Daptar istilah Islam
|Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.
Artikel ieu salasahiji tina séri
|Solat – Zakat|
|Munggah haji ka Mekah|
|Mekah – Madinah|
|Yerusalem – Karbala – Kufah|
|Hijrah – Kalénder Islam – Idul Fitri|
|Idul Adha – Asyura – Maulid|
|Masjid – Munara|
|Mihrob – Ka'bah|
|Muadzin – Imam – Mulloh|
|Ayatulloh – Mufti|
|Qur'an – Hadits – Sunnah|
|Fiqih – Fatwa – Syari'ah|
Hanafi, Hambali, Maliki, Syafi'i)
|Syi'ah: Itsna Asy'ariah, Ismailiyah,
|Séjénna: Mu'tazilah – Khawarizmi|
|Wahabi – Salafi|
Daptar di handap eusina konsép-konsép nu diturunkeun tina ageman Islam jeung tradisi Arab, nu diéksprésikeun minangka kecap-kecap basa Arab. Kagunaan utama daptar ieu nyaéta pikeun ngaleungitkeun disambiguasi tina rupa-rupa éjahan, pikeun nyatet éjahan nu teu digunakeun deui pikeun konsép ieu, pikeun ngadéfinisikeun konsép dina hiji atawa dua baris, pikeun ngagampangkeun singsaha waé dina manggihan konsép nu spésifik, sarta pikeun nyadiakeun tungtunan kana konsép nu unik tina Islam, kabéhna dina hiji tempat.
Misahkeun konsep Islam tina budaya Arab, atawa tina basana sorangan, bisa jadi kacida susahna. Lona konsep urang Arab boga harti nu misah hartina kawas harti Islamina. Hiji conto nyaeta konsep dakwah. One of the complexities of the Arabic language is that a single word can have multiple meanings. The word Islam is itself a good example.
Readers should also note that Arabic is written in its own alphabet, with letters, symbols, and orthographic conventions that do not have exact equivalents in the Latin alphabet (see Arabic alphabet). The following list is a transliteration of Arabic terms and phrases. Consequently, Muslims may transliterate certain Arabic words differently, such as din as opposed to deen, and aqidah as opposed to aqeedah. Most items in the list also contain their actual Arabic spelling.
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- Ashurah (عاشوراء)
- Tenth day of the month of Muharram. It is the day God saved Moses and the children of Israel from the Pharaoh. Muslims are recommended to fast during this day. To the Shias, it is also a day on which they mourn the death of the third Shia Imam, Husayn ibn Ali, along with his family and companions, who were killed in the famous battle in Karbala.
- Adab (أدب)
- Traditionally describes good manners, as in etiquette. For example, being courteous is good adab. However, the term can be used very broadly, and the proper translation would be "the proper way to go about something," as in the example, Aadaab al Qitaal, or, "The Proper Way of Fighting in War," (Qitaal in Arabic means mortal combat) in which the word "etiquette" does not befit the context.
- Abd (عبد)
- servant, worshipper, slave. Muslims consider themselves servants and slaves of God. A common Muslim name is Abd'allah/Abdullah, or Servant of Allah. AbdulMalik (Slave of the King), AbduRrahmaan (Slave of the most Merciful), AbdulSsalaam (Slave of Peace) etc.
- Adhan (أذان)
- call to salat (prayer)
- Adl (عدل)
- Justice especially distributive justice: social, economic, political, environmental.
- Ahl al Kitab (أهل الكتاب)
- "People of the Book", or followers of pre-Islamic monotheistic religions with some form of scripture believed to be of divine origin: Jews, Christians, "Sabians" (probably Mandaeans), and sometimes Zoroastrians
- Ahad (أحد)
- literally "only." Islamically, ahad means One Alone, unique, none like God. Al-Wahid is one of the names of Allah.
- Ahkam (أحكام)
- rulings and orders of the Qu'ran and Sunnah. Five kinds of orders: Wajib, Mustahab, Muharram, Makruh, and Halal.
- Ahl al Bayt (أهل البيت)
- members of Prophet Muhammad's Household. Also known among Shia as the Masumin (infallibles; spiritually pure).
- Akhlaq (أخلاق)
- The practice of virtue. Morals.
- Alamin (عالمين)
- Literally "worlds", humankind, jinn, angels and all that exists
- Alhamdulillah (الحمد لله)
- "Praise be to Allah!" Qur'anic exclamation
- Aliyan waliullah
- "Ali is the viceregent of God"
- Allahu Akbar (الله أكبر)
- "Allah is the Greatest." Islamic expression.
- Al-isra (الإسراء)
- "Night journey" of the Prophet (saw)
- Akhirah (آلآخرة)
- the afterlife, and accountability for present deeds
- Alim (عالم)
- One who knows. A scholar (in any field of knowledge); a scientist (who knows science) or a theologian (who knows religion); similar to Japanese sensei, "teacher"
- Amanah (أمانة)
- the trust. Of all creation, only human beings carry the "trust", which is free will.
- Ameen (آمين)
- Amen, a supplication meaning, "O Allah, accept our invocation!" (used only in Sunni Islam)
- Amir al-Muminin
- In some countries like Morocco, Amir al-Muminin or (Commander of the faithful) is the religious chief.
- Ansar (أنصار)
- "Helpers." The Muslim converts at Medina who helped the Muslims from Mecca after the Hijrah.
- Aqidah (عقيدة)
- The Islamic creed, or the six article of faith, which consists of the belief in God, Angels, Messengers and Prophets, Scriptures, the Day of Judgment, and Destiny.
- Aql (عقل)
- Intelligence, intellect, mind, understanding
- Arba'in (اربعين)
- The number forty (40).
- Asr (العصر)
- The third salat prayer. The time of the day before sunset and after noon. also means "era".
- Asharatu mubashshirun (العشرة المبشّرون)
- The ten companions of Muhammad who were promised paradise (only in Sunni Islam)
- As-Salamu Alaykum (السلام عليكم)
- The Islamic greeting; literally "Peace be upon you"; In addition, "Wa Rahmat ulLahi wa Barakatuhu" means "and the Mercy of Allah and His blessing". The response to this greetings is "WaAlaikum usSalam waRahmat ulLahi waBarakatuhu"--'And on you be the Peace and Mercy of Allah and His Blessing'.
It is a form of remembrance of Allah (SWT), and when a muslim says this to another muslim, it equals to 30 rewards and also 30 rewards for the reply (10 rewards for each word).
- Astaghfirullah (أستغفر الله)
- "I seek forgiveness from Allah." Islamic expression.
- Audhu billah (أعوذ بالله)
- "I seek refuge in Allah". This is a paraphrase on the beginnings of the two last suras in the Qur'an.
- Awliya' (أولياء)
- Friends, protectors, helpers, caretaker, maintainer . (singular: wali)
- Awrah (عورة)
- The part of a person's body that must be covered before everybody but a spouse. It may also be used to refer to what must be concealed of a woman before non-related men
- Ayah (آية) (plural ayat, آيات)
- A sign. More specifically, a verse in the Qur'an.
- Ayatollah ( آية الله)
- Sign of God Title given to highly ranked religious scholars in Shia'ism
- The Islamic call to prayer; see adhan.
- 'Azl (عزل)
- coitus interruptus, Intercourse characterized by withdrawal of the penis before ejaculation. Literally means "isolation".
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- Baitullah (بيت الله)
- "House of God." A masjid.
- Barakah (بركة)
- a blessing. Also, spiritual wisdom and blessing transmitted from master to pupil.
- Barzakh (برزخ)
- life after death in which the soul of the deceased is transferred across the boundaries of the mortal realm into the spirit world.
- Basher (بشر)
- Human(s). Literally means 'face' but generally it refers to a person (man/woman).
- Basirah (بصيرة)
- Insight, discernment, perceptivity, deep knowledge. Sometimes used by Sufis to denote the ability to directly perceive a transcendental Truth.
- Bid'ah (بدعة)
- Innovation in religion, i.e. inventing new methods of worship. Bid'ah in Islam is considered a deviation and a serious sin by many Muslims (only in Sunni Islam).
- Bint (بنت)
- daughter of
- Bismillah ar-Rahman, ar-Raheem (بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم)
- "In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful" (:bismi-llāhi ar-raḥmāni ar-raḥīmi).
- Burda (بردة)
- not an Arabic term; means "curtain" in Persian. Means covering or to cover, an important requirement for Muslim women.
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- Caliph (خليفة)
- literally successor; refers to the successor of the prophet Muhammad, the ruler of the Islamic world
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- Dajjal (دجّال)
- an Islamic figure similar to the Antichrist; means "liar" or "deceiver"
- Dallal (ضلل)
- going astray
- Dar al-`Ahd (دار العهد)
- the Ottoman Empire's relationship with its Christian tributary states
- Dar al-Amn (دار الأمن)
- status of a Muslim living in the Western world
- Dar ad-Dawa (دار الدعوة)
- a region where Islam has recently been introduced
- Dar al-Harb (دار الحرب)
- areas outside Muslim rule; the non-Islamic world
- Dar al-Islam (دار الإسلام)
- the abode, or land, of Islam
- Dar al-Kufr (دار الكفر)
- refers to the Quraish-dominated society of Mecca between his flight to Medina (the Hijra) and his triumphant return
- Dar ash-Shahada (دار الشهادة)
- See Dar al-Amn
- Da`wah (الدعوة)
- the call to Islam
- Dervish (درويش)
- a Sufi ascetic
- Dhimmi (ذمّي)
- "Protected person"; Jews and Christians (and sometimes others, such as Buddhists, Sikhs, Hindus, and Zoroastrians), whose right to practice their religion is tolerated under Islamic law, but with lower legal status.
- Dīn (الدين)
- the way of life based on Islamic revelation; the sum total of a Muslim's faith and practice. Dīn is often used to mean the faith and religion of Islam.
- fine for unintentional murder.
- Dua (دعاء)
- personal prayer, supplication
- Dhikr (ذكر)
- remembrance of God; Sufi spiritual exercise; Muslims believe that the primary function of prophets is to remind people of God.
- Dhuhr (الظهر)
- second salat prayer
- Dunya (دنيا)
- This world or life, as opposed to the Hereafter
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- Eid (عيد)
- festival or celebration.
- Eid ul-Adha (عيد الأضحى)
- "the Festival of Sacrifice." The four day celebration starting on the tenth day of Dhul-Hijja.
- Eid ul-Fitr (عيد الفطر)
- "the Festival of Fitr (Money Gifting)." A religious festival that marks the end of the fast of Ramadan.
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- Fajarah (فجرة)
- Wicked evil doers. Plural of "Fajir" (فاجر).
- Fajr (فجر)
- morning, as in the morning prayer. The time of the day when there is light in the horizon before sunrise.
- Falah (فلاح)
- success, happiness, well-being
- Fanaa (فناء)
- Sufi term meaning extinction - to die to this life while alive. Having no existence outside of God. A unity with Allah.
- Fard (فرض)
- a religious duty, or an obligatory action: praying 5 times a day is fard Neglecting a fard will result in a punishment in the hereafter.
- Fasiq (فاسق)
- anyone who has violated Islamic law; usually refers to one whose character has been corrupted (plural "fasiqun").
- Fatwa (فتوى)
- legal opinion of an (alim) binding on him and on those who follow his taqlid
- Fiqh (فقه)
- jurisprudence built around the shariah by custom (al-urf). Literally means "deep understanding", refers to understanding the Islamic laws.
- Fi sabil Allah (في سبيل الله)
- on the path of God; common Islamic expression for Jihad. Means for the sake of Allah Subhana Wa Tala (eg. giving in charity for the sake of Allah Subhana Wa Tala)
- Fitna (فتنة)
- trial or tribulation; also refers to any period of disorder, such as a civil war, or the period of time before the end of the world or any civil strife.
- Fitrah (فطرة)
- innate disposition towards virtue, knowledge, and beauty. Muslims believe every child is born with fitrah.
- Furqan (فرقان)
- the criterion (of right and wrong, true and false); for example, the Qur'an as furqan.
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- Ghafara (غفر)
- (verb in past tense) to forgive, to cover up (sins). A characteristic of God.
- Ghaflah (غفلة)
- heedlessness, forgetfulness of God, indifference
- Ghaib (غيب)
- the unseen, unknown.
- Ghusl (غسل)
- full ablution of the whole body
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- Hadi (هادي)
- a guide, one who guides; A Muslim name for God is The Guide, or Al-Hadi.
- guidance from God.
- Hadith (حديث)
- literally "speech"; recorded saying or tradition of the prophet Muhammad validated by isnad; with sira these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah
- Halal (حلال)
- lawful, permitted, good, beneficial, praiseworthy, honourable
- Hafith (حافظ)
- someone who knows the Qur'an by heart. Literal translation = memorizer or Protector.
- Hajj (الحجّ)or haj
- pilgrimage to Mecca. Sunnis regard this as the fifth Pillar of Islam
- Hakim a ruler's or gubernatorial title
- Hanif (حنيف)
- one of the five prophets; namely, Prophet Adam, Prophet Abraham/Ibrahim, Prophet Moses/Musa, Prophet Isa (Jesus), and Prophet Muhammad. Plural hunafa' (حنفاء).
- Haqq (حک)
- truth, reality, right, righteousness. An Islamic name for God is al-haqq.
- Haraam (حرام)
- (stress on final syllable) forbidden. Antonym: halal.
- Haram (حرم)
- (stress on initial syllable) sanctuary.
- Hasan (حسن)
- Good, beautiful, admirable. Also a categorization of a hadith's authenticity as "acceptable". (other categorizations include authenic and fabricated).
- Hijab (حجاب)
- literally "cover". It describes the self-covering of the body for the purposes of modesty and dignity; broadly, a prescribed system of attitudes and behaviour regarding modesty and dignity.
- Hijra (الهجرة)
- Muhammad and his followers' emigration from Mecca to Medina. Literally, "migration".
- wilderness reserve, protected forest, grazing commons, important to khalifa
- Hizb (حزب)
- one half of a juz', or roughly 1/60th of the Qur'an
- beautiful and pure young men and women, that Muslims believe inhabit Paradise, or Heaven.
- Huda (حدا)
- Hudna (هدنة)
- Truce. Cease-fire (often temporary)
- Hudud (حدود)
- Literally, limits or boundaries. Usually refers to limits placed by God on man; penalties of the Islamic law which are described in the Qur'an.
- Hukm (حكم)
- ruling in the Qur'an or Sunnah
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- Ibadah (عبادة)
- worship, but not limited to ritual: all expressions of servitude to Allah, including the pursuit of knowledge, living a pious life, helping, charity, and humility, can be considered ibadah.
- a jinn banished to Hell for his arrogance and disobedience; aka Shaytan : derived from the Greek Diabolos or Devil
- Iftaar (إفطار)
- a light meal eaten by Muslims breaking their fast after sunset.
- Ihram (إحرام)
- state of consecration for hajj. Includes dress and or prayer.
- Ihsan (إحسان)
- perfection in worship, such that Muslims try to worship God as if they see Him, and although they cannot see Him, they undoubtedly believe He is constantly watching over them.
- how Muslims describe the character of the Qur'an in both form and content
- Ijma (إجماع)
- the consensus of either the ummah (or just the ulema) - one of four bases of Islamic Law. More generally, political consensus itself.
- Ijtihad (إجتهاد)
- During the early times of Islam, the possibility of finding a new solution to a juridical problem. Has not been allowed in conservative Islam since the Middle Ages. However, Liberal movements within Islam generally argue that any Muslim can perform ijtihad, given that Islam has no generally accepted clerical hierarchy or bureaucratic organization. The opposite of ijtihad is taqlid, Arabic for "imitation".
- Ilah (إله)
- deity, lord, god; not necessarily The God.
- Ilm (علم)
- all varieties of knowledge, usually a synonym for science
- Imam (إمام)
- literally, leader; e.g. a man who leads a community or leads the prayer; the Shi'a sect use the term only as a title for one of the twelve God-appointed successors of Prophet Muhammad.
- Imamah (إمامة) or imamate
- successorship of Prophet Muhammad and the leadership of mankind.
- Iman (إيمان)
- personal faith
- the habitual inclination to give rather than take in life; the basis for charity
- Injeel (الإنجيل)
- Muslim term for the holy book said to have been given to Jesus, who is known as Isa to Muslims; Muslims believe the holy book has been lost and the New Testament gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) are not the word of Allah, only Christian stories about Isa
- Insha'Allah (إن شاء الله)
- God Willing.
- the second call to prayer. Similar to the azhan.
- Isha (عشاء)
- night; the fifth salat prayer
- Islam (الإسلام)
- "submission to God". The Arabic root word for Islam means submission, obedience, peace, and purity.
- Isnad (إسناد)
- chain of transmitters of any given hadith
- Isra (الإسراء)
- the night journey during which Muhammad (محمّد)is said to have visited Heaven. See miraj.
- Istislah (إستصلاح)
- public interest - a source of Islamic Law.
- Istishhaad (إستشهاد)
- clarification of truth in its ultimate form.
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- the Hell-fire; Hell
- Jahiliya (الجاهليّة)
- the time of ignorance before Islam was realized. Describes polytheistic religions.
- ignorance, arrogance
- Jamia (جامعة)
- "gathering"; i.e. a university, a mosque, or more generally, a community or association.
- funeral prayer
- Paradise, Heaven, the Garden
- Jazakallahu Khayran
- "May Allah reward you for the good." Islamic expression of gratitude.
- Jihad (جهاد)
- struggle. Any earnest striving in the way of Allah, involving personal, physical, intellectual or military effort, for righteousness and against wrong-doing;
- "Lesser Jihad": fighting to protect Islam from attack or oppression. In such fighting, no woman, child or innocent civilian is to be harmed, and no tree is to be cut down. Shi'as believe that only Prophet Muhammad and the twelve Imams had authority to declare positive jihad of the lesser kind.
- "Greater Jihad": internal struggle for the soul (nafs) against evil, e.g. Lust, Greed, Envy, etc. Also to thrive to do actions that have great value in islam, and that one has to overcome one's self to do it, e.g.: to overcome the temptation to sleep when it is time to pray the morning prayer is a greater jihad. Killing innocent civilians, even women and children, is also considered a form of jihad by some radical islamic groups in order to carry out the will of Allah.
- (pl. jalabib) a long, flowing, baggy garment worn by some to fulfill the mandates of sartorial hijab. Some more conservative Muslims believe that jilbāb is incumbent upon Muslim women to wear this as a sign of modesty.
- Jinn (جنّ)
- An invisible being of fire
- Jizya (جزية)
- A tax specified in the Koran (9:29) to be paid by non-Muslim males living under Muslim political control.
- Jumuah (جمعة)
- Friday prayer
- Juz' (جزء)
- one of thirty parts of the Qur'an
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- cube-house; the cube-shaped buidling i.e in Mecca toward which Muslims pray.
- Kafir (كافر)
- from the word kafara - "to hide." Those who deliberately hide the truth; unbelievers, truth-concealers; one who is ungrateful. Plural: Kaffirun.
- Kalam (علم الكلم)
- Islamic theology
- Khalifa (خليفة)
- Caliph, more generally, one performing the duties of khilafa.
- the speaker at the Friday Muslim prayer, or Jumu'ah prayer
- Khilafa (خلافة)
- Man's trusteeship and stewardship of Earth; Most basic theory of the Caliphate; Flora and fauna as sacred trust; Accountability to God for harms to nature, failure to actively care and maintain. Three specific ways in which khalifa is manifested in Muslim practice are the creation of haram to protect water, hima to protect other species (including those useful to man), and by resisting infidel domination over Muslim lands, in jihad.
- Kharaj (خراج)
- a land tax
- Khums (خمس)
- a Shi'a article of faith that refers to a one-fifth tax, divided between Sehme Sadaat, a poor sayyid, and Sehme Imam, given to a Mujtahid
- the sermon at Jumu'ah prayer
- book; The Qur'an is often referred to as "Al-Kitab"
- Kufr (كفر)
- In Arabic - ungratefulness and disbelief. Islamically speaking, disbelief in God and denial of the truth.
- "Be!" God's command to the universe, 'Be!' and it is.
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- Dirty, false, evil vain talk
- La ilaha illallah
- "There is no god (ilah) except God (Allah)." The most important expression in Islam. It is part of the first pillar of Islam.
- la'nat (لعنة)
- Laylat al-Qadr
- the Night of Power, towards the end of Ramadan, when Muhammad received the first revelation of the Qur'an.
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- Madhab (مذهب)
- school of religious jurisprudence, school of thought
- Madrasa (مدرسة)
- school, university
- Maghrib (مغرب)
- the fourth daily salat prayer
- Mahdi (مهدي)
- "a guide". More specifically al-Mahdi (the guide) is a figure who will appear with Prophet Jesus before the end of time, when God allows it, to bring world peace, order and justice, after it has been overcome with injustice and aggression. The Shi'as regard the twelfth Imam as the Mahdi. The Sunnis regard someone else as the Mahdi.
- Mahram (محرم)
- a relative of the opposite gender usually described as being "within the forbidden limits"; a better description is "within the protected limits". means relatives who one can appear before without observing hijab and who one cannot marry.
- Though not haram (forbidden), something that is disliked or offensive.
- Ma malakat aymanukum (ما ملكت أيمانكم or ما ملكت أيمانهم or ما ملكت أيمانهن or ما ملكت يمينك or الذين ملكت أيمانكم)
- one's rightful spouse (literally: what your right hands possess)
- one of seven parts of the Qur'an
- Ma'ruf (معروف)
- consensus of the community
- goals or purposes; such as the purposes of Islamic law
- Masha Allah (ما شاء الله)
- God has willed it.
- the (Biblical) Messiah, Jesus Christ.
- place of prayer; mosque
- Masum, plural Masumin
- literally, innocent or free of sin; children are considered masum. Can also refer to an adult individual who does not commit sins, does not make mistakes, does not forget, etc. although he/she does have the choice to commit sins. The Shi'as regard the Prophet Muhammad, his daughter Fatimah, and the twelve Imams to be the fourteen Masumin. Finally assumed as a title for an 'infallible leader sent by Allah', notably by the Almohads' founding Mahdi and Imam.
- Maulana (مولانا)
- an Arabic word literally meaning "our lord" or "our master". It is used mostly as a title preceding the name of a respected religious leader, in particular graduates of religious institutions. The term is sometimes used to refer to Rumi.
- Maulvi (مولوی)
- an honorific Islamic religious title often, but not exclusively, given to Muslim religious scholars or Ulema preceding their names. Maulvi generally means any religious cleric or teacher.
- the Resurrection; God will resurrect all of humankind to be judged. Shi'as regard this as the fifth Pillar of Islam.
- Mecca (مكّة)
- the holiest city in Islam
- "city"; Medinat-un-Nabi means "the City of the Prophet." See hijrah.
- a niche in the wall of all mosques, indicating the direction of prayer
- a tower built onto a mosque from the top of which the call to prayer is made
- Minbar (منبر)
- a pulpit in the mosque where the Imam stands to deliver sermons
- methodology, e.g. methods, rules, system, procedures.
- Miraj (المعراج)
- the Ascension to the Seven Heavens during the Night Journey See also: isra
- Mu'awwidhatayn (المعوذتين)
- suras Al-Falaq and an-Nas, the "Surahs of refuge", should be said to relieve suffering (also protect from Black Magic)
- literally permissible; neither forbidden nor commended. Neutral.
- Mufti (مفتى)
- an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of "fatwa").
- woman who wears hijab
- Muhammadun rasulullah
- "Muhammad is the messenger of Allah." This statement is the second part of the first pillar of Islam. This is the second most important statement in Islam.
- a person who performs the call to prayer
- The first Muslims that traveled to Medina.
- Mujahid (مجاهد)
- a fighter for Islam. Plural mujahideen.
- a scholar who uses reason for the purpose of forming an opinion or making a ruling on a religious issue. Plural: Mujtahidun.
- Mullah (مل)
- are Islamic clergy. Ideally, they should have studied the Qur'an, Islamic traditions (hadith), and Islamic law (fiqh).
- hypocrite. Plural: Munafiqun
- woman who wears niqab
- Murshid (مرشد)
- a Sufi teacher
- a follower of the religion of Islam.
- joy, a type of marriage or a practice between Umrah and Hajj.
- "agreed upon"--used to describe hadith that were narrated by many witnesses through different narration chains (isnads) leading back to Muhammad
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- literally, prophet. In the Islamic context, a Nabi is a man sent by God to give guidance to man, but not given scripture. The Prophet Abraham was a Nabi. This is in contrast to Rasul, or Messenger. Plural: Anbiya. See: Rasul.
- Nafs (النفس)
- soul, one's self
- Nakir and Munkar
- two malaikah who test the faith of the dead in their graves
- falsehood; dishonesty
- Niqab (نقاب)
- veil covering the face
- Nass (نصّ)
- a known, clear legal injunction
- Nubuwwah (نبوّة)
- prophethood. Shi'as regard this as the third Pillar of Islam.
- light. Muslims believe angels were created from light.
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- Qadi (قاضي)
- judge of Islamic Law
- the direction Muslims face during prayer
- resurrection; return of the dead for the Day of Judgment
- Qisas (?)
- blood money
- Qiyas (القياس)
- analogy - foundation of legal reasoning and thus fiqh
- sermon given by the imam in a mosque
- classification of a hadith that are believed to be narrated by Muhammad from God.
- Qur'an (القرآن)
- Muslims believe that the Qur'an is the literal word of God and culmination of God's revelation to mankind, revealed to Prophet Muhammad in the year 610 A.D.
R[édit | sunting sumber]
- Lord, Sustainer, Cherisher, Master.
- Merciful; Ar-Rahman means "The Most Merciful"
- compassionate; Ar-Rahim means "The Most Compassionate" as in the Basmala
- the practice of stoning
- one unit of Islamic prayer, or Salat. Each daily prayer is made up of a different number of rakaat.
- messenger; Unlike prophets (Nabi), messengers are given scripture. Moses, David, Jesus and Mohammed are considered messengers. All messengers are considered prophets, but not all prophets are given scripture. See: Nabi.
- Riba (ربا)
- interest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Qur'an
- literally, message or letter. Used both in common parlance for mail correspondences, and in religious context as divine message.
- spirit; the divine breath which God blew into the clay of Adam.
- the five pillars of the Islamic faith, also arkan.
- the bowing performed during Muslim prayer
S[édit | sunting sumber]
- patience, endurance, self-restraint
- charity; voluntary alms
- companions of Muhammad. In Islam, the Sahāba (الصحابه) were the companions of the prophet Muhammad. This form is plural; the singular is Sahābi, which is Arabic for "friend, companion." A list of the best-known Companions can be found at List of companions of Muhammad.
- "Sound in isnad." A technical attribute applied to the "isnad" of a hadith.
- Salaf (السلف الصالح)
- (righteous) predecessors/ancestors. In Islam, Salaf is generally used to refer to the first three generations of Muslims.
- Salah (صلاة) or salat
- any one of the 5 daily obligatory prayers. Sunnis regard this as the second Pillar of Islam
- Salaam (سلام)
- Salat (صلاة)
- Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam (صلى الله عليه و سلم)
- "May Allah bless him and grant him peace." Expression used after stating Prophet Muhammad's name. Abbreviated as (saw)
- eternal, absolute; Muslims believe God is "The Eternal."
- a river in heaven (al-firdaus)
- Sawm (صَوم)
- fasting during the month of Ramadhan. The word sawm is derived from Syriac sawmo.
- Sayyid (سيّد)
- a descendant of a relative (because all his sons Qasim, Abdullah, and Ibraheem or Abraham died before having children) to Muhammad
- refer to some of the ceremonies used by various sufi orders
- Shahadah (الشهادة)
- The expression of faith: La ilaha illa Allah. Muhammadun rasulullah. ("There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God."). Sunnis regard this as the first Pillar of Islam
- Shahid (شهيد)
- "witness". More specifically refers to a person killed whilst striving in Islam, a martyr. Often used in modern times for deaths in a political cause (including victims of soldiers, deaths in battle, suicide bombers, etc.)
- Shaikh (شيخ)
- a spiritual master
- Sharia/shariah (الشريعة)
- "the path to a watering hole"; the eternal ethical code and moral code based on the Qur'an and Sunnah; basis of fiqh
- Sharif (شريف)
- a title bestowed upon the descendants of Muhammad through Hasan, son of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib
- Satan, the Devil; also known as Iblis
- Shi'a (الشيعة)
- a follower of Prophet Muhammad and his successors (the twelve Imams), the first being Ali. Shi'as constitute the second largest sect in Islam.
- Shirk (شرك)
- idolatry; polytheism; the sin of believing in any divinity except Allah and of associating other gods with Allah.
- Shura (شورى)
- majlis ash-shura (مجلس الشورى)
- advisory council
- Sira (السيرة)
- life or biography of the Prophet Muhammad; his moral example - with hadith this comprises the sunnah
- Sirat al-Mustaqim
- the Straight Path
- Subhanahu wa ta'ala
- expression used following written name or vocalization of Allah
- expression used by Muslims to express strong feelings of joy or relief.
- Sufi (صوفي)
- a Muslim mystic; See: Sufism (tasawwuf).
- the meal eaten by fasting Muslims just before dawn.
- Sunnah (السنّة) or sunnah al-Nabi (سنّة النبي)
- the "path" or "example" of the Prophet Muhammad, i.e., what the Prophet did or said or agreed to during his life. He is considered by Muslims to be the best human moral example, the best man to follow.
- Sunni (سنّي)
- the largest sect in Islam.
- Surah (سورة)
- chapter; the Qur'an is comprised of 114 suras
T[édit | sunting sumber]
- followers of the Sahabah
- Tafsir (تفسير)
- exegesis, particularly such commentary on the Qur'an
- impurity; anything worshipped other than God, i.e. all the false deities.
- optional, late night prayer
- purification from ritual impurities by means of wudu or ghusl
- pure, ritually clean
- to purify and reform society in order to move it toward greater equity and justice
- Tajwid (تجويد)
- a special manner of reciting the Qur'an according to prescribed rules of pronunciation and intonation.
- a proclamation of the greatness of Allah; a Muslim invocation.
- to declare kufr (disbelief) about a non-Muslim or Muslim or to denounce them as disbelievers.
- Taqlid (تقليد)
- to blindly follow a person whose following is not based on proof and does not rely upon knowledge.
- Taqiyya (تقيّة)
- the mostly Shi'a principle that one is allowed to hide one's true beliefs in certain circumstances.
- righteousness; goodness
- tarawih prayers are extra prayers in Ramadan after the Isha prayer.
- Tarkib (تَرْكِيب)
- the study of Arabic grammar issued from the Qur'an
- Tariqa (طريقة)
- a Muslim religious order, particularly a Sufi order
- Tartil (ترتيل)
- slow and measured (meditative) recitation of the Qur'an
- Tashkil (تشكيل)
- vocalization of a text, for example the Qur'an
- Taslim (تسلم)
- salutation at the end of prayer
- Tasawwuf (التصوّف) or Sufism
- circumambulating the Ka'bah during Hajj.
- Tawheed (توحيد)
- monotheism; affirmation of the Oneness of God. Muslims regard this as the first part of the Pillar of Islam, the second part is accepting Muhammad as Messenger. The opposite of Tawheed is shirk
- the revelation to Musa
- all that is good as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc. Means "pure." The Shahaddath is tayyib.
- Purification of the Soul.
U[édit | sunting sumber]
- Ulema (علماء) or ulama
- the leaders of Islamic society, including teachers, Imams and judges. Singular alim.
- Ummah (الاُمّة) or umma
- the global community of all Muslim believers; international personhood of Islam
- the lesser pilgrimage performed in Mecca. Unlike hajj, umrah can be performed throughout the year.
- Urf (عرف)
- custom of a given society, leading to change in the fiqh
- Usul al-Fiqh
- the study of the origins and practice of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh)
W[édit | sunting sumber]
- Wahdat al-wujud (وحدة الوجود)
- "unity of being". Philosophical term used by some Sufis. Related to fanaa
- revelation or inspiration of Allah to his prophets for all humankind
- friend, protector, guardian, supporter, helper
- Warraq (ورّاق)
- traditional scribe, publisher, printer, notary and book copier
- the middle way, justly balanced, avoiding extremes, moderation
- a voluntary, optional night prayer of three rakaat
- ablution for ritual purification from minor impurities before salat
Y[édit | sunting sumber]
- Ya Allah
- certainty, that which is certain
- Yaum Al-Qiyâmah (يوم القيامة)
- "Day of the Resurrection"; Day of Judgement
Z[édit | sunting sumber]
- the Psalms revealed to King David
- Zakat (زكاة)
- tax, alms, tithe as a Muslim duty; Sunnis regard this as the fourth Pillar of Islam. Neither charity nor derived from Islamic economics, but a religious duty and social obligation.
- polytheists, wrong-doers, and unjust.
- Zina (زناء , زنى)
- sexual activity outside of marriage (covering the English words adultery and fornication)
Notes[édit | sunting sumber]
- Wikipedia is not a general Arabic-to-English dictionary. The list above includes only those concepts sufficiently specific to Islam or Muslim culture to merit their own full articles. There is an English/Arabic dictionary on Wiktionary.
- Arabic words are created from three-letter "roots" which convey a basic idea. For example, k-t-b conveys the idea of writing. Addition of other letters before, between, and after the root letters produces many associated words: not only "write" but also "book", "office", "library", and "author". The abstract consonantal root for Islam is s-l-m.
- Some English words or phrases would translate very poorly into Arabic for cultural reasons, for instance the English word "crusade" would most likely be interpreted as meaning "genocide", and "infinite justice" would most likely be interpreted as meaning "divine judgement" – adl in Arabic implying Allah's justice. Probably it is best to avoid such terms for anything one intends to translate into Arabic, or knows will be translated.
- Some Islamic concepts are usually referred to in Persian or Turkic. Those are typically of later origin than the concepts listed here; for completeness it may be best to list Persian terms and those unique to Shi'a on their own page, likewise Turkic terms and those unique to the Ottoman period on their own page, as these are culturally very distinct.
- The word "crusade" in English is usually translated in Arabic as "Hamlah Ssaleebiyah" which means literally "campaign of Cross-holders" (or close to that meaning). In Arabic text it is "حملة صليبية" and the second word comes from "Ssaleeb" which means "cross."
References[édit | sunting sumber]
- Suzanne Haneef, What Everyone Should Know about Islam and Muslims, (Kazi Publications, Chicago), popular introduction
- Muzaffar Haleem, The Sun is Rising In the West, (Amana Publications, Beltsville, MD 1999).
- Ziauddin Sardar, Muhammad for Beginners, Icon Books, 1994, some sloppiness, from very modern Sufi point of view.
- Hans Wehr, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (Spoken Language Services, Ithaca, NY, 1976). ed. J. Milton Cowan. ISBN 0-87950-001-8.