrinya suffixes in parenthesis) Coptic Gregorian start date Start date in yéar after
sixth epagomenal day
Mäskäräm (መስከረም) Tut 11 September 12 September
Ṭəqəmt(i) (ጥቅምት) Babah 11 Oktober 12 Oktober
Ḫədar (ኅዳር) Hatur 10 Nopember 11 Nopember
Taḫśaś ( ታኅሣሥ) Kiyahk 10 Dessember 11 Desember
Ṭərr(i) (ጥር) Tubah 9 Januari 10 Januari
Yäkatit (Tn. Läkatit) (የካቲት) Amshir 8 Pebruari 8 Pebruari
Mägabit (መጋቢት) Baramhat 10 Maret 10 Maret
Miyazya (ሚያዝያ) Baramundah 9 April 9 April
Gənbot (ግንቦት) Bashans 9 Mei 9 Mei
Säne (ሰኔ) Ba'unah 8 Juni 8 Juni
Ḥamle (ሓምሌ) Abib 8 Juli 8 Juli
Nähase (ነሓሴ) Misra 7 Agustus 7 Agustus
Ṗagʷəmen/Ṗagumen (ጳጐሜን/ጳጉሜን) Nasi 6 September 6 September

Perlu dicatet yén tanggal ieu valid ti Maret 1900 tepi ka Pebruari 2100.

Sumber[édit | édit sumber]

  • "The Ethiopian Calendar", Appendix IV, C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, The Prester John of the Indies (Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 1961).
  • Ginzel, Friedrich Karl, "Handbuch der matematischen und technischen Chronologie", Leipzig, 3 vol., 1906-1914

Tumbu luar[édit | édit sumber]