Hajar Aswad

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Hajar Aswad (Ar. الحجر الأسود) nu hartina Batu Hideung nyaéta hiji batu anu ceuk tradisi Islam diaku ku para Muslim salaku titinggal Nabi Ibrahim, sarta jauhna titinggal Nabi Adam. Ieu batu diperenahkeun di juru wétan Ka'bah, kabuyutan kuna kiblatna solat Muslim, di tengah-tengah Masjidil Haram] di Mekah, Arab Saudi[1]. Diaméter ieu batu k.l. 30 cm, diperenahkeun 1,5 m luhureun taneuh[2]. Dina jaman panengah, ieu batu beulah, ku kituna kiwari dipigura (maké pérak).

Dina prakprakan Haji, jamaah disunatkeun nyium Hajar Aswad, sakumaha anu dicontokeun ku Nabi Muhammad[3]. Mun teu kahontal, jamaah cukup ku nunjuk dina unggal kuriling anu tujuh (towaf)[4].

Asal-usul[édit | sunting sumber]

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Numutkeun tradisi Islam, Hajar Aswad anu tadina bodas nyacas ragrag ti Sawarga jaman Adam jeung Hawa. Tina bodas nyacas jadi hideung téh kusabab nyerep dosa mangtaun-taun[5]. Ieu batu lajeng kapendak ku Nabi Ibrahim nalika kuriak ngabangun deui Ka'bah, dianteurkeun ku Malaikat Jibril[6].

Taun 602, mangsa Muhammad can diangkat jadi nabi, Ka'bah diropéa deui ku suku-suku di Mekah. Ku kituna, Hajar Aswad dipindahkeun heula ka tempat nu aman. Dina Shiroh Rosululloh karya Ibnu Ishaq, dicaritakeun yén para pupuhu suku maséakeun saha nu pantes merenahkeun deui Hajar Aswad kana Ka'bah. Muhammad anu dipercaya kajujuranana ku sakur suku-suku Mekah, dipénta néang jalan tengah pikeun mutuskeun ieu perkara. Pamanggih anjeunna anu basajan lajeng ditarima ku para pupuhu suku. Prakprakanana, Muhammad muka sarta ngamparkeun sorbanna, merenahkeun Hajar Aswad luhureunana, sarta para pupuhu suku babarengan ngagotong eta sorban ka tempat rék diperenahkeunana Hajar Aswad. Sanggeus kitu, Muhammad kuanjeun ngangkat éta batu kana témbok di juru Ka'bah[7][8][9].

Jihat séjén[édit | sunting sumber]

Budaya Semit di Wétan Tengah boga tradisi migunakeun batu ahéng pikeun nyirian kabuyutan/tempat suci, pénoména nu kapanggih dina Bibel Yahudi jeung Qur'an[6].

Grunebaum, dina Classical Islam, nyebutkeun yén Ka'bah téh pangjugjugan jarah ti saméméh Islam nu bentuk aslina ukur bangunan batu. Tapi bangunan modél Ka'bah di Arab téh teu ukur hiji. Di kota Ghaiman, Arab kidul aya "Batu beureum". Aya ogé "batu bodas" di 'Abalat (deukeut kota Tabala, kidul Mekah). Intina, jaman bihari aya tradisi muja batu, gunung, formasi cadas, atawa tutuwuhan anu bentukna teu galib"[10].

Pasipatan fisik Hajar Aswad munggaran dipedar abad ka-19 jeung awal abad ka-20 ku urang Éropah nu ngumbara ka Arab. Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, urang Swiss nu ngumbara ka Mekah taun 1815-an medar Hajar Aswad dina bukuna Travels in Arabia (1829):

   
Hajar Aswad
It is an irregular oval, about seven inches in diameter, with an undulating surface, composed of about a dozen smaller stones of different sizes and shapes, well joined together with a small quantity of cement, and perfectly well smoothed; it looks as if the whole had been broken into as many pieces by a violent blow, and then united again. It is very difficult to determine accurately the quality of this stone which has been worn to its present surface by the millions of touches and kisses it has received. It appeared to me like a lava, containing several small extraneous particles of a whitish and of a yellow substance. Its colour is now a deep reddish brown approaching to black. It is surrounded on all sides by a border composed of a substance which I took to be a close cement of pitch and gravel of a similar, but not quite the same, brownish colour. This border serves to support its detached pieces; it is two or three inches in breadth, and rises a little above the surface of the stone. Both the border and the stone itself are encircled by a silver band, broader below than above, and on the two sides, with a considerable swelling below, as if a part of the stone were hidden under it. The lower part of the border is studded with silver nails.
   
Hajar Aswad

Visiting the Kaaba in 1853, Sir Richard Francis Burton nu nganjang ka Ka'bah taun 1853 nyaritakeun:

   
Hajar Aswad
The colour appeared to me black and metallic, and the centre of the stone was sunk about two inches below the metallic circle. Round the sides was a reddish brown cement, almost level with the metal, and sloping down to the middle of the stone. The band is now a massive arch of gold or silver gilt. I found the aperture in which the stone is, one span and three fingers broad.[11]
   
Hajar Aswad

Catetan[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. Sheikh Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarkpuri (2002). Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar): Biography of the Prophet, Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN 1591440718.
  2. SaudiCities - The Saudi Experience. "Makkah - The Holy Mosque:The Black Stone". 
  3. Elliott, Jeri (1992). Your Door to Arabia. ISBN 0-473-01546-3.
  4. Mohamed, Mamdouh N. (1996). Hajj to Umrah: From A to Z, Amana Publications. ISBN 0-915957-54-x.
  5. Shaykh Tabarsi, Tafsir, vol. 1, pp. 460, 468. Quoted in translation by Francis E. Peters, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, p. 5. SUNY Press, 1994. ISBN 0791418766
  6. a b Cyril Glasse, New Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 245. Rowman Altamira, 2001. ISBN 0759101906
  7. Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad, Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 84-87
  8. University of Southern California. "The Prophet of Islam - His Biography". Diakses pada 12 Agustus 2014. 
  9. Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, translated by Issam Diab (1979). "Muhammad's Birth and Forty Years prior to Prophethood". Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar): Memoirs of the Noble Prophet. Diakses pada 4 Méi 2007. 
  10. Grunebaum, p. 24
  11. Quoted in Thomas Patrick Hughes, A Dictionary of Islam, p. 154. W. H. Allen & Co, 1885

Rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Black Stone. Disalin 30 Oktober 2008.
  • Grunebaum, G. E. von (1970). Classical Islam: A History 600 A.D. - 1258 A.D.. Aldine Publishing Company. ISBN 202-15016-X
  • Sheikh Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarkpuri (2002). Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar): Biography of the Prophet. Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN 1591440718.
  • Elliott, Jeri (1992). Your Door to Arabia. ISBN 0-473-01546-3.
  • Mohamed, Mamdouh N. (1996). Hajj to Umrah: From A to Z. Amana Publications. ISBN 0-915957-54-x.
  • Time-Life Books (1988). Time Frame AD 600-800: The March of Islam, ISBN 0-8094-6420-9.
  • Bob Trubshaw (February 1993). "The Black Stone - the Omphalos of the Goddess". Mercian Mysteries (No. 14).

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]

Koordinat: 21°25′21.02″N 39°49′34.58″E / 21.4225056°N 39.8262722°E / 21.4225056; 39.8262722


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