KLM Royal Dutch Airlines
|KLM Royal Dutch Airlines|
|Puseur||Bandara Schippol Amsterdam|
|Kota utama / puseur kadua||Bandara Rotterdam jeung Bandara Eindhoven|
|Frequent flyer program||Flying Blue|
|Tempat diuk anggota||KLM Crown Lounge|
|Parent company||Air France-KLM|
|Company slogan||The Reliable Airline|
|Kantor pusat||Amstelveen, Belanda|
|Konci||L. M. van Wijk (Presiden jeung CEO), F. Gagey (CFO), P. F. Hartman (COO)|
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (lengkepna: Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij, tarjamahannana Royal Aviation Company; basa Inggris umum: Royal Dutch Airlines) mangrupakeun bagian ti Air France-KLM. samemeh merger jeung Air France, KLM mangrupakeun pausahaan penerbangan nasional Belanda. KLM mangrupakeun pesawat pangangkut pangkahotna di dunya.
Air France-KLM mangrupakeun pesawat pangangkut utama Perancis jeung Belanda. Cabang KLM beroperasi ti puseur penerbangan Bandara Schiphol, deukeuteun Amsterdam, tempat dimana pausahaan cabangna miboga kantor puseur.
Air France ngambil alih KLM dina Mei 2004, hasilna jadi Air France-KLM. Air France-KLM milu kana hukum Perancis, kantor puseurna di Bandara Roissy-Charles de Gaulle deukeuteun Paris. Air France-KLM mangrupakeun pausahaan panghiberan panggedena di dunya dina beubeunangan operasionalna, sarta mangrupakeun katilu panggedena di dunya (panggedena di Eropa) dina revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPKs).
Air France-KLM mangrupakeun bagean tina Aliansi SkyTeam babarengan jeung Delta Air Lines, Aeroméxico, Korean Air, Czech Airlines, Alitalia, katut Aeroflot. Boh Air France atawa KLM duanana neruskeun panghiberannana make merekna sewang-sewangan.
Sajarah[édit | sunting sumber]
KLM ngadeg tanggal 7 Oktober, 1919, mangrupakeun pamawa pangkolotna di dunya nu masih operasi make ngaran aslina. Panghiberan KLM munggaran nyaeta tanggal 7 Mei, 1920, ti London ka Amsterdam mawa da urang wartawan Inggris katut sajumlah koran. Dihiberkeun ku Airco de Havilland DH16, sandi celuk (callsign) EALU, dipilotan ku Jerry Shaw. Taun 1921 KLM ngamimitian jasa nu dijadwal kalayan reguler. Taun 1926 nawarkeun panghiberan ka Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Brussels, Paris, London, Bremen, Copenhagen, jeung Malmo; utamana make Fokker F2 & F3.
Layanan antar buana ka jajahan Netherlands East Indies (kiwari: Indonesia) dimimitian taun 1929 make Fokker F7-B, sanajan ari panghiberan munggaran nu henteu dijadwal mah geus aya oge ti taun 1924 make Fokker F7 Callsign NACC dipilotan ku van der Hoop. Rute KLM transatlantik munggaran nyaeta antara Amsterdam jeung Curaçao dina Desember 1934 make Fokker F-XVIII "Snip." Dina 21 Mei, 1946, KLM ngaluarkeun jasa nu dijadwal antara Amsterdam jeung New York, rute ngutub mungggaran dibuka ku rute Amsterdam-Japan dina 1 Nopémber, 1958.
|Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.
In Maret 1960, KLM introduced the first jet aircraft into the its fleet: the Douglas DC-8. Use of Schiphol began in April 1967, and the first Boeing 747 entered the KLM fleet in February 1971, beginning the era of widebody jets. In 1983, KLM reached a deal with Boeing to convert some of its Boeing 747-200s to SUD(stretched upper deck)configuration. This consisted of returning the aircraft to the Boeing factory in Everett,Washington. The work started in 1984 and finished in 1986,the aircraft finishing mostly as Boeing 747-300s,which the airline also operated. In June 1989, KLM introduced the first Boeing 747-400. Later that year, in July, KLM acquired 20% of Northwest Airlines, eventually forming a strong alliance between the two airlines. In March 1994 both KLM and Northwest Airlines introduced World Business Class on intercontinental routes, and in July 1995, KLM introduced its first Boeing 767-300ER.
In Maret and Juni 2002, KLM announced that it would be renewing its intercontinental fleets by replacing the Boeing 767s, Boeing 747-300s, and eventually the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 with Boeing 777-200ERs and Airbus A330-200s. The first Boeing 777 was received on 25 Oktober, 2003, entering commercial service on the Amsterdam-New York route, while the first Airbus A330-200 was introduced on 25 Agustus, 2005 and entered commercial service on the Amsterdam-Washington Dulles route.
Organisasi pausahaan[édit | sunting sumber]
KLM is listed on the stock exchanges of Amsterdam, New York and Paris.
- KLM Cityhopper (formerly: NLM)
- KLM Cargo
- KLM Asia - See KLM Asia
- KLM Flight Academy
- Transavia Airlines
- 50% share in Martinair
- 26% share in Kenya Airways ,
- KLM Alps
- KLM exel
- KLM Helicopters
- KLM UK was a KLM subsidiary until merged with KLM Cityhopper.
- Buzz, the low-cost airline of KLM
Merger[édit | sunting sumber]
Dina 30 Séptémber 2003, Air France jeung KLM ngumumkeun yen engkena bakal jadi Air France-KLM. This entity was first offered on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange on 5 May 2004. The takeover of KLM by Air France marked the end of the oldest independent airline in the world. The Royal adjective will likely remain for the foreseeable future. Its independent identity is guaranteed to 2008, but eventually it is anticipated that its operations will be merged into those of the French company. In the meantime, it does not appear that KLM's longstanding joint venture with Northwest Airlines will be affected. Both KLM and Northwest joined the SkyTeam Alliance in September 2004. [rujukan?]
Presiden - CEO[édit | sunting sumber]
- Albert Plesman (1919 - 1953)
- Fons Aler (1953 - 1961)
- Ernst van der Beugel (1961-1963)
- Horatius Albarda (1963 - 1965)
- Gerrit van der Wal (1965 - 1973)
- Sergio Orlandini (1973-1987)
- Jan de Soet (1987 - 1991)
- Pieter Bouw (1991 - 1997)
- L. M. van Wijk (1997 - present)
KLM Delft Blue houses[édit | sunting sumber]
Since 1952 KLM has presented its business and first class passengers, during the flight, with small Delftware, blue and white porcelain reproductions of old Amsterdam canal houses, which are filled with Bols jenever liquor . There are 87 different houses, each numbered. All are reproductions of actual houses and are now collectibles.
Tujuan[édit | sunting sumber]
Armada[édit | sunting sumber]
The KLM fleet consists of the following aircraft:
(3 on order)
|251 (30/221)||Asia, Europe, and North America|
|Boeing 737-300||14||127 (39/88)||Europe|
|Boeing 737-400||13||147 (39/108)||Europe|
(19 on order)
|171 (54/117)||Europe||Deliveries beginning: 2007|
(15 on order)
|Boeing 747-400||22||A:428 (42/386)
|Africa, Asia, North America, Oceania, Caribbean and South America||A:6 Full Pax
(1 on order)
|Cargo||Africa, Asia, North America and South America||1 order to be delivered in march 2007, which will fly for Air France for the upcoming 1,5 years|
|Boeing 767-300ER||3||220 (30/190)||North America, Caribbean and South America|
(2 on order)
|327 (35/292)||Africa, Asia, North America and South America|
|Boeing 777-300ER||(4 on order)||Entry into service: 2008|
|McDonnell-Douglas MD-11||10||282 (37/245)||Asia, Caribbean, North America and South America|
*Europe Select is offered on Domestic and Short-Medium Haul Flights. World Business Class is offered on International Medium-Long Haul Flights.
- The average age of the KLM fleet is 9.9 years in January 2007 .
- KLM has announced that it has converted 3 of its remaining 4 Boeing 777-200ER orders to 777-300ER airframes in addition to a single fresh order. KLM plans to have 4 Boeing 777-300ERs introduced into its fleet in 2008. [rujukan?]
- The orders for the Airbus A330-200, as well as the Boeing 777-200ER will be replacements for the Boeing 767-300ER and McDonnell Douglas MD-11 aircraft, but KLM is also considering adding the Boeing 787 or the Airbus A350. KLM has expressed little interest in the Airbus A380. [rujukan?]
- Boeing has revealed that KLM has converted six options for Boeing 737-800 aircraft into firm orders for delivery in 2008. They will replace older Boeing 737 models which will be retired from service .
Kelas[édit | sunting sumber]
KLM offers Business and Economy classes on its aircraft. On shorthaul aircraft, Flexible Economy Class is called Europe Select, while on longhaul aircraft Business Class is called World Business Class.
World Business Class[édit | sunting sumber]
World Business Class offers a 60 inch pitch on all longhaul aircraft except the Boeing 767-300ER, which offers a 55" pitch. The Boeing 777-200ER and Airbus A330-200 aircraft offer a 170 degree angled lie-flat seat with a 10.4" TV monitor with AVOD (Audio Video on Demand), email/text messaging, a privacy canopy, a massage function, and laptop power ports. Boeing 747-400 and McDonnell Douglas MD-11 aircraft offer cradle seats with a 150 degree recline and personal TVs offering 12 channels of video and 12 channels of audio, while the Boeing 767-300ER aircraft offer cradle seats with a 135 degree recline and 6 channels of video and 9 channels of audio. All WBC seats offer personal reading lamps, leg/foot rests, and personal telephones (on the back of the game console on the Boeing 777 and Airbus A330 aircraft).
The Boeing 747-400 and McDonnell Douglas MD-11 aircraft are being configured with the new World Business Class seats as well as new inflight entertainment in economy, although this upgrade will not include personal televisions in economy. Pre-departure perks include a fully flexible reservation, check-in desks, lounge access, priority boarding, and 150% Flying Blue miles. Onboard, passengers are treated to a three course meal with menus, pre-departure beverages, and snacks, which are available throughout the flight.
Europe Select[édit | sunting sumber]
Europe Select is offered on all Boeing 737 aircraft, is KLM's premium product on shorter sectors, offering a 33 inch pitch, a meal service on board (hot or cold meals depend on the length of the flight), priority boarding, extra baggage allowance, double Flying Blue miles, and fully flexible booking.
KLM Ekonomi[édit | sunting sumber]
KLM Ekonomi nawarkeun 31" pitch on all longhaul aircraft kajaba Airbus A330-200, nu nawarkeun 32" pitch. Pesawat Boeing 777-200ER jeung Airbus A330-200 nawarkeun TV pribadi jeung AVOD sarta telepon pribadi di satukangeun gaming console, headrests, jeung fungsi pesen email/text. All other longhaul and shorthaul aircraft offer mainscreen movies. Pesawat KLM Cityhopper henteu aya hiburannana.
KLM Asia[édit | sunting sumber]
[rujukan?] KLM Asia is a wholly KLM owned subsidiary, founded in 1995, with the purpose to start flights to Taipei, Taiwan. At that time, the People's Republic of China did not give landing authorization to airliners who also had flights to Taiwan, who saw this as a piece of China. To solve this problem, KLM founded a subsidiary airline registered in Taiwan, which flew on Taipei flights. The aircraft are painted in KLM colours and carry the name KLM Asia. Though they carry the KLM logo, the blue crown is missing. By this legal device KLM could claim that it itself did not fly to Taiwan. The same tactic was also used by other airlines such as British Asia Airways, Australia Asia Airlines, Air France Asie, Japan Asia Airways and Swissair Asia. If necessary KLM uses the aircraft from KLM Asia for other destinations. KLM Asia is regularly seen in Los Angeles and sometimes Montreal.
Armada KLM Asia[édit | sunting sumber]
- PH-BFC - City of Calgary
- PH-BFD - City of Dubai
- PH-BFF - City of Freetown
- PH-BFH - City of Hong Kong
- PH-BFM - Mexico City
- PH-BFP - City of Paramaribo
Kajadian jeung kacilakaan[édit | sunting sumber]
- 14 Juli, 1935, a 4-engined aircraft "Kwikstaart" crashed and burned just outside Schiphol, killing four crew and two passengers - 14 other occupants survived.
- 20 Désémber, 1934, Douglas DC-2 PH-AJU "Uiver" crashed and burned in a violent storm near Rutbah Wells, Iraq, on the second day of a "speeded up" Christmas flight to Java - all four crewmen and three passengers were killed. KLM has never released the findings of its own investigation, and no public crash investigation was carried out. The "Uiver" was already famous, having won the handicap division of the MacRobertson International Air Race between London and Melbourne a few weeks earlier.
- 20 Juli, 1969, the "Gaai" crashed in an Alpine pass, killing all three crew and all ten passengers.
- 26 Januari, 1947, a KLM Douglas Dakota crashed after takeoff from Copenhagen, killing all 22 onboard, including Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden.
- 20 Oktober, 1948, a KLM Lockheed Constellation Nijmegen crashed near Prestwick, Scotland, killing all 34 aboard. (see KLM Constellation air disaster 1948)
- 12 Juli, 1949, a KLM Lockheed Constellation crashed into a 674 ft high Ghatkopar hill near Bombay, India, killing all 45 aboard. Thirteen of the dead were American news correspondents.
- 5 Séptémber, 1954, flight 633, a KLM Lockheed Super Constellation ditched in the River Shannon after takeoff from Shannon airport, Ireland. 28 out of 56 people on board (46 passengers and 10 crew) were killed. (see KLM Flight 633)
- 27 Maret, 1977, KLM Flight 4805 & Pan Am Flight 1736 collided at Los Rodeos Airport on the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, killing 583 people, the worst disaster in aviation history. (see Tenerife disaster).
Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]
Rujukan[édit | sunting sumber]
Tumbu luar[édit | sunting sumber]