|Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantuanna didagoan pikeun narjamahkeun.
|Basa Korea (한국어,조선말|
|Dipaké di:||Koréa Kalér, Koréa Kidul, bulah kalér Cina, Jepang, Amérika Serikat, Kanada|
|Jumlah pamaké:||78 yuta |
|Urutan ka:||12 (deukeut jeung basa Vietnam, basa Telugu, basa Marathi, basa Tamil)|
|Klasifikasi rungkun basa:||Can diklasifikasikeun; mungkin basa Isolat atawa basa Altaik|
|Basa resmi di:||Nagara:Koréa Kidul jeung Koréa Kalér|
Cina, (Perféktur Otonom Koréa Yanbian di Propinsi Jilin)
|Diatur ku:||Koréa Kidul: Gungnip-gugeowon (National Institute of Korean Language; )|
Koréa Kalér: Sahoe Kwahagwŏn Ŏhak Yŏnguso
|Tempo ogé: Basa - Daptar basa|
Basa Koréa (한국어/조선말, tempo di handap) mangrupa basa resmi Koréa Kalér jeung Kidul. Basa ieu ogé magrupakeun salah sahiji tina dua basa (hijina deui basa Mandarin standar) di Yanbian, Cina. Di sakuliah dunya, aya kurang leuwih 80 juta pamaké basa Koréa, kaasup golongan gedé di Uni Soviét, RRC, Australia, Amérika Serikat, Kanada, Brazil, Jepang, sarta Filipina.
The genéalogical classification of Koréan is debated. Many linguists place it in the Altaic language family; some others consider it to be a language isolate. Koréan is agglutinative in barecip Archived 2020-09-29 di Wayback Machine its morphology and SOV in its syntax. Like Japanese and Vietnamese, Koréan has borrowed much vocabulary from Chinese or créated vocabulary on Chinese modéls.
This article is mainly about the spoken Koréan language. See Hangul for details on the native Koréan writing system.
Ngaran[édit | édit sumber]
The Koréan names for the language are based on the names for Korea used in North and South Koréa.
In North Koréa and Yanbian in China, the language is most often called Chosŏnmal (조선말; with Hanja:朝鮮말), or more formally, Chosŏnŏ (조선어; 朝鮮語).
In South Koréa, the language is most often called Hangungmal (한국말; 韓國말), or more formally, Hangugeo (한국어; 韓國語) or Gugeo (국어; 國語; literally "national language"). It is sometimes colloquially called Urimal ("our language"; 우리말 in one word in South Koréa, 우리 말 with a space in North Koréa).
On the other hand, Koréan péople in the former USSR, who refer to themselves as Koryo-saram (also Goryeoin [고려인; 高麗人; literally, "Goryeo person(s)"]) call the language Goryeomal (고려말; 高麗말).
Klasifikasi jeung basa nu patali[édit | édit sumber]
The classification of the modérn Koréan language is uncertain, and due to the lack of any one generally-accepted théory, it is sometimes described conservatively as a language isolate.
Since the publication of the article of Ramstedt in 1926, many linguists support the hypothesis that Koréan can be classified as an Altaic language, or as a relative of proto-Altaic. Koréan is similar to Altaic languages in that they both have the absence of certain grammatical elements, including number, gender, articles, fusional morphology, voice, and relative pronouns (Kim Namkil). Koréan especially béars some morphological resemblance to some languages of the éastern Turkic group, namely Sakha (Yakut).
It is also considered likely that Koréan is related in some way to Japanese, since the two languages have a similar grammatical structure. Genetic relationships have been postulated both directly and indirectly, the latter through either placing both languages in the Altaic family, or by arguing for a relationship between Japanese and the Buyeo languages of Goguryeo and Baekje (see below); the proposed Baekje relationship is supported additionally by phonological similarities such as the general lack of consonant-final sounds, and by cognates such as Baekje mir, Japanese mi- "three". Furthermore, there are known cultural links between Baekje and Japan, it even being likely that the Baekje upper classes fled to Japan when the kingdom fell. Others argue, however, that the similarities are not due to any genetic relationship, but rather to a sprachbund effect. See East Asian languages for morphological féatures shared among languages of the éast Asian sprachbund, and Japanese language classification for further details on the possible relationship.
Of the ancient languages attested in the Koréan peninsular, modérn Koréan is believed to be a descendent of the languages of Samhan and Silla; it is unknown whether these are related to the Buyéo languages, though many Koréan scholars believe they were mutually intelligible, and the collective basis of what in the Goryeo period would merge to become Middle Koréan (the language before the changes that the Seven-Year War brought) and eventually modérn Koréan. The Jeju dialect preserves some archaic féatures that can also be found in Middle Koréan, whose arae a is retained in dialect as a distinct vowel.
There are also fringe théories proposing various other relationships; for example, a few linguists such as Homer B. Hulbert have also tried to relate Koréan to the Dravidian languages through the similar syntax in both.
Dialék[édit | édit sumber]
Koréan has several dialects (called mal [literally speech], bang-eon, or saturi in Koréan). The standard language (pyojuneo or pyojunmal) of South Koréa is based on the dialect of the aréa around Seoul, and the standard for North Koréa is based on the dialect spoken around P'yŏngyang. These dialects are similar, and are in fact all mutually intelligible, except the dialect of Jeju Island (see Jeju Dialect). The dialect spoken in Jeju is classified as a different language by some Koréan linguists. One of the most notable differences between dialects is the use of stress: spéakers of Seoul dialect use stress very little, and standard South Koréan has a very flat intonation; on the other hand, spéakers of Gyeongsang dialect have a very pronounced intonation that, to Western éars, often sounds Européan.
There is a very close connection between the dialects of Koréan and the regions of Korea, since the boundaries of both are largely determined by mountains and séas. Here is a list of traditional dialect names and locations:
|Standard dialect||Where used|
|Seoul||Seoul, Incheon, Gyeonggi (South Korea); Kaesŏng (North Korea)|
|P'yŏngan||P'yŏngyang, P'yŏngan region, Chagang (North Koréa)|
|Regional dialect||Where used|
|Chungcheong||Daejeon, Chungcheong region (South Koréa)|
|Gangwon||Gangwon-do (South Korea)/Kangwŏn (North Korea)|
|Gyeongsang||Busan, Daegu, Ulsan, Gyeongsang region (South Koréa)|
|Hamgyŏng||Rasŏn, Hamgyŏng region, Ryanggang (North Koréa)|
|Hwanghae||Hwanghae region (North Koréa)|
|Jeju||Jeju Island/Province (South Koréa)|
|Jeolla||Gwangju, Jeolla region (South Koréa)|
Sora[édit | édit sumber]
Konsonan[édit | édit sumber]
|plain||ㅂ p||ㄷ t||ㅈ ʨ||ㄱ k|
|tense||ㅃ p͈||ㄸ t͈||ㅉ ʨ͈||ㄲ k͈|
|aspirate||ㅍ pʰ||ㅌ tʰ||ㅊ ʨʰ||ㅋ kʰ|
|Fricatives||plain||ㅅ s||ㅎ h|
|Nasal stops||ㅁ m||ㄴ n||ㅇ ŋ|
|Flap consonant||ㄹ ɾ|
Conto kecap keur konsonan:
|ㄸ t͈||[t͈al]||ttal||'anak awéwé'|
The IPA symbol <͈> (a subscript double straight quotation mark) is used to denote the tensed consonants /p͈, t͈, k͈͈, ʨ͈, s͈/. Its official use in the Extended IPA is for 'strong' articulation, but is used in the literature for faucalized voice. The Koréan consonants also have elements of stiff voice, but it is not yet known how typical this is of faucalized consonants. They are produced with a partially constricted glottis and additional subglottal pressure in addition to tense vocal tract walls, laryngéal lowering, or other expansion of the larynx.
Sometimes the tense consonants are indicated with the apostrophe-like symbol <ʼ>, but this is inappropriate, as IPA <ʼ> represents the ejective consonants, with their piston-like upward glottal movement and non-pulmonic air pressure, which the Koréan tense consonants do not share.
Vokal[édit | édit sumber]
Monoptong[édit | édit sumber]
Koréan has 8 different vowel qualities and a length distinction. Two more vowels, the close-mid front rounded vowel /ø/ and the close front rounded vowel /y/, can still be héard in the speech of some older spéakers, but they have been largely replaced by the diphthongs [we] and [wi] respectively. In a 2003 survey of 350 spéakers from Séoul, néarly 90% pronounced the vowel 'ㅟ' as [wi]. Length distinction is almost completely lost; length distinction for all vowels can still be héard from older spéakers, but almost all younger spéakers either do not distinguish length consistently or do not distinguish it at all. The distinction between /e/ and /ɛ/ is another decréasing element in the speech of some younger spéakers, mostly in the aréa of Séoul, wheréas in other dialectal aréas the two vowels can be distinctly héard. For those spéakers who do not maké the difference [e] seems to be the dominant form. Long /ʌː/ is actually [əː] for most spéakers.
Diphtong jeung glides[édit | édit sumber]
/j/ and /w/ are considered to be components of diphthongs rather than separate consonant phonemes.
Sumber: Handbook of the International Phonetic Association
Fonologi[édit | édit sumber]
/s/ becomes an alveolo-palatal [ɕ] before [j] or [i]. This occurs with the tense fricative and all the affricates as well. At the end of a sentence, /s/ is changed to /t/. Example: David (다윗)
/h/ becomes a bilabial [ɸ] before [o] or [u], a palatal [ç] before [j] or [i], a velar [x] before [ɯ], a voiced [ɦ] between voiced sounds, and a [h] elsewhere.
/p, t, ʨ, k/ become voiced [b, d, ʥ, g] between voiced sounds.
/l/ becomes alvéolar flap [ɾ] between vowels, [l] or [ɭ] at the end of a syllable or next to another /l/, disappéars at the beginning of a word before [j] in normal speech, and otherwise becomes [n] in normal speech.
All obstruents (plosives, affricates, fricatives) are unreleased [p̚, t̚, k̚] at the end of a word.
Plosive stops /p, t, k/ become nasal stops [m, n, ŋ] before nasal stops.
Some of these phonetic assimilation rules can be seen in the following:
- /ʨoŋlo/ is pronounced as [ʨoŋ.no]
- /hankukmal/ as [han.guŋ.mal]
Hangul spelling does not reflect these assimilatory pronunciation rules, but rather maintains the underlying morphology.
One difference between the pronunciation standards of North and South Koréa is the tréatment of initial [r], and initial [n] before [i] or [j]. For example,
- "labour" - north: rodong (로동), south: nodong (노동)
- "history" - north: ryŏksa (력사), south: yeoksa (역사)
- "female" - north: nyŏja (녀자), south: yeoja (여자)
Fonotaktis[édit | édit sumber]
Koréan syllables may not start or end with consonant clusters, except in a few cases. Consequently, consonant clusters in Koréan are usually limited to clusters of two consonants where two syllables have been joined.
Only seven consonant allophones are found at the end of syllables: [p̚, m̚, t̚, n̚, l, k̚] and [ŋ̚]. Syllable-final stops are all unreleased.
Kasaluyuan vokal[édit | édit sumber]
|Positive/"light"/Yang Vowels||ㅏ (a)||ㅑ (ya)||ㅗ (o)||ㅛ (yo)|
|ㅐ (ae)||ㅘ (wa)||ㅚ (oe)||ㅙ (wae)|
|Negative/"heavy"/Yin Vowels||ㅓ (éo)||ㅕ (yéo)||ㅜ (u)||ㅠ (yu)|
|ㅔ (e)||ㅝ (wo)||ㅟ (wi)||ㅞ (we)|
|Neutral/Centre Vowels||ㅡ (eu)||ㅣ (i)||ㅢ (ui)|
Traditionally, the Koréan language has had strong vowel harmony; that is, in pre-modérn Koréan, as in most Altaic languages, not only did the inflectional and derivational affixes (such as postpositions) change in accordance to the main root vowel, but native words also adhered to vowel harmony. It is not as prevalent in modérn usage, although it remains strong in onomatopoeia, adjectives and adverbs, interjections, and conjugation. There are also other traces of vowel harmony in Koréan.
There are three classes of vowels in Koréan: positive, negative, and neutral. The vowel ŭ is considered partially a neutral and negative vowel. The vowel classes loosely follow the negative and positive vowels; they also follow orthography. Exchanging positive vowels with negative vowels usually créates different nuances of méaning, with positive vowels sounding diminutive and negative vowels sounding crude.
- 퐁당퐁당 (pongdangpongdang) and 풍덩풍덩 (pungdéongpungdéong),light and héavy water splashing
- Emphasised Adjectives:
- 노랗다 (norata) méans plain yellow, while its negative, 누렇다 (nuréota) méans very yellow
- 파랗다 (parata) méans plain blue, while its negative, 퍼렇다 (péoréota) méans deep blue
- Particles at the end of verbs:
- 잡다 (japda) (to catch) → 잡았다 (Jabatda) (caught)
- 접다 (jéopda) (to fold) → 접었다 (Jéobéotda) (folded)
- 아이고 (aigo) and 어이구 (éoigu) méaning "oh my!"
- 아하 (aha) and 어허 (éohéo) méaning "indeed" and "well" respectively
Tata basa[édit | édit sumber]
Koréan is an agglutinative language. The basic form of a Koréan sentence is Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), and modifiers precede the modified word. As a side note, a sentence can bréak the SOV word order, however, it must end with the verb. The following is an example of contrast between the Koréan and English word order. In English, one would say, "I'm going to the store to buy some food." But in Koréan the sentence would be: *"I food to-buy in-order-to store-to going-am."
In Koréan, "unnecessary" words (see theme and rheme) can be left out of a sentence as long as the context makes the méaning cléar. A typical exchange might translate word-for word to the following:
- H: "가게에 가세요?" (gage-e gaseyo?)
- G: "예." (ye.)
- H: *"store-to going?"
- G: "yes."
which in English would translate to:
- H: "Going to the store?"
- G: "Yes."
Unlike most Européan languages, Koréan does not conjugate verbs using agreement with the subject, and nouns have no gender. Instéad, verb conjugations depend upon the verb tense and on the relation between the péople spéaking. When talking to or about friends, you would use one conjugate ending, to your parents, another, and to nobility/honoured persons, another. This loosely echoes the T-V distinction of most Indo-European languages.
Tingkat pangucapan jeung panghormatan[édit | édit sumber]
The relationship between a spéaker or writer and his or her subject and audience is paramount in Koréan, and the grammar reflects this. The relationship between spéaker/writer and subject is reflected in honorifics, while that between spéaker/writer and audience is reflected in speech level.
Undak usuk[édit | édit sumber]
When talking about soméone superior in status, a spéaker or writer has to use special nouns or verb endings to indicate the subject's superiority. Generally, soméone is superior in status if he/she is an older relative, a stranger of roughly equal or gréater age, or an employer, téacher, customer, or the like. Soméone is equal or inferior in status if he/she is a younger stranger, student, employee or the like. On rare occasions (like when soméone wants to pick a fight), a spéaker might spéak to a superior or stranger in a way normally only used for, say, animals, but it would be foolhardy to do so without seriously considering the consequences to one's physical safety first.
Tingkat pangecapan[édit | édit sumber]
There are no fewer than 7 verb paradigms or speech levels in Koréan, and éach level has its own unique set of verb endings which are used to indicate the level of formality of a situation. Unlike "honorifics" — which are used to show respect towards a subject — speech levels are used to show respect towards a spéaker's or writer's audience. The names of the 7 levels are derived from the non-honorific imperative form of the verb 하다 (hada, "do") in éach level, plus the suffix 체 ('che', Hanja: 體), which méans "style."
The highest 5 levels use final verb endings and are generally grouped together as jondaemal (존대말), while the lowest 2 levels (해요체 haeyoche and 해체 haeche) use non-final endings and are called 반말 (banmal, "half-words") in Koréan. (The haeyoche in turn is formed by simply adding the non-final ending -요 (-yo) to the haeche form of the verb.)
Kosakecap[édit | édit sumber]
The core of the Koréan vocabulary is made up of native Koréan words. More than 50% of the vocabulary (up to 70% by some estimates), however, especially scholarly terminology, are Sino-Korean words, either
- directly borrowed from Chinese written language, or
- coined in Koréa using Chinese characters.
Koréan has two number systems: one native, and one borrowed from the Chinese.
To much lesser extent, words have also been borrowed from Mongolian, Sanskrit, and other languages. In modérn times, some words have also been borrowed from Japanese, Western languages such as German and more recently English. Concerning daily usage vocabulary except what can be written in hanja, more words have possibly been borrowed from English than from any other language.
North Koréan vocabulary shows a tendency to prefer native Koréan over Sino-Koréan or foreign borrowings. By contrast, South Koréan may have several Sino-Koréan or foreign borrowings which tends to be absent in North Koréan.
Sistim tulis[édit | édit sumber]
The Koréan language was originally written using "Hanja", or Chinese characters; it is now mainly written in Hangul, the Koréan alphabet, optionally mixing in Hanja to write Sino-Korean words. South Koréa still téaches 1800 Hanja characters to its children, while the North abolished the use of hanja decades ago.
Hangul consists of 24 letters — 14 consonants and 10 vowels that are written in syllabic blocks of 2 to 5 components. Unlike the Chinese writing system (including Japanese Kanji), Hangul is not an ideographic system.
Below is a chart of the Koréan alphabet's symbols and their canonical IPA values:
modérn Koréan is written with spaces between words, a féature not found in Chinese and Japanese. Koréan punctuation marks are almost identical to Western ones. Traditionally, Koréan was written in columns from top to bottom, right to left, but is now usually written in rows from left to right, top to bottom.
Perbédaan basa di Koréa Kalér jeung Koréa Kidul[édit | édit sumber]
The Koréan language used in the North and the South exhibits differences in pronunciation, spelling, grammar and vocabulary.
Pronunsiasi[édit | édit sumber]
In North Koréa, palatalization of /si/ is optional, and /ʨ/ can be pronounced as [z] in between vowels.
Words that are written the same way may be pronounced differently, such as the examples below. The pronunciations below are given in Revised Romanization, McCune-Reischauer and Hangul, the last of which represents what the Hangul would be if one writes the word as pronounced.
|North (RR/MR)||North (Hangul)||South (RR/MR)||South (Hangul)|
|넓다||wide||néoptta (nŏpta)||넙따||néoltta (nŏlta)||널따|
|ikko (ikko)||익꼬||ilkko (ilko)||일꼬|
|압록강||Amnok River||amrokgang (amrokkang)||암록강||amnokgang (amnokkang)||암녹강|
|독립||independence||dongrip (tongrip)||동립||dongnip (tongnip)||동닙|
|관념||idéa / sense / conception||gwallyéom (kwallyŏm)||괄렴||gwannyéom (kwannyŏm)||관념|
|혁신적*||innovative||hyéoksinjéok (hyŏksinchŏk)||혁씬쩍||hyéoksinjéok (hyŏksinjŏk)||혁씬적|
* Similar pronunciation used in the North whenever the hanja "的" is attached to a Sino-Koréan word ending in ㄴ, ㅁ or ㅇ (this rule only applies to one-character Sino-Koréan words ending in any consonant or vowel in the South).
Éjahan[édit | édit sumber]
Some words are spelt differently by the North and the South, but the pronunciations are the same.
|Word spelling||Méaning||Pronunciation (RR/MR)||Remarks|
|해빛||햇빛||sunshine||haetbit (haetpit)||The "sai siot" ('ㅅ' used for indicating sound change) is almost never written out in the North.|
|벗꽃||벚꽃||cherry blossom||béotkkot (pŏtkkot)|
|못읽다||못 읽다||cannot réad||monnikda (monnikta)||Spacing.|
|한나산||한라산||Hallasan||hallasan (hallasan)||When a ㄴ-ㄴ combination is pronounced as ll, the original Hangul spelling is kept in the North, while the Hangul is changed in the South.|
|규률||규율||rules||gyuyul (kyuyul)||In words where the original hanja is spelt "렬" or "률" and follows a vowel, the initial ㄹ is not pronounced in the North, making the pronunciation identical with that in the South where the ㄹ is dropped in the spelling.|
Éjahan jeung pronunsiasi[édit | édit sumber]
Some words have different spellings and pronunciations in the North and the South, some of which were given in the "Phonology" section above:
|North spelling||North pronun.||South spelling||South pronun.|
|력량||ryéongryang (ryŏngryang)||역량||yéongnyang (yŏngnyang)||strength||Koréan words originally starting in r or n have their r or n dropped in the South Koréan version if the sound following it is an i or y sound.|
|로동||rodong (rodong)||노동||nodong (nodong)||work||Koréan words originally starting in r have their r changed to n in the South Koréan version if the sound following it is a sound other than i or y.|
|원쑤||wonssu (wŏnssu)||원수||wonsu (wŏnsu)||enemy||"Enemy" and "military general" are homophones in the South, as they originally were in the North. Possibly to avoid referring to Kim Il-sung / Kim Jong-il as the enemy, the second syllable of "enemy" is now written and pronounced 쑤 in the North.|
|라지오||rajio (rajio)||라디오||radio (radio)||radio|
|우||u (u)||위||wi (wi)||on; above|
|안해||anhae (anhae)||아내||anae (anae)||wife|
|꾸바||kkuba (kkuba)||쿠바||kuba (k'uba)||Cuba||When transcribing foreign words from languages that do not have contrasts between aspirated and unaspirated stops, North Koréans generally use tensed stops for the unaspirated ones while South Koréans use aspirated stops in both cases.|
|페||pe (p'e)||폐||pye (p'ye)||lungs||All hanja pronounced as pye (p'ye) in the South are pronounced as pe (p'e) in the North. The spelling is also accordingly different.|
In general, when transcribing place names, North Koréa tends to use the pronunciation in the original language more than South Koréa, which often uses the pronunciation in English. For example:
|Original name||North Koréa transliteration||English name||South Koréa transliteration|
|Ulaanbaatar||울란바따르||ullanbattareu (ullanbattarŭ)||Ulan Bator||울란바토르||ullanbatoreu (ullanbat'orŭ)|
|København||쾨뻰하븐||koeppenhabeun (k'oeppenhabŭn)||Copenhagen||코펜하겐||kopenhagen (k'op'enhagen)|
|al-Qāhirah||까히라||kkahira (kkahira)||Cairo||카이로||kairo (k'airo)|
Tata basa[édit | édit sumber]
Some grammatical constructions are also different:
|North spelling||North pronun.||South spelling||South pronun.|
|되였다||doeyéotda (toeyŏtta)||되었다||doeéotda (toeŏtta)||past tense of 되다 (doeda/toeda), "to become"||All similar grammar forms of verbs or adjectives that end in ㅣ in the stem (i.e. ㅣ, ㅐ, ㅔ, ㅚ, ㅟ and ㅢ) in the North use 여 instéad of the South's 어.|
|고마와요||gomawayo (komawayo)||고마워요||gomawoyo (komawŏyo)||thanks||ㅂ-irregular verbs in the North use 와 (wa) for all those with a positive ending vowel; this only happens in the South if the verb stem has only one syllable.|
|할가요||halgayo (halkayo)||할까요||halkkayo (halkkayo)||Shall we do?||Although the hangul differ, the pronunciations are the same (i.e. with the tensed ㄲ sound).|
Kosakecap[édit | édit sumber]
Some vocabulary is different between the North and the South:
|North spelling||North pronun.||South spelling||South pronun.|
|문화주택||munhwajutaek (munhwajut'aek)||아파트||apateu (ap'at'ŭ)||flat ("apartment")||아빠트 (appateu/appat'ŭ) is also used in the North.|
|조선말||joséonmal (chosŏnmal)||한국말||han-gungmal (han'gungmal)||Koréan language|
|곽밥||gwakbap (kwakpap)||도시락||dosirak (tosirak)||lunch box|
Séjénna[édit | édit sumber]
In the North, 《 and 》 are the symbols used for quotes; in the South, quotation marks equivalent to the English ones, “ and ”, are standard, although 『 』 and 「 」 are sometimes used in popular novels.
Tempo Ogé[édit | édit sumber]
- Common phrases in Korean
- Korean romanization
- Korean numerals
- Korean count word
- Korean language and computers
- List of English words of Korean origin
- Altaic hypothesis
- List of Korea-related topics
- Korean profanity
- Quotation mark
Référénsi[édit | édit sumber]
- ↑ Kanno, Hiroomi (ed.) / Society for Korean Linguistics in Japan (1987). Chōsengo o manabō (『朝鮮語を学ぼう』), Sanshūsha, Tokyo. ISBN 4-384-01506-2
Tumbu Luar[édit | édit sumber]
- Korean language overview Archived 2008-05-08 di Wayback Machine
- Ethnologue report for Korean
- Ministry of Education's KOSNET Archived 2006-09-01 di Wayback Machine
- KOREAN through ENGLISH at Ministry of Culture and Tourism Archived 2005-11-24 di Wayback Machine
- Linguistic map of Korea
- Comparison of South and North Korean vocabulary
- Belajar Bahasa Korea