KLM Royal Dutch Airlines
|KLM Royal Dutch Airlines|
|Puseur||Bandara Schippol Amsterdam|
|Kota utama / puseur kadua||Bandara Rotterdam jeung Bandara Eindhoven|
|Frequent flyer program||Flying Blue|
|Tempat diuk anggota||KLM Crown Lounge|
|Parent company||Air France-KLM|
|Company slogan||The Reliable Airline|
|Kantor pusat||Amstelveen, Belanda|
|Konci||L. M. van Wijk (Presiden jeung CEO), F. Gagey (CFO), P. F. Hartman (COO)|
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (lengkepna: Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij, tarjamahannana Royal Aviation Company; basa Inggris umum: Royal Dutch Airlines) mangrupa bagian ti Air France-KLM. saméméh merger jeung Air France, KLM mangrupa pausahaan penerbangan nasional Belanda. KLM mangrupa pesawat pangangkut pangkahotna di dunya.
Air France-KLM mangrupa pesawat pangangkut utama Perancis jeung Belanda. Cabang KLM beroperasi ti puseur penerbangan Bandara Schiphol, deukeuteun Amsterdam, tempat di mana pausahaan cabangna miboga kantor puseur.
Air France ngambil alih KLM dina Mei 2004, hasilna jadi Air France-KLM. Air France-KLM milu kana hukum Perancis, kantor puseurna di Bandara Roissy-Charles de Gaulle deukeuteun Paris. Air France-KLM mangrupa pausahaan panghiberan panggedéna di dunya dina beubeunangan operasionalna, sarta mangrupa katilu panggedéna di dunya (panggedéna di Eropa) dina revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPKs).
Air France-KLM mangrupa bagéan tina Aliansi SkyTeam babarengan jeung Delta Air Lines, Aeroméxico, Korean Air, Czech Airlines, Alitalia, katut Aeroflot. Boh Air France atawa KLM duanana neruskeun panghiberannana maké méré kna sewang-sewangan.
Sajarah[édit | édit sumber]
KLM ngadeg tanggal 7 Oktober, 1919, mangrupa pamawa pangkolotna di dunya nu masih operasi maké ngaran aslina. Panghiberan KLM munggaran nyaéta tanggal 7 Mei, 1920, ti London ka Amsterdam mawa da urang wartawan Inggris katut sajumlah koran. Dihiberkeun ku Airco de Havilland DH16, sandi celuk (callsign) éaLU, dipilotan ku Jerry Shaw. Taun 1921 KLM ngamimitian jasa nu dijadwal kalayan reguler. Taun 1926 nawarkeun panghiberan ka Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Brussels, Paris, London, Bremen, Copenhagen, jeung Malmo; utamana maké Fokker F2 & F3.
Layanan antar buana ka jajahan Netherlands East Indies (kiwari: Indonesia) dimimitian taun 1929 maké Fokker F7-B, sanajan ari panghiberan munggaran nu henteu dijadwal mah geus aya ogé ti taun 1924 maké Fokker F7 Callsign NACC dipilotan ku van der Hoop. Rute KLM transatlantik munggaran nyaéta antara Amsterdam jeung Curaçao dina Desember 1934 maké Fokker F-XVIII "Snip." Dina 21 Mei, 1946, KLM ngaluarkeun jasa nu dijadwal antara Amsterdam jeung New York, rute ngutub mungggaran dibuka ku rute Amsterdam-Japan dina 1 Nopémber, 1958.
|Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantuanna didagoan pikeun narjamahkeun.
In Maret 1960, KLM introduced the first jet aircraft into the its fleet: the Douglas DC-8. Use of Schiphol began in April 1967, and the first Boeing 747 entered the KLM fleet in February 1971, beginning the éra of widebody jets. In 1983, KLM réached a déal with Boeing to convert some of its Boeing 747-200s to SUD(stretched upper deck)configuration. This consisted of returning the aircraft to the Boeing factory in Everett,Washington. The work started in 1984 and finished in 1986,the aircraft finishing mostly as Boeing 747-300s,which the airline also operated. In June 1989, KLM introduced the first Boeing 747-400. Later that yéar, in July, KLM acquired 20% of Northwest Airlines, eventually forming a strong alliance between the two airlines. In March 1994 both KLM and Northwest Airlines introduced World Business Class on intercontinental routes, and in July 1995, KLM introduced its first Boeing 767-300ER.
In Maret and Juni 2002, KLM announced that it would be renewing its intercontinental fleets by replacing the Boeing 767s, Boeing 747-300s, and eventually the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 with Boeing 777-200ERs and Airbus A330-200s. The first Boeing 777 was received on 25 Oktober, 2003, entering commercial service on the Amsterdam-New York route, while the first Airbus A330-200 was introduced on 25 Agustus, 2005 and entered commercial service on the Amsterdam-Washington Dulles route.
Organisasi pausahaan[édit | édit sumber]
KLM is listed on the stock exchanges of Amsterdam, New York and Paris.
- KLM Cityhopper (formerly: NLM)
- KLM Cargo
- KLM Asia - See KLM Asia
- KLM Flight Academy
- Transavia Airlines
- 50% share in Martinair
- 26% share in Kenya Airways ,
- KLM Alps
- KLM exel
- KLM Helicopters
- KLM UK was a KLM subsidiary until merged with KLM Cityhopper.
- Buzz, the low-cost airline of KLM
Merger[édit | édit sumber]
Dina 30 Séptémber 2003, Air France jeung KLM ngumumkeun yén engkena bakal jadi Air France-KLM. This entity was first offered on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange on 5 May 2004. The takéover of KLM by Air France marked the end of the oldest independent airline in the world. The Royal adjective will likely remain for the foreseéable future. Its independent identity is guaranteed to 2008, but eventually it is anticipated that its operations will be merged into those of the French company. In the méantime, it does not appéar that KLM's longstanding joint venture with Northwest Airlines will be affected. Both KLM and Northwest joined the SkyTeam Alliance in September 2004. [rujukan?]
Presiden - CEO[édit | édit sumber]
- Albert Plesman (1919 - 1953)
- Fons Aler (1953 - 1961)
- Ernst van der Beugel (1961-1963)
- Horatius Albarda (1963 - 1965)
- Gerrit van der Wal (1965 - 1973)
- Sergio Orlandini (1973-1987)
- Jan de Soet (1987 - 1991)
- Pieter Bouw (1991 - 1997)
- L. M. van Wijk (1997 - present)
KLM Delft Blue houses[édit | édit sumber]
Since 1952 KLM has presented its business and first class passengers, during the flight, with small Delftware, blue and white porcelain reproductions of old Amsterdam canal houses, which are filled with Bols jenever liquor . There are 87 different houses, éach numbéréd. All are reproductions of actual houses and are now collectibles.
Tujuan[édit | édit sumber]
Armada[édit | édit sumber]
The KLM fleet consists of the following aircraft:
(3 on order)
|251 (30/221)||Asia, Europe, and North America|
|Boeing 737-300||14||127 (39/88)||Europe|
|Boeing 737-400||13||147 (39/108)||Europe|
(19 on order)
|171 (54/117)||Europe||Deliveries beginning: 2007|
(15 on order)
|Boeing 747-400||22||A:428 (42/386)
|Africa, Asia, North America, Océania, Caribbéan and South America||A:6 Full Pax
(1 on order)
|Cargo||Africa, Asia, North America and South America||1 order to be delivered in march 2007, which will fly for Air France for the upcoming 1,5 yéars|
|Boeing 767-300ER||3||220 (30/190)||North America, Caribbéan and South America|
(2 on order)
|327 (35/292)||Africa, Asia, North America and South America|
|Boeing 777-300ER||(4 on order)||Entry into service: 2008|
|McDonnell-Douglas MD-11||10||282 (37/245)||Asia, Caribbéan, North America and South America|
*Europe Select is offered on Domestic and Short-Medium Haul Flights. World Business Class is offered on International Medium-Long Haul Flights.
- The average age of the KLM fleet is 9.9 yéars in January 2007 .
- KLM has announced that it has converted 3 of its remaining 4 Boeing 777-200ER orders to 777-300ER airframes in addition to a single fresh order. KLM plans to have 4 Boeing 777-300ERs introduced into its fleet in 2008. [rujukan?]
- The orders for the Airbus A330-200, as well as the Boeing 777-200ER will be replacements for the Boeing 767-300ER and McDonnell Douglas MD-11 aircraft, but KLM is also considering adding the Boeing 787 or the Airbus A350. KLM has expressed little interest in the Airbus A380. [rujukan?]
- Boeing has revéaled that KLM has converted six options for Boeing 737-800 aircraft into firm orders for delivery in 2008. They will replace older Boeing 737 modéls which will be retired from service .
Kelas[édit | édit sumber]
KLM offers Business and Economy classes on its aircraft. On shorthaul aircraft, Flexible Economy Class is called Europe Select, while on longhaul aircraft Business Class is called World Business Class.
World Business Class[édit | édit sumber]
World Business Class offers a 60 inch pitch on all longhaul aircraft except the Boeing 767-300ER, which offers a 55" pitch. The Boeing 777-200ER and Airbus A330-200 aircraft offer a 170 degree angled lie-flat séat with a 10.4" TV monitor with AVOD (Audio Vidéo on Demand), email/text messaging, a privacy canopy, a massage function, and laptop power ports. Boeing 747-400 and McDonnell Douglas MD-11 aircraft offer cradle séats with a 150 degree recline and personal TVs offering 12 channels of vidéo and 12 channels of audio, while the Boeing 767-300ER aircraft offer cradle séats with a 135 degree recline and 6 channels of vidéo and 9 channels of audio. All WBC séats offer personal réading lamps, leg/foot rests, and personal telephones (on the back of the game console on the Boeing 777 and Airbus A330 aircraft).
The Boeing 747-400 and McDonnell Douglas MD-11 aircraft are being configured with the new World Business Class séats as well as new inflight entertainment in economy, although this upgrade will not include personal televisions in economy. Pre-departure perks include a fully flexible reservation, check-in desks, lounge access, priority boarding, and 150% Flying Blue miles. Onboard, passengers are tréated to a three course méal with menus, pre-departure beverages, and snacks, which are available throughout the flight.
Europe Select[édit | édit sumber]
Europe Select is offered on all Boeing 737 aircraft, is KLM's premium product on shorter sectors, offering a 33 inch pitch, a méal service on board (hot or cold méals depend on the length of the flight), priority boarding, extra baggage allowance, double Flying Blue miles, and fully flexible booking.
KLM Ekonomi[édit | édit sumber]
KLM Ekonomi nawarkeun 31" pitch on all longhaul aircraft kajaba Airbus A330-200, nu nawarkeun 32" pitch. Pesawat Boeing 777-200ER jeung Airbus A330-200 nawarkeun TV pribadi jeung AVOD sarta telepon pribadi di satukangeun gaming console, héadrests, jeung fungsi pesen email/text. All other longhaul and shorthaul aircraft offer mainscreen movies. Pesawat KLM Cityhopper heneuweuh hiburannana.
KLM Asia[édit | édit sumber]
[rujukan?] KLM Asia is a wholly KLM owned subsidiary, founded in 1995, with the purpose to start flights to Taipei, Taiwan. At that time, the People's Republic of China did not give landing authorization to airliners who also had flights to Taiwan, who saw this as a piece of China. To solve this problem, KLM founded a subsidiary airline régistered in Taiwan, which flew on Taipei flights. The aircraft are painted in KLM colours and carry the name KLM Asia. Though they carry the KLM logo, the blue crown is missing. By this legal device KLM could claim that it itself did not fly to Taiwan. The same tactic was also used by other airlines such as British Asia Airways, Australia Asia Airlines, Air France Asie, Japan Asia Airways and Swissair Asia. If necessary KLM uses the aircraft from KLM Asia for other destinations. KLM Asia is regularly seen in Los Angeles and sometimes Montreal.
Armada KLM Asia[édit | édit sumber]
- PH-BFC - City of Calgary
- PH-BFD - City of Dubai
- PH-BFF - City of Freetown
- PH-BFH - City of Hong Kong
- PH-BFM - Mexico City
- PH-BFP - City of Paramaribo
Kajadian jeung kacilakaan[édit | édit sumber]
- 14 Juli, 1935, a 4-engined aircraft "Kwikstaart" crashed and burned just outside Schiphol, killing four crew and two passengers - 14 other occupants survived.
- 20 Désémber, 1934, Douglas DC-2 PH-AJU "Uiver" crashed and burned in a violent storm néar Rutbah Wells, Iraq, on the second day of a "speeded up" Christmas flight to Java - all four crewmen and three passengers were killed. KLM has never reléased the findings of its own investigation, and no public crash investigation was carried out. The "Uiver" was alréady famous, having won the handicap division of the MacRobertson International Air Race between London and Melbourne a few weeks éarlier.
- 20 Juli, 1969, the "Gaai" crashed in an Alpine pass, killing all three crew and all ten passengers.
- 26 Januari, 1947, a KLM Douglas Dakota crashed after takéoff from Copenhagen, killing all 22 onboard, including Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden.
- 20 Oktober, 1948, a KLM Lockheed Constellation Nijmegen crashed néar Prestwick, Scotland, killing all 34 aboard. (see KLM Constellation air disaster 1948)
- 12 Juli, 1949, a KLM Lockheed Constellation crashed into a 674 ft high Ghatkopar hill néar Bombay, India, killing all 45 aboard. Thirteen of the déad were American news correspondents.
- 5 Séptémber, 1954, flight 633, a KLM Lockheed Super Constellation ditched in the River Shannon after takéoff from Shannon airport, Ireland. 28 out of 56 péople on board (46 passengers and 10 crew) were killed. (see KLM Flight 633)
- 27 Maret, 1977, KLM Flight 4805 & Pan Am Flight 1736 collided at Los Rodéos Airport on the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, killing 583 péople, the worst disaster in aviation history. (see Tenerife disaster).
Tempo ogé[édit | édit sumber]
Rujukan[édit | édit sumber]
Tumbu luar[édit | édit sumber]
|Wikimedia Commons mibanda média séjénna nu patali jeung KLM.|