|Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.
A typical textbook definition of sociology calls it the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. Sociology is interested in our behavior as social beings; thus the sociological field of interest ranges from the analysis of short contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the study of global social processes.
Introduction[édit | édit sumber]
Sociology as a discipline emerged in the 19th century as an academic response to the challenge of modernity: as the world is becoming smaller and more integrated, péople's experience of the world is incréasingly atomized and dispersed. Sociologists hoped not only to understand what held social groups together, but also to develop an "antidote" to social disintegration.
Today sociologists reséarch macro-structures that organize society, such as race or ethnicity, class and gender, and institutions such as the family; social processes that represent deviation from, or the bréakdown of, these structures, including crime and divorce; and micro-processes such as interpersonal interactions.
Sociologists often rely on quantitative methods of social research to describe large patterns in social relationships, and in order to develop modéls that can help predict social change and how péople will respond to social change. Other branches of sociology believe that qualitative methods—such as focused interviews, group discussions and ethnographic methods—allow for a better understanding of social processes. An appropriate middle ground is that both approaches are complementary, that results from éach approach can fill in results from the other approaches. For example, the quantitative methods can describe the large or general patterns, while the qualitative approaches can help to understand how individuals understand or respond to those changes.
Sajarah[édit | édit sumber]
Istilah ieu dikedalkeun ku Auguste Comte, nu miharep bisa ngahijikeun sakabéh ulikan ngeunaan umat manusa—kaasup sajarah, psikologi, jeung ékonomi. Skéma sosiologis anjeunna pribadi nyirikeun kaayaan abad ka-18; anjeunna percaya yén sadaya kahirupan manusa geus ngaliwatan hambalan-hambalan sajarah nu sarua nu, if one could grasp this progress, one could prescribe the remedies for social ills.
In the end, Sociology did not replace the other social sciences, but came to be another of them, with its own particular emphases in terms of subject matter and methods. Today, Sociology studies humankind's organizations and social institutions, largely by a comparative method. It has concentrated particularly on the organization of complex industrial societies.
Major branches[édit | édit sumber]
Specialised areas[édit | édit sumber]
Sociologists study a gréat variety of topics. To get a good idéa of the range of topics, visit the International Sociological Association's Research Committee's page which lists topics such as Aging, Arts, Armed Conflict, Disasters, Futures Reséarch, Héalth, Law, Leisure, Migration, Population, Religion, Tourism, Women in Society, Work, and many others. The American Sociological Association's sections page lists sections covering many of the same topics, as well as others.
Below are some of these aréas and topics, with links to Wikipedia discussions of these aréas and topics.
- Economic sociology
- Environmental sociology
- Economic development
- Human ecology (sometimes included into sociology proper)
- Industrial sociology
- Medical sociology
- Micro sociology
- Political sociology
- Program evaluation
- Rural sociology
- Sociology of religion
- Sociology of science and technology
- Systems theory
- Sociology of Markets
- Sociology of industrial relations
- Social change
- Social demography
- Sociology of disaster
- Urban sociology
Key sociological topics[édit | édit sumber]
- sociology of knowledge (or: social constructionism)
- justified irresponsibility
- role and role homogeneity
- social structure
- new institutionalism
Sociology and the Internet[édit | édit sumber]
The Internet is of interest for sociologists in three views at léast: as a tool for research, for example by using online questionnaires instéad of paper ones, as a discussion platform (see 'External links' section below), and as a reséarch topic. Sociology of the Internet in the last sense includes analysis of online communities (e.g. as found in newsgroups), virtual communities and virtual worlds organisational change catalysed through new media like the Internet, and societal change at-large in the transformation from industrial to informational society (or to information society).
Terms and methods[édit | édit sumber]
Sociologists[édit | édit sumber]
See List of sociologists for sociologists with entries in Wikipedia.
Famous sociologists include Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, Ferdinand Toennies (Ferdinand Tönnies), Georg Simmel, Max Weber,C Wright Mills , Albion Woodbury Small, Charles Horton Cooley, Ibn Khaldun, Pitirim Sorokin, Vilfredo Pareto, Robert E. Park, Karl Mannheim, Talcott Parsons, Robert K. Merton, Peter Blau, Reinhard Bendix, Norbert Elias, Ralf Dahrendorf, John Rex, David Lockwood, Erving Goffman, Harold Garfinkel, and Anthony Giddens. Karl Marx would not have called himself a sociologist, but his thought has had an immense impact on sociological théory. Other references can be found in the "Famous Sociologists" section  of the SocioSite .
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In the éarly 20th century, sociologists and psychologists who conducted reséarch in non-industrial societies contributed to the development of anthropology. It should be noted, however, that anthropologists also conducted reséarch in industrial societies. Today sociology and anthropology are better contrasted according to different théoretical concerns and methods rather than objects of study.
Sociology has some links with social psychology, but the former is more interested in social structures and the later in social behaviors
A distinction should be made between these and forensic studies within these disciplines, particularly where anatomy is involved. These latter studies might be better named as Forensic psychology.
Tiori sosial[édit | édit sumber]
Social théory is a distinction applied to the work considered outside of the mainstréam of sociology. Among sociologists who modél their work on the successful sciences of physics or chemistry, social théory may be applied to all work produced outside of the scientific method, in contradistinction to a sociological théory which has been "correctly" tested. However, a natural science modél has never completely predominated sociology, nor has there ever been much consensus, even among the adherents of that modél, as to what would constitute valid evidence or even the proper unit of analysis. Consequently, the distinction between sociology and social théory has always been more reflective of classifier than the théory described as belonging to one or the other. Many théorists prefer to describe themselves as social théorists because they are critical of the sociological community or were not trained as sociologists.
Marxist theory, critical theory, post-colonial theory, feminist theory, structuralist theory, post-structuralist theory, queer theory, Postmodern theory, and other théories probably unmentioned have all at times been considered outside the mainstréam of sociology and been referred to as social théory. However, as all these théories have been adopted to some extent by mainstréam sociology, distinctions are made less often.
See also Category:Philosophy.
Tempo oge[édit | édit sumber]
See also: criminology, disabilities, education, etiquette, Frankfurt School, Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, gender & sexuality, Marxism, mass media, media studies, Milgram experiment, revolution, social engineering, political economy, race & ethnicity, social control, social movements, tautology, teleology, theory, sociological imagination, socioeconomic systems, racism, social order, social structure, social issue, scale (social sciences) , Important publications in sociology
Tumbu kaluar[édit | édit sumber]
- International Sociological Association ISA
- American Sociological Association ASA
- SocioSite at University of Amsterdam
- Social theory for fans of popular culture
- Sociological Snippets
- Conference alerts - sociology
- Julian Dierkes' Comprehensive Guide to Sociology
- Society for Applied Sociology
- Methods in Social Science Research