Hadiah Nobel Kimia

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Nu meunangkeun Hadiah Nobel widang kimia, disusun nurutkeun taun ti nu pangmimitina.

1901
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff

for his discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions

1902
Hermann Emil Fischer

kanggo damelna ngeunaan sintésis gula jeung purin

1903
Svante August Arrhenius

kanggo téori disosiasi elektrolitik (tempo ion)

1904
Sir William Ramsay

for his discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air

1905
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer

kanggo damelna ngeunaan organic dyes jeung senyawa hidroaromatik

1906
Henri Moissan

kanggo panalungtikan anjeunna dina isolasi unsur florin, sarta kanggo electric furnace called after him

1907
Eduard Buchner

for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation

1908
Ernest Rutherford

for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances

1909
Wilhelm Ostwald

his work on catalysis and for his investigations into chemical equilibria and rates of reaction

1910
Otto Wallach

for his work in the field of alicyclic compounds

1911
Marie Sklodowska-Curie

for her discovery of radium and polonium, and her study of radium

1912
Victor Grignard, Paul Sabatier

for his the discovery of the Grignard reagent and for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds

1913
Alfred Werner

for his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules

1914
Theodore William Richards

for his determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of elements

1915
Richard Martin Willstätter

for his researches on plant pigments

1918
Fritz Haber

for his synthesis of ammonia

1920
Walther Hermann Nernst

for his work in thermochemistry

1921
Frederick Soddy

for his work on the chemistry of radioactive substances and investigations into isotopes

1922
Francis William Aston

for his discovery of isotopes in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his whole-number rule

1923
Fritz Pregl

for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances

1925
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy

for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and the methods used

1926 The (Theodor) Svedberg

for his work on disperse systems

1927
Heinrich Otto Wieland

for his investigations of the bile acids and related substances

1928
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus

for his research into sterols and their connection with vitamins

1929
Arthur Harden, Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin

for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes

1930
Hans Fischer

for his researches into haemin and chlorophyll

1931
Carl Bosch, Friedrich Bergius

for their contributions to chemical high pressure methods

1932
Irving Langmuir

for his work in surface chemistry

1934
Harold Clayton Urey

for his discovery of heavy hydrogen

1935
Frédéric Joliot, Irene Joliot-Curie

for their synthesis of new radioactive elements

1936
Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye

for his work on molecular structure through investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases

1937
Walter Norman Haworth, Paul Karrer

for his work on carbohydrates and vitamin C and for his work on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2

1938
Richard Kuhn

for his work on carotenoids and vitamins

1939
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt, Leopold Ruzicka

for his work on sex hormones and for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes

1943
George de Hevesy

for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers to study chemical processes

1944
Otto Hahn

for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei

1945
Artturi Ilmari Virtanen

for his research in agricultural and nutrition chemistry

1946
James Batcheller Sumner, John Howard Northrop, Wendell Meredith Stanley

for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized and for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form

1947
Sir Robert Robinson

for his investigations on plant products, especially the alkaloids

1948
Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius

for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis

1949
William Francis Giauque

for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics

1950
Otto Paul Hermann Diels, Kurt Alder

for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis. Diels-Alder reaction.

1951
Edwin Mattison McMillan, Glenn Theodore Seaborg

for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements

1952
Archer John Porter Martin, Richard Laurence Millington Synge

for their invention of partition chromatography

1953
Hermann Staudinger

for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry

1954
Linus Carl Pauling

for his research into the nature of the chemical bond

1955
Vincent du Vigneaud

for his work on sulphur compounds, especially the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone

1956
Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood, Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov

for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions

1957
Lord Alexander R. Todd

for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes

1958
Frederick Sanger

for his work on the structure of proteins, especially insulin

1959
Jaroslav Heyrovsky

for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis

1960
Willard Frank Libby

for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination

1961
Melvin Calvin

for his research on carbon dioxide assimilation in plants

1962
Max Ferdinand Perutz, John Cowdery Kendrew

for their studies of the structures of globular proteins

1963
Karl Ziegler, Giulio Natta

for their discoveries relating to high polymers

1964
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin

for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances

1965
Robert Burns Woodward

for his achievements in organic synthesis

1966
Robert Sanderson Mulliken

for his work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules

1967
Manfred Eigen, Ronald George Wreyford Norrish, George Porter

for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions

1968
Lars Onsager

for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name

1969
Derek H. R. Barton, Odd Hassel

for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation

1970
Luis F. Leloir

for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates

1971
Gerhard Herzberg

for his contributions to electronic structure and the geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals

1972
Christian B. Anfinsen, Stanford Moore, William H. Stein

for his work on ribonuclease and for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the ribonuclease molecule

1973
Ernst Otto Fischer, Geoffrey Wilkinson

for their work on the chemistry of organometallic compounds

1974
Paul J. Flory

for his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules

1975
John Warcup Cornforth, Vladimir Prelog

for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions

1976
William Nunn Lipscomb, Jr.

for his studies on the structure of [[borane]s

1977
Ilya Prigogine

for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics

1978
Peter D. Mitchell

for his formulation of the chemiosmotic theory

1979
Herbert C. Brown, Georg Wittig

for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into reagents in organic synthesis

1980
Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert, Frederick Sanger

for his studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids and for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids

1981
Kenichi Fukui, Roald Hoffmann

for their theories concerning the course of chemical reactions

1982
Aaron Klug

for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy

1983
Henry Taube

for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions

1984
Robert Bruce Merrifield

for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix

1985
Herbert A. Hauptman, Jerome Karle

for their achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures

1986
Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee, John C. Polanyi

for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes

1987
Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn, Charles J. Pedersen

for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity

1988
Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, Hartmut Michel

for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre

1989
Sidney Altman, Thomas R. Cech

for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA

1990
Elias James Corey

for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis

1991
Richard R. Ernst

for his contributions to the development of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

1992
Rudolph A. Marcus

for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems

1993
Kary B. Mullis, Michael Smith

for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry

1994
George A. Olah

for his contribution to carbocation chemistry

1995
Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina, F. Sherwood Rowland

for their work in atmospheric chemistry

1996
Robert Curl, Sir Harold Kroto, Richard Smalley

for their discovery of fullerenes

1997
Paul D. Boyer, John E. Walker, Jens C. Skou

for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate and for his discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+K+-ATPase

1998
Walter Kohn, John A. Pople

for his development of the density functional theory and for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry

1999
Ahmed H. Zewail

for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy

2000
Alan J Heeger, Alan G MacDiarmid, Hideki Shirakawa

for their discovery and development of conductive polymers

2001
William S. Knowles, Ryoji Noyori, K. Barry Sharpless

for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions and for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions

2002
Kurt Wüthrich, John B. Fenn, Koichi Tanaka

for their development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules

2003
Peter Agre, Roderick MacKinnon

for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes

2004
Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, Irwin Rose

for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation

2005
Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs, Richard R. Schrock

for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis

2006
Roger D. Kornberg

for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription

2007
Gerhard Ertl

for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces

2008
Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, Roger Tsien

for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]

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