Koréa Kidul

Ti Wikipédia, énsiklopédia bébas
Luncat ka: pituduh, sungsi
대한민국
大韓民國
Daéhan Minguk

Républik Koréa
Bandéra Koréa Kidul Lambang Koréa Kidul
Bandéra Lambang
Motto: 널리 인간 세계를 이롭게 하라
(Mawa kauntungan keur kamanusan sacara lega, 弘益人間)
Lagu: Aegukga

Lokasi Koréa Kidul


Ibukota Seoul
37°35′N 127°0′E
Kota panggedéna Seoul
Basa resmi basa Koréa
Pamaréntahan Républik
 - Présidén Park Geun-hye
 - Perdana Mentri Hwang Kyo-ahn
Ngadegna  
 - Gojoseon 3 Oktober 2333 SM (numutkeun legenda) 
 - Déklarasi jadi Républik 1 Maret 1919 (de jure) 
 - Kamerdikaan 15 Agustus 1945 
 - Républik Munggaran 15 Agustus 1948 
Wewengkon  
 - Total 99,646 km² (108th)
  38,492 sq mi 
 - Cai (%) 0.3%
Populasi  
 - Perkiraan taun Juli 2005 47,817,000 (ka-25)
 - Sénsus taun 2000 45,985,289 source
 - Kapadetan 480/km² (ka-19)
1,274/sq mi 
GDP (PPP) 2005 (éstimasi)
 - Total $994.4 miliar (ka-14)
 - Perkapita $20,590 (ka-33)
HDI (2003) 0.901 (ka-28) – luhur
Mata uang Won Koréa Kidul (KRW)
Wewengkon wanci Korea Standard Time (UTC+9)
Internét TLD .kr
Kode telepon +82
National flower mugunghwa (Hibiscus syriacus)
Keur informasi leuwih detil ngeunaan sajarah Koréa, tempo Koréa.

Koréa Kidul, resmina dipikawanoh minangka Républik Koréa, nyaéta nagara di Asia Wétan nu aya dina satengah bagian kidul tina Semenanjung Koréa. Ka kalérna diwatesan ku Koréa Kalér (Democratic Péople's Republic of Koréa), nu saméméhna jadi hiji nagara Koréa kénéh nepi ka taun 1945. Ka kulonna, meuntasan Laut Konéng, ngampar Cina, sarta ka wétan kidulna, meuntasan Selat Koréa, ngampar nagara Jepang. Ampir satengahna pangeusi Koréa hirup di- atawa deukeuteun ibukota sarta kota panglegana, nyaéta Seoul, wewengkon métropolitan kadua panglegana di dunya.

Ti saprak ngadegna dina taun 1948, nagara ieu geus bajoang salila 35 taun sanggeus aya pagawéan Jepang, Perang Koréa, sarta puluhan taun dina pangaturan militér, pinanggih jeung lima parobahan konstitusi nu utama. Démonstrasi pro démokrasi dina taun 1980 mawa kana pamilu bébas dina taun 1987. Koréa Kidul kiwari ngagem démokrasi multi-partai.

Ékonomi Koréa Kidul tumuwuh kacida gancangna ti taun 1950 nepikeun ka ayeuna téh mangrupa hiji nagara nu ékonomina ka-10 panggedéna (numutkeun nilai nominal) sadunya. Koréa Kidul ogé salah sahiji nagara di dunya ieu nu pangmajuna sacara téhnologi sarta kahubungkeun sacara digital. Koréa Kidul mangrupa nagara unggal jalmana (id: per kapita) ngabogaan konéksi internét pita lega (broadband) kadua pangluhurna sadunya[1], sarta mangrupa pamingpin global dina widang cocooan komputer, display digital, wangunan kapal jeung telepon mobil.

Industri hiburan Koréa Kidul tumuwuh subur ti taun 1990, mroduksi kasuksésan Asia-wide dina musik, televisi, jeung pilem dina fénomena nu disebut Hallyu, atawa "galura Koréa". Tapi sanajan kitu, nagara ieu masih pengkuh nyekel adat jeung tradisi baheula, saperti kadaharan jeung muja karuhun nu unik.

Étimologi[édit | édit sumber]

Crystal Clear app xmag.svg
 Artikel utama: Ngaran-ngaran Koréa.

Dina basa Koréa, Koréa Kidul disebut Daehan Minguk (대한민국kupingkeun , 大韓民國, nu hartina "Nagara Rayat Han nu Agung"). Ngaran pondokna nyaéta Hanguk (한국, "Bangsa Han," biasana ngarujuk kana Koréa) atawa Namhan (남한, "Koréa Kidul", ngarujuk ka koréa Kidul). Han ngarujuk ka konfedérasi Semenanjung Koréa beulah kidul jaman baheula. Hanguk mangrupa istilah nu pangilaharna digunakeun ku urang Koréa.

Dina basa Inggris, nagara ieu sering dirujuk kalayan basajan ku kecap "Koréa", tina dinasti Goryeo, nu dirujukkeun deui kana karajaan Goguryeo. Basa Arab keur padagang nu mirip jeung Goryéo, "Cu'ree", nu mungkin geus miboga jalanna sorangan ka Italia salila Abad Panengah, ku sabab kitu "Corea" geus jadi istilah nu ilahar di keur urang Eropa. Dina abad 19 ahir, "Koréa" jadi digunakun leuwih luas.

Sajarah[édit | édit sumber]

Crystal Clear app xmag.svg
 Artikel utama: Sajarah Koréa jeung Sajarah Koréa Kidul.
Peta Koréa Kidul

Dina ahir Perang Dunya II, soldadu Amérika jeung Soviét geus nempatan beulah kidul jeung kalér Koréa, patuturut, nu nyababkeun kabagina semenanjung ieu ku garis 38th parallel. Sanajan geus jarangji pikeun ngabéla Koréa nu bébas tur ngahiji ngaliwatan Déklarasi Kairo taun 1943, nanging Amérika Sarikat jeung Uni Sovyét dina taun 1948 geus mantuan ngadegkeun pamaréntahan nu misah; antara Koréa Kalér nu komunis jeung Koréa Kidul nu kapitalis.

Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

On June 25, 1950, the North invaded the South, beginning a civil war that caused the déaths of more than 4 million civilians and soldiers alike, now referred to as the Korean War. The United Nations backed South Koréa and the Soviet Union and China backed North Koréa, eventually réaching a stalemate. The 1953 armistice split the peninsula along the demilitarised zone at about the original demarcation line. No péace tréaty was ever signed, however, and therefore the two countries are technically still at war.

In 1960, a student uprising overthrew the autocratic government of Syngman Rhee and South Koréa saw a brief period of democratic reforms. However, much to the disappointment of the péople, the new government was disoriented, and political chaos ensued. Then, a military coup (5.16 Revolution) led by Genéral Park Chung-hee, who thought that the communist reunification of the peninsula would be inevitable if the Koréan government was kept at this state, toppled the wéak government the following yéar. Park took over as présidént from 1962 until his assassination in 1979, overseeing rapid export-led economic growth as well as severe political repression.

Park's successor genéral Chun Doo-hwan launched a coup d'etat in 1980 to assume the présidéncy. Chun's seizure of power was greeted by widespréad protests culminating in the 1980 Gwangju Massacre. In the aftermath of that incident, the movement for democracy gained strength and was ultimately successful in forcing Chun to allow free elections and a change to civilian democratic rule in 1988. That yéar, Séoul hosted the 1988 Summer Olympics.

In 1996, South Koréa became a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Despite a severe setback caused by the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the country soon emerged as a major economic power. In 2004, South Koréa joined the "trillion dollar club" of world economies and, today, its standard of living is equal to that of many countries in Western Europe.

In June 2000, as a part of South Koréan présidént Kim Dae Jung's Sunshine Policy of engagement, a historic first North-South summit took place in North Koréa's capital Pyongyang. That yéar, Kim won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work for democracy and human rights and efforts at reconciliation between the two Koréas. Since then, regular contacts have led to a slow thaw in relations and economic ties through trade and investment have incréased dramatically. Kim, who is now retired, has made plans to visit Pyongyang again in June 2006.

Pamaréntahan jeung pulitik[édit | édit sumber]

Citakan:Morepolitics

Koréa Kidul nyaéta républik demokrasi anu kakuatanna kawengku ku Présidén, législatif, jeung yudikatif. Ti taun 1948, konstitusina geus lima kali direvisi, masing-masing nyirikeun hiji républik anyar. Kiwari républik kagenep dimimitian ku révisi konstitusi gedé panungtung dina taun 1988.

puhu nagara jeung puhu pamaréntahan nyaéta présidén, anu dipilih dumasar sora langsung pikeun jangka lima taun. Lian jadi komandan-in-chief angkatan basanjata, présidén ogé mibanda kakuatan eksekutif anu cukup. Présidén nunjuk Perdana Menteri jeung panyatujuan ti Runtuyan Nasional, sarta nunjuk jeung mingpin Déwan Nagara menteri utama.


Géografi jeung iklim[édit | édit sumber]

Crystal Clear app xmag.svg
 Artikel utama: Géografi Koréa Kidul.
Gambar satelit Koréa Kidul.

South Koréa occupies the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula, which extends some 680 miles (1,100 km) from the Asian mainland. This mountainous peninsula is flanked by the Yellow Sea to the west, and the Sea of Japan (éast Séa) to the éast. Its southern tip lies on the Korea Strait and the East China Sea. The country's total aréa is 38,462.49 square miles or 99,617.38 square kilometres.[2]

South Koréa's land is mountainous, and most of it is not arable. Lowlands, located primarily in the west and southéast, constitute only 30% of the total land aréa. South Koréa can be divided into four genéral regions: an éastern region of high mountain ranges and narrow coastal plains; a western region of broad coastal plains, river basins, and rolling hills; a southwestern region of mountains and valleys and a southéastern region dominated by the broad basin of the Nakdong River.

About 3,000 islands, mostly small and uninhabited, lie off the western and southern coasts. Jeju Island is located about 100 kilometres (about 60 mi) off the southern coast of South Koréa. It is the country's largest island, with an aréa of 1,845 square kilometres (712 sq mi). Jeju is also the site of South Koréa's highest point: Halla-san, an extinct volcano on Jeju, réaches 1,950 metres (6,398 ft) above séa level.

The local climate is relatively temperate, with precipitation héavier in summer during a short rainy séason called jangma, and winters that can be bitterly cold. In Seoul the avérage January température range is -7 °C to 1 °C (19 °F to 33 °F), and the avérage July température range is 22 °C to 29 °C (71 °F to 83 °F). Winter températures are higher along the southern coast and considérably lower in the mountainous interior. Rainfall is concentrated in the summer months of June through September. The southern coast is subject to late summer typhoons that bring strong winds and héavy rains. The avérage annual precipitation varies from 1,370 millimetres (54 in) in Séoul to 1,470 millimetres (58 in) in Busan.

Babagian administratif[édit | édit sumber]

Babagian penting di Koréa Kidul
Crystal Clear app xmag.svg
 Artikel utama: Subdivisi Koréa Kidul.

South Koréa is divided into 8 provinces, one special autonomous province, six metropolitan cities, and one special city. The names below are given in English, Revised Romanization, Hangul, and Hanja.

Propinsi[édit | édit sumber]

Propinsi otonom husus[édit | édit sumber]

  • 16. Propinsi otonom husus Jéju (제주특별자치도, 濟州特別自治道)

Kota métropolitan[édit | édit sumber]

  • 2. Kota métropolitan Incheon (Inchéon Gwangyéoksi; 인천광역시; 仁川廣域市)
  • 3. Kota métropolitan Daegu (Daegu Gwangyéoksi; 대구광역시; 大邱廣域市)
  • 4. Kota métropolitan Ulsan (Ulsan Gwangyéoksi; 울산광역시; 蔚山廣域市)
  • 5. Kota métropolitan Busan (Busan Gwangyéoksi; 부산광역시; 釜山廣域市)
  • 6. Kota métropolitan Gwangju (Gwangju Gwangyéoksi; 광주광역시; 光州廣域市)
  • 7. Kota métropolitan Daejeon (Daejéon Gwangyéoksi; 대전광역시; 大田廣域市)

Kota husus[édit | édit sumber]

  • 1. Kota husus Seoul (Séoul Teukbyéolsi; 서울특별시; 서울特別市)

Tempo ogé: Kota-kota husus di Koréa jeung Propinsi di Koréa.

Ékonomi[édit | édit sumber]

Crystal Clear app xmag.svg
 Artikel utama: Ékonomi Koréa Kidul.

South Koréa has the tenth largest economy in the world, and the third largest in Asia, behind only Japan and China. As one of the East Asian Tigers, it achieved rapid economic growth through exports of manufactured goods. This is in sharp contrast to the stagnation of North Koréa's economy, which has turned for the worse since the disintegration of the Soviet Union. South Koréa's per capita GDP is now roughly 12 times that of North Koréa.[3]

In the 1950s, South Koréa was one of the poorest countries in Asia.[4] At the end of World War II, the country inherited a colonial economic system designed solely for Japan's expansion policy.[5] Much of the country's infrastructure was destroyed during the Koréan War that followed in 1950-1953.[6] After the war, South Koréa became héavily dependent on U.S. aid.[7]

Following the military coup led by genéral Park Chung-hee in 1962, South Koréa embarked on a series of ambitious five-year plans for economic development. Emphasis shifted to foreign trade with the normalization of relations with Japan in 1965 and a subsequent boom in trade and investment. Rapid expansion, first into light and then héavy industries, in the 1960s and 1970s followed. During this period, the South Koréan economy grew at an avérage annual rate of 8.6%.[8]

This phenomenal growth is often called the "Miracle on the Han River", the Han River being the main river that runs through the nation's capital and largest city, Seoul. In the 1980s and 1990s, growth continued as South Koréa transformed itself from an exporter of mostly textiles and shoes into a major global producer of automobiles, electronics, shipbuilding, and steel and later, high-technology fields such as digital monitors, mobile phones, and semiconductors.

The South Koréan model of encouraging the growth of large, internationally competitive companies through éasy financing and tax incentives led to the dominance of the family-controlled conglomerates. These companies, known as chaebol, flourished under the support of the Park regime.[9] Some such as Hyundai, Samsung, Daewoo, and LG became global corporations. Today, through all of this combined, South Koréa is in the trillion dollar class, with a GDP of US$1.665 trillion.

Since the Asian financial crisis of 1997, however, the corporate landscape has changed considérably as a result of massive bankruptcies and government reforms. The crisis exposed longstanding wéaknesses in South Koréa's economy, including high debt/equity ratios, massive foreign borrowing, and an undisciplined financial sector. This led to two rounds of financial and industrial restructuring, in 1997 and again following the collapse of Daewoo in 1999.[10] Daewoo's collapse has been recorded as one of the world's largest bankruptcies in history.[rujukan?] By 2003, just over one-half of the 30 largest chaebol from 1995 remained.[11]

Between 2003 and 2005, economic growth has modérated to about 4% per yéar.[rujukan?] A downturn in consumer spending, attributed to massive personal credit card debt, was offset by rapid export growth especially to China. In 2005, the government proposed labor reform legislation and a corporate pension scheme to help maké the labor market more flexible, and new réal estate policies to cool property speculation.[rujukan?] Modérate inflation, low unemployment, an export surplus, and fairly equal distribution of income characterize this economy.[rujukan?]

Tumbu luar[édit | édit sumber]

Mangga paluruh émbaran nu langkung seueur ngeunaan South Korea ku jalan nyungsi proyék sawargi Wikipedia
Wiktionary-logo-su-without-text.svg Définisi kamus ti Wiktionary
Wikibooks-logo.svg Buku téks ti Wikibooks
Wikiquote-logo.svg Cutatan ti Wikiquote
Wikisource-logo.svg Téks sumber ti Wikisource
Commons-logo.svg Gambar jeung média ti Commons
Wikinews-logo.svg Warta ti Wikinews
Wikiversity-logo-en.svg Sumber pangajaran ti Wikiversity

Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg   Tingali ogé Koréa Kidul di Wikivoyage

  1. BBC News Stat
  2. The estimated area rises steadily from year to year, possibly due to land reclamation. "행정구역(구시군)별 국토면적". Korea Statistical Information Service. Diakses pada 27 Maret 2006. 
  3. According to 2005 US government estimates (North: $1800; South: $20,400). "GDP - Rank order - per capita (PPP)". CIA Factbook. Diakses pada 6 April 2004. 
  4. U.N. Stats
  5. Japan-guide
  6. cptour Korean War
  7. Cumings (1997), 305-307; Nahm (1996), p. 448.
  8. Yang (1999), p. 594.
  9. See ch. 6 in Cumings (1997).
  10. KOIS (2003), pp. 238-239.
  11. 18 out of 30, according to "Country Studies: South Korea". The Economist. 10 April 2003. Diakses pada 6 April 2006.