Ungkut-ungkut

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Ungkut-ungkut
Coppersmith Barbet (Megalaima haemacephala) by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg
Mangaon, Raigad, Maharashtra
Call
Status konservasi
Klasifikasi ilmiah edit
Missing taxonomy template (fix): Psilopogon
Spésiés:
Ngaran binomial
Template:Taxonomy/PsilopogonPsilopogon haemacephalus
Sinonim

Xantholaoema haemacephala, Megalaima haemacephala

Ungkut-ungkut (Psilopogon haemacephalus), crimson-breasted barbet atawa coppersmith (ing), nyaéta hiji manuk anu asalna tina genus Psilopogon. Bulu palebah luhureun pamatuk jeung palebah beuheungna beureum, pareng disada sorana kawas tukang patri tikajauhan keur nakolan kaléng. Éta manuk cicingna di India sareng bagéan Asia Tenggara. Nyieun sayang kujalan molongoan tangkal, gedé liangna saawakeun manéhna. Kahakananna sabangsaning gegeremet, sireum, hileud , utamana rinyuh anu aya dina tatangkalan.

Ciri mandiri[édit | édit sumber]

Juvenile coppersmith barbet in Kolkata

Aya bulu beureum dina tarangna palebah luhureun pamatuk katempo kawas maké (barét) , polét beureum ogé aya dina palebah beuheung deukeut kana hariguna.[2] Bulu luhureun panon sarta beuheung hareup kelirna konéng, sedengkeun palebah pundukna hideung.[3] Cekerna beureum, kukuna sekeut kelirna coklat kolot. Pangawakan 15–17 cm (5.9–6.7 in) panjang jeung beurat 30–52.6 g (1.06–1.86 oz).[4]

Taxonomy[édit | édit sumber]

Bucco haemacephalus tayalian ngaran ilmiah anu diusulkeun ku Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller 1776 pikeun Ungkut-ungkut ti Pilipina.[2] Bucco indicus Geus diusulkeun ku John Latham dina taun 1790 pikeun anu polet beureum ti India kalayan sirah hideung sareng tarang beureum.[5] Bucco roseus geus diusulkeun ku Charles Dumont de Sainte-Croix dina taun 1816.[6] Ungkut-ungkut Asia disimpen dina genus Megalaima diusulkeun ku George Robert Gray dina taun 1842 anu nyarankeun pikeun nganggo nami ieu tibatan Bucco.[7][8] Xantholaema intermedia diusulkeun ku George Ernest Shelley dina taun 1891 éta ti Negros sareng Cebu islands dina kumpulan tina British Museum.[9] Megalaima haemacephala delica diusulkeun ku Carl Parrot dina taun 1910 éta opat barbit ti Deli jeung Sumatra dina Bavarian State Collection of Zoology.[10] Megalaima haemacephala mindanensis diusulkeun ku Austin L. Rand dina taun 1948 ieu kapanggih ti Mount Apo di Mindanao.[11] Megalaema haemacephala celestinoi diusulkeun ku Ernest Thomas Gilliard dina taun 1949 ieu kapanggih ti Samar kapuloan anu aya di Pilipina.[12] Megalaema haemacephala cebuensis jeung Megalaema haemacephala homochroa diusulkeun ku Victoria Dziadosz ogé Kenneth Parkes dina taun 1984 ieu kapanggih masing-masing ti Toledo, Cebu jeung pulo Tablas, .[13]

Molecular phylogenetic hasil panalungtikan ngébréhkeun Megalaima spésiés tina clade, ogé kaasup dijerona fire-tufted barbet, ngan wungkul spésiés anu aya dina genus Psilopogon mangsa harita. Ungkut-ungkut ti Asia digolongkeunkana Psilopogon, baheulana mah. The coppersmith barbet baheulana Asian barbets bagian tina genetic divergence ogé spésiés.[14] Aya salapan subspésiés manuk ungkut-ungkut nu geus dicatet kalawan digolongkeun dina taun 2014:[4]

Sebaran sareng habitat[édit | édit sumber]

Di Sirikit Park

Habitan hirupna, éta nyicingan kebon, tegalan sareng leuweung leuweung anu henteu pati kekep. Habitat dina kai paéh anu cocog pikeun nyieun sayang paragi meuting. [15]

1,200 m (4,000 ft).[16] di India kalér, kapanggih hirup di landeuh Himalayas nepika palebah 910 m (3,000 ft). [17][18]

Ungkut-ungkut ti Gujarat

[3][19][20].[21]

Begér[édit | édit sumber]

Mangsa keur begér manuk ieu disarada, katempo tina tikorona melendung tuluy ngempesan deui, bobbing tina sirahna, buntutna nyentrik kaluhur, Eunteup rada anggang tina liang sayangna..[15][22]

Usum begér utamana bulan Pébruari dugi ka April di India sareng Désémber dugi ka Séptémber di Sri Lanka. Jalu sareng bikangna pilih ganti ngalaliang tangkal pikeun sayang, ilaharna sayang diperenahkeun handapeun dahan anu buni. Éta ogé anggang di jero liang sayang.[18]Bikangna ngaluarkeun tilu atanapi opat endog. Disileungleuman ku duaan. Mangsa nyileungleum henteu pati dipikaterang, tapi ditaksir kirang langkung dua minggu. Seringnya anu hirup dua anak .[3]


Faktor maotna[édit | édit sumber]

Manuk sawawa kadang dicandak ku spésiés predator. Di daérah perkotaan, aya catetan tabrakan sareng struktur kaasup tembok bodas.[23]Karacunan pestisida ogé parantos dicatet.[24]

Dicutat tina[édit | édit sumber]

  1. BirdLife International (2016). "Psilopogon haemacephalus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN) 2016: e.T22681681A92916283. https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22681681/92916283. 
  2. a b Statius Müller, P. L. (1776). [108,%22view%22:%22toc%22} "Der Blutskopf. Bucco haemacephalus"]. Des Ritters Carl von Linné Königlich Schwedischen Leibarztes &c. &c. vollständigen Natursystems. Supplements- und Register-Band über alle sechs Theile oder Classen des Thierreichs. Nürnberg: Gabriel Nicolaus Raspe. p. 88. 
  3. a b c Ali, S.; Ripley, S. D. (2001). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan : together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka 4 (Second ed.). New Delhi, Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 163–165. 
  4. a b Short, L.L.; Horne, J. F. M.; Kirwan, G. M. (2014). "Coppersmith Barbet (Psilopogon haemacephalus)". Di del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D. A.; de Juana, E. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 7: Jacamars to Woodpeckers. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International. 
  5. Latham, J. (1790). "Genus XIX. Bucco". Index ornithologicus, sive, Systema ornithologiae : complectens avium divisionem in classes, ordines, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates : adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus. Londini: Sumptibus authoris. pp. 201–207. 
  6. Dumont de Sainte-Croix, C. (1816). "Barbu rose-gorge". Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles, dans lequel on traite méthodiquement des différens êtres de la nature, considérés soit en eux-mêmes, d'après l'état actuel de nos connoissances, soit relativement à l'utilité qu'en peuvent retirer la médecine, l'agriculture, le commerce et les artes. Suivi d'une biographie des plus célèbres naturalistes. Tome IV. Strasbourg, Paris: F. G. Levrault. p. 52. 
  7. Gray, G. R. (1842). "Appendix to a List of the Genera of Birds". A List of the Genera of Birds (Second ed.). London: R. and J. E. Taylor. p. 12. 
  8. Peters, J. L. (1948). "Genus Megalaima G. R. Gray". Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 6. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 31–40. 
  9. Shelley, G. E. (1891). "Xantholaema intermedia". Catalogue of the Picariae in the collection of the British Museum 19. London: The Trustees. pp. 97–98. 
  10. Parrot, C. (1910). "Beiträge zur Ornithologie Sumatras und der Insel Banka". Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Physikalischen Klasse der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 24 (1): 149–285. https://archive.org/details/abhandlungender241910knig/page/168. 
  11. Rand, A. L. (1948). "Five new birds from the Philippines". Fieldiana Zoology 31 (25): 201–205. https://archive.org/details/fivenewbirdsfrom3125rand/page/202. 
  12. Gilliard, E. T. (1949). "Five new birds from the Philippines". The Auk 66 (3): 275–280. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v066n03/p0275-p0280.pdf. 
  13. Dziadosz, V. M.; Parkes, K. C. (1984). "Two new Philippine subspecies of the Crimson-breasted Barbet (Aves: Capitonidae)". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97 (4): 788–791. https://archive.org/details/proceedingsofbi971984biol/page/788. 
  14. Moyle, R. G. (2004). "Phylogenetics of barbets (Aves: Piciformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30 (1): 187–200. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00179-9. PMID 15022769. 
  15. a b Lok, A.F.S.L.; Lee, T.K. (2009). "Barbets of Singapore. Part 2: Megalaima haemacephala indica Latham (Coppersmith Barbet), Singapore's only native, urban barbet". Nature in Singapore 1: 47–54. http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/nis/bulletin2009/2009nis47-54.pdf. 
  16. Dewar, D. (1915). Birds of the Indian Hills. John Lane. p. 243. 
  17. Blanford, W. T. (1895). "Xantholaema haematocephala The Crimson-breasted Barbet or Coppersmith". The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Birds. Volume 3. Taylor and Francis. pp. 98–99. 
  18. a b Rasmussen, P. C.; Anderton, J. C. (2005). Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide 2. Smithsonian Institution & Lynx Edicions. pp. 279–280. 
  19. Aitken, E. H. (1893). "The habits of the Coppersmith". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 8 (2): 326–327. https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/30402998. 
  20. Bharos, A. M. K. (1997). "Unusual feeding pattern and diet of Crimsonbreasted Barbet (Megalaima haemacephala)". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 94 (2): 411. https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/48601773. 
  21. Muthukrishnan, T. S.; Sundarbabu, R. (1982). "Feeding habits of Coppersmith Megalaima haemacephala (Müller).". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 79 (1): 197–198. https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/48744593. 
  22. Sharma, A. K. (1993). "Territorial fight among crimson-breasted barbet". Newsletter for Birdwatchers 33 (5): 95. https://archive.org/stream/NLBW33_5#page/n16/mode/1up. 
  23. Vijayaraghavan, B (1957). "Accidental death of a Crimsonbreasted Barbet [Megalaima haemacephala (Muller)"]. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 54 (2): 462. https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/48183146. 
  24. Dhindsa, M. S.; Sandhu, J. S.; Sohi, A. S. (1986). "Pesticidal mortality of Crimson-breasted Barbet (Megalaima haemacephala) with a note on its body size". Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 106 (3): 93–96. 

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