Qur'an

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Al Qur'ān [1] (basa Arab: القرآن al-qurʼān, sacara harfiah hartina "bacaan"; disebut ogé al-qurʼān al-karīm "Al Qur'an nu Mulya"; ogé ditransliterasikeun minangka Quran, Koran (istilah tradisional di Inggris), jeung Al-Quran), nyaéta téks rélijius séntral dina ajaran Islam. Muslim percaya yén Al Qur'an mangrupakeun kecap harfiah ti Gusti (basa Arab Allah) nu diwahyukeun ka Nabi Muhammad SAW, salila 22 taun, 2 bulan 22 poé ngaliwatan perantara malaikat Jibril sarta mangrupakeun wahyu pamungkas ti Gusti Allah pikeun umat manusa. Qur'an nyaritakeun kajadian-kajadian picontoeun dina sajarah manusa, utamana ngeunaan para nabi saméméh Muhammad kayaning Nuh, Adam, Ibrahim, Musa, Isa, jeung nu séjénna.

Muslim ogé nyebut Al Qur'an minangka "Wasiat Pamungkas", "Kitab", "Kitab Gusti Allah" sarta "Wahyu."

Étimologi[édit | sunting sumber]

Dina tata basa Arab, kecap "qur'an" mangrupakeun masdar (kecap barang verbal) tina kecap gawé basa Arab قرأ qara'a ("maca" atawa "nyaritakeun"[2][3]. Kecap ieu digunakeun dina Al Qur'an sorangan minangka istilah keur Al Qur'an, misalna dina Q.S 12:2:

Lo! We have revealed it, a Lecture [qur'ān] in Arabic, that ye may understand. (Pickthall's translation)
We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur'an, in order that ye may learn wisdom. (Yusuf Ali's translation)

It is also used within the Qur'an in its generic sense of "reading", "recital", as in 75:18 (with -a accusative suffix + -hu 3rd person masculine singular possessive suffix):

And when We read [qara'-] it, follow thou the reading [qur'ān-ahu] (Pickthall)
But when We have promulgated [qara'-] it, follow thou its recital [qur'ān-ahu] (as promulgated) (Yusuf Ali)

However, there is some question as to whether this word was formed within Arabic from this root or borrowed separately from Syriac. The latter hypothesis was first proposed by the German Semitic scholar Theodore Nöldeke argued in his 1860 Geschichte des Qorâns (History of the Qur'an)[1] that the word qur'ān might be a borrowing from the Syriac noun ܩܪܝܢܐ qeryānâ (whose meanings include "reading" and "lection, lesson"), itself derived from the verb ܩܪܐ qrâ ("to read, recite; to study"[4]):

"Since a cultural word like "to read" can not be proto-Semitic, we may assume that it has entered Arabia, and probably from the North ... Since Syriac has, next to the verb קּרא, also the noun qeryānā, meaning both ἀνάγνωσις ("reading, reading out") and ἀνάγνωσμα ("lection, lecture"), and because of the above mentioned, the assumption of probability increases, that the term Qur'an is not an internal Arabic development from the infinitive with the same meaning, but a borrowing from the Syriac word that has been adapted according to the type fulʻān."[5]

More recent proponents of this view include Christoph Luxenberg[6] (who takes it as evidence that the Qur'an was itself originally a Syriac lectionary).

Format Al Qur'an[édit | sunting sumber]

Salinan Al Qur'an nu geus dibuka siap dibaca.
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 Artikel utama: Surat.

Al Qur'an eusina aya 114 surat kalayan total 6236 ayat.

Saban surat, ilaharna bisa dipikanyaho tina ngaran basa Arab nu aya dina éta surat (tempo Daptar ngaran surat). Surat-surat henteu disusun sacara runtuyan kronologis (in the order in which Islamic scholars believe they were revealed) but in a different order, roughly descending by size.

Al Qur'an pikeun bacaan jeung kisah[édit | sunting sumber]

In addition to and largely independent of the division into surahs, there are various ways of dividing the Qur'an into parts of approximately equal length for convenience in reading, recitation and memorization. The seven manazil (stations) and the thirty ajza' (parts) can be used to work through the entire Qur’an in a week or a month, one manzil or one juz' a day, respectively. A juz' is sometimes further divided into two ahzab (groups), and each hizb is in turn subdivided into four quarters. A different structure is provided by the ruku'at, semantical units resembling paragraphs and comprising roughly ten ayat each.

A hafiz is one who has memorized the entire text of the Qur'an, and is able to recite it properly (Tajweed). There are believed to be millions of these worldwide.[rujukan?] All Muslims must memorize at least some parts of the Qu'ran, in order to perform their daily prayers.

Apalan Al Qur'an[édit | sunting sumber]

Kecap Qur'an ogé biasana ditarjamahkeun minangka "apalan," nu nunjukkeun yén Qur'an lain mung saukur téks, tapi ogé geus ditepikeun sacara lisan di sagédéngeun ngaliwatan téks.

Pikeun ngalengkepan sampurnana solat, mangrupa kawajiban dina Islam, nyaéta nyaratkeun ngapal saeutikna sababaraha surat dina Al qur'an (biasana dimimitina ku surat kahiji, Al Fatihah, dituluykeun ku maca surat séjénna). Saméméh bisa maca Al Fatihah, hiji Muslim bisa maca "pupujian keur Allah" salila solat.

Jalma anu apal sakabéh bacaan Al Qur'an disebut qari' (قَارٍئ) atawa hafiz (nu berurutan hartina "nu apal" atawa "nu ngajaga"). Nabi Muhammad mangrupakeun hafiz pertama. Tilawah تلاوة Al Qur'an mangrupakeun kasenian nu hadé di dunya Muslim.

Schools of recitation[édit | sunting sumber]

A fragment from the Qu'ran, Sura 33: 73–74

There are several schools of Qur'anic recitation, all of which are permissible pronunciations of the Uthmanic rasm. Today, ten canonical and at least four uncanonical recitations of the Qur'an exist. For a recitation to be canonical it must conform to three conditions:

  1. It must match the rasm, letter for letter.
  2. It must conform with the syntactic rules of the Arabic language.
  3. It must have a continuous isnad to Prophet Muhammad through tawatur, meaning that it has to be related by a large group of people to another down the isnad chain.

Ibn Mujahid documented seven such recitations and Ibn Al-Jazri added three. They are:

  1. Nafi` of Madina (169/785), transmitted by Warsh and Qaloon
  2. Ibn Kathir of Makka (120/737), transmitted by Al-Bazzi and Qonbul
  3. Ibn `Amer of Damascus (118/736), transmitted by Hisham and Ibn Zakwan
  4. Abu `Amr of Basra (148/770), transmitted by Al-Duri and Al-Soosi
  5. `Asim of Kufa (127/744), transmitted by Sho`bah and Hafs
  6. Hamza of Kufa (156/772), transmitted by Khalaf and Khallad
  7. Al-Kisa'i of Kufa (189/804), transmitted by Abul-Harith and Al-Duri
  8. Abu-Ja`far of Madina, transmitted by Ibn Wardan and Ibn Jammaz
  9. Ya`qoob of Yemen, transmitted by Ruways and Rawh
  10. Khalaf of Kufa, transmitted by Ishaaq and Idris

These recitations differ in the vocalization (tashkil تشكيل) of a few words, which in turn gives a complementary meaning to the word in question according to the rules of Arabic grammar. For example, the vocalization of a verb can change its active and passive voice. It can also change its stem formation, implying intensity for example. Vowels may be elongated or shortened, and glottal stops (hamzas) may be added or dropped, according to the respective rules of the particular recitation. For example, the name of archangel Gabriel is pronounced differently in different recitations: Jibrīl, Jabrīl, Jibra'īl, and Jibra'il. The name "Qur'an" is pronounced without the glottal stop (as "Qurān") in one recitation, and prophet Abraham's name is pronounced Ibrāhām in another.

The more widely used narrations are those of Hafs (حفص عن عاصم), Warsh (ورش عن نافع), Qaloon (قالون عن نافع) and Al-Duri according to Abu `Amr (الدوري عن أبي عمرو). Muslims firmly believe that all canonical recitations were recited by the Prophet himself, citing the respective isnad chain of narration, and accept them as valid for worshipping and as a reference for rules of Sharia. The uncanonical recitations are called "explanatory" for their role in giving a different perspective for a given verse or ayah. Today several dozen persons hold the title "Memorizer of the Ten Recitations," considered to be the ultimate honour in the sciences of Qur'an.

Writing and printing the Qur'an[édit | sunting sumber]

Page from a Qur'an
'Umar-i Aqta'
Iran, present-day Afghanistan,
Timurid dynasty, circa 1400
Opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper Muqaqqaq script
170 x 109 cm (66 15/16 x 42 15/16in.)
Historical Region: Uzbekistan

Most Muslims today use printed editions of the Qur'an. There are many editions, large and small, elaborate or plain, expensive or inexpensive [2]. Bilingual forms with the Arabic on one side and a gloss into a more familiar language on the other are very popular.

Qur'ans are produced in many different sizes, from extremely large Qur'ans [3] [4] for display purposes, to extremely small Qur'ans [5].

Qur'ans were first printed from carved wooden blocks, one block per page. There are existing specimen of pages and blocks dating from the 10th century CE. Mass-produced less expensive versions of the Qur'an were later produced by lithography, a technique for printing illustrations. Qur'ans so printed could reproduce the fine calligraphy of hand-made versions.

The oldest surviving Qur'an for which movable type was used was printed in Venice in 1537/1538. It seems to have been prepared for sale in the Ottoman empire. Catherine the Great of Russia sponsored a printing of the Qur'an in 1787. This was followed by editions from Kazan (1828), Persia (1833) and Istanbul (1877) [6].

It is extremely difficult to render the full Qur'an, with all the points, in computer code, such as Unicode. The Internet Sacred Text Archive makes computer files of the Qur'an freely available both as images [7] and in a temporary Unicode version [8]. Various designers and software firms have attempted to develop computer fonts that can adequately render the Qur'an. See [9] for one such commercial font.

Before printing was widely adopted, the Qur'an was transmitted by copyists and calligraphers. Since Muslim tradition felt that directly portraying sacred figures and events might lead to idolatry, it was considered wrong to decorate the Qur'an with pictures (as was often done for Christian texts, for example). Muslims instead lavished love and care upon the sacred text itself. Arabic is written in many scripts, some of which are both complex and beautiful. Arabic calligraphy is a highly honored art, much like Chinese calligraphy. Muslims also decorated their Qur'ans with abstract figures (arabesques), colored inks, and gold leaf. Pages from some of these beautiful antique Qur'ans are displayed throughout this article.

Some Muslims believe that it is not only acceptable, but commendable to decorate everyday objects with Qur'anic verses, as daily reminders. Other Muslims feel that this is a misuse of Qur'anic verses; those who handle these objects will not have cleansed themselves properly and may use them without respect.

The language of the Qur'an[édit | sunting sumber]

The Qur'an was one of the first texts written in Arabic. It is written in an early form of classical Arabic known as “Quranic” Arabic. There are few other examples of Arabic from that time. (The Mu'allaqat, or Suspended Odes, are believed by some to be examples of pre-Islamic Arabic; others say that they were created after Muhammad. Only five pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions survive.)

Soon after Muhammad's death in 632 CE, Islam burst out of Arabia and conquered the Middle East, Northern Africa, Central Asia, and parts of Europe. Arab rulers had millions of foreign subjects, with whom they had to communicate. Thus, the language rapidly changed in response to this new situation, losing complexities of case and obscure vocabulary. Several generations after the prophet's death, many words used in the Qur'an had become opaque to ordinary sedentary Arabic-speakers, as Arabic had changed so much, so rapidly. The Bedouin speech changed at a considerably slower rate, however, and early Arabic lexicographers sought out Bedouin to explain difficult words or elucidate points of grammar. Partly in response to the religious need to explain the Qur'an to Muslims who were not familiar with Qur'anic Arabic, Arabic grammar and lexicography soon became important sciences. The model for the Arabic literary language remains to this day the speech used in Qur'anic times, rather than the current spoken dialects.

Translations of the Qur'an[édit | sunting sumber]

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 Artikel utama: Translation of the Qur'an.

The Qur'an has been translated into many languages; there are several translations for many languages, including English. These translations are considered to be glosses for personal use only, and have no weight in serious religious discussion. Translation is an extremely difficult endeavor, because each translator must consult his or her own opinions and aesthetic sense in trying to replicate shades of meaning in another language; this inevitably changes the original text. Thus a translation is often referred to as an "interpretation," and is not considered a real Qur'an. Just as Jewish and Christian scholars turn to the earliest texts, in Hebrew or Greek, when it is a question of exactly what is meant by a certain passage, so Muslim scholars turn to the Qur'an in Arabic.

Robert of Ketton was the first person to translate the Qur'an into a Western language, Latin, in 1143.[7] Alexander Ross offered the first English version in 1649. In 1734, George Sale produced the first scholarly translation of the Qur'an into English; another was produced by Richard Bell in 1937, and yet another by Arthur John Arberry in 1955. All these translators were non-Muslims. There have been numerous translation by Muslims; the most popular of these are the translations by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al Hilali, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, M. H. Shakir, Muhammad Asad, and Marmaduke Pickthall.

The English translators have sometimes favored archaic English words and constructions over their more modern or conventional equivalents; thus, for example, two widely-read translators, A. Yusuf Ali and M. Marmaduke Pickthall, use "ye" and "thou" instead of the more common "you." Another common stylistic decision has been to refrain from translating "Allah" — in Arabic, literally, "The God" — into the common English word "God." These choices may differ in more recent translations.

Stylistic attributes[édit | sunting sumber]

The Qur'an mixes narrative, exhortation, and legal prescription. The suras frequently combine all these modes, not always in ways that seem obvious to the reader. Muslims often argue that the uniqueness of the Qur'anic style supports belief in its divine origin.

There are many repeated epithets (e.g. "Lord of the heavens and the earth"), sentences ("And when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblis"), and even stories (such as the story of Adam) in the Qur'an. Muslim scholars explain these repetitions as emphasizing and explaining different aspects of important themes.

The Qur'an is partly rhymed, partly prose. Traditionally, the Arabic grammarians consider the Qur'an to be a genre unique unto itself, neither poetry (defined as speech with metre and rhyme) nor prose (defined as normal speech or rhymed but non-metrical speech, saj').

11th century Persian Qur'an folio page in kufic script

The Qur'an often, although by no means always, uses loose rhyme between successive verses; for instance, at the beginning of surat al-Fajr:

Wal-fajr(i),
Wa layâlin `ashr(in),
Wash-shaf`i wal-watr(i)
Wal-layli 'idhâ yasr(î),
Hal fî dhâlika qasamun li-dhî ḥijr(in).

or, to give a less loose example, the whole of surat al-Fil:

`A-lam tara kayfa fa`ala rabbuka bi-`aṣḥâbi l-fîl(i),
`A-lam yaj`al kaydahum fî taḍlîl(in)
Wa-`arsala `alayhim ṭayran `abâbîl(a)
Tarmîhim bi-ḥijâratin min sijjîl(in)
Fa-ja`alahum ka-`aṣfin ma'kûl(in).

(Note that verse-final vowels are unpronounced when the verses are enunciated separately, a regular pausal phenomenon in classical Arabic. In these cases, î and û often rhyme, and there is some scope for variation in syllable-final consonants.) It should also be noted that many words rhyme in Arabic with or without the addition of a case ending suffix due to the repetition of common vowel sounds. Arabic poetry frequently makes use of this type of rhyme, often referred to as monorhyme.

Some suras also include a refrain repeated every few verses, for instance ar-Rahman ("Then which of the favours of your Lord will ye deny?") and al-Mursalat ("Woe unto the repudiators on that day!").

18th century AD Qur'an

Islamic scholars divide the verses of the Qur'an into those revealed at Mecca (Makka), and those revealed at Medina (Madina) after the Hijra. In general, the earlier Makkan suras tend to have shorter verses than the later Madinan suras, which deal with legal matters, and are quite long. Contrast the Makkan verses above with a verse from al-Baqara such as Citakan:Quran-usc:

"A divorce is only permissible twice: after that, the parties should either hold Together on equitable terms, or separate with kindness. It is not lawful for you, (Men), to take back any of your gifts (from your wives), except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by God. If ye (judges) do indeed fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by God, there is no blame on either of them if she give something for her freedom. These are the limits ordained by God. so do not transgress them if any do transgress the limits ordained by God, such persons wrong (Themselves as well as others)." (Yusuf Ali)

Similarly, the Madinan suras tend to be longer, including the longest sura of the Qur'an, al-Baqara.

The beginnings of the suras[édit | sunting sumber]

Every sura but the ninth is preceded by the words Bismillah ir-Rahman ir-Rahim (Arabic: بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم). This is most frequently translated "In the Name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful." Interestingly, the Arabic words translated as "most gracious" (رحمان)(Rahman) and "most merciful" (رحيم)(Rahim) derive from the same triliteral (RHM; ر ح م), or "mercy." Grammatically, the form of the first word conveys magnitude, while that of the second conveys permanence. Therefore, the chapter openings may better be translated as "In the name of God, the most merciful, the ever merciful." This double declaration at the start of most chapters suggests the importance of mercy in the Muslim conception of God.

Twenty-nine suras begin with letters taken from a restricted subset of the Arabic alphabet. Thus, for instance, surat Maryam begins

Citakan:Quran-usc Kaf Ha Ya 'Ain Sad

Citakan:Quran-usc (This is) a recital of the Mercy of thy Lord to His servant Zakariya."

While there has been some speculation on the meaning of these letters, many Muslim scholars believe that their full meaning may never be grasped. However, they have observed that in all but 4 of the 29 cases, these letters are almost immediately followed by mention of the Qur'anic revelation itself. Western scholars' efforts have been tentative; one proposal, for instance, was that they were initials or monograms of the scribes who had originally transcribed the sura. See Qur'anic initial letters for a fuller discussion.

The temporal order of Qur'anic verses[édit | sunting sumber]

Belief in the Qur'an's direct, uncorrupted divine origin is considered fundamental to Islam by most Muslims.

"This is the Book; in it is guidance sure, without doubt, to those who fear God" Citakan:Quran-usc

However, there are instances where some verses presuppose that a given practice is allowed, while others forbid it.[rujukan?] These are interpreted by most Muslim scholars in the light of the relative chronology of the verses: since the Qur'an was revealed over a course of 23 years, many verses are said to have been clarified or abrogated (mansūkh) by later verses. Many Muslim commentators explain that this is because Muhammad was directed to gradually lead his small band of believers towards the straight path, rather than reveal the full rigor of the law at once.[rujukan?]

Interpretation of the Qur'an[édit | sunting sumber]

The Qur'an has sparked a huge body of commentary and explication. As discussed earlier, later Muslims did not always understand the Qur'an's Arabic, they did not catch allusions that were clear to early Muslims, and they were extremely concerned to reconcile apparent contradictions and conflicts in the Qur'an. Commentators glossed the Arabic, explained the allusions, and perhaps most importantly, decided which Quranic verses had been revealed early in Muhammad's prophetic career, as being appropriate to the very earliest Muslim community, and which had been revealed later, canceling out or "abrogating" (nāsikh) the earlier text. Memories of the occasions of revelation (asbāb al-nuzūl), the circumstances under which Muhammad had spoken as he did, were also collected, as they were believed to explain some apparent obscurities. It should be noted that not all Muslims believe that there are abrogations in the text of the Qur'an, and insist that there are no contradictions or unclear passages to explain.

Most commentators considered it extremely important for commentators to explain how the Qur'an was revealed—when and under which circumstances. Much commentary, or tafsir, was dedicated to history. The early tafsir are considered to be some of the best sources for Islamic history. Famous early commentators include at-Tabari and Ibn Kathir.

(These classic commentaries usually include all common and accepted interpretations; modern fundamentalist commentaries like that written by Sayyed Qutb tend to advance only one of the possible interpretations.)

Commentators feel fairly sure of the exact circumstances prompting some verses, such as surat Iqra, or many parts, including ayat 190-194, of surat al-Baqarah. In other cases (eg surat al-Asr), the most that can be said is which city the Prophet was living in at the time (dividing between Makkan and Madinan suras.) In some cases, such as surat al-Kawthar, the details of the circumstances are disputed, with different traditions giving different accounts.

Tapsir Qur'an[édit | sunting sumber]

Pitulung pangpentinga dina napsirkeun harti ayat-ayat Qur'an nyaéta Hadis - kumpulan tradisi Islam (kagiatan jeung sasanggeman Nabi Muhammad). Élmu isnad tumuwuh dina mangsa munggaran abad Hijriyah, nu usaha ngagolongkeun sasanggeman/béja hadis dumasar bisa henteu dipercayana jalma nu nepikeun hadis. Tapsir Qur'an salajengna tumuwuh jadi hiji élmu mandiri nu disebut élmu tapsir. Di antaran élmuwan nu kawentar nyaéta Tabari, Zamakhshari, Turmudhi, Ibn Kathir.

While certain hadith — the hadith qudsi — are thought to reflect noncanonical words spoken by God to Muhammad, Muslims do not consider these to form any part of the Qur'an.

Belief in the Qur'an's direct, uncorrupted divine origin is fundamental to Islam; this of course entails believing that the Qur'an has neither errors nor inconsistencies. ("This is the book in which there is no doubt, a guide to the believers": Surat al-Baqarah, verse 2.) However, it is well-known that certain chronologically later verses supersede earlier ones - the banning of wine, for instance, was accomplished gradually rather than immediately - and certain scholars have argued that some verses which discourage certain practices (for instance, polygamy) without banning them altogether should be understood as part of a similar process, though others argue that this contradicts "This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and chosen for you Islam as your religion" (5.3).

Similarities between the Qur'an and the Bible[édit | sunting sumber]

The Qur'an retells stories of many of the people and events recounted in Jewish and Christian sacred books (Tanakh, Bible) and devotional literature (Apocrypha, Midrash), although it differs in many details. Adam, Enoch, Noah, Heber, Shelah, Abraham, Lot, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Jethro, David, Solomon, Elijah, Elisha, Jonah, Aaron, Moses, Zechariah, Jesus, and John the Baptist are mentioned in the Qur'an as prophets of God (see Prophets of Islam )(a list with additional people is in Similarities between the Bible and the Qur'an). Muslims believe the common elements or resemblances between the Bible and other Jewish and Christian writings and Islamic dispensations is due to the common divine source. Muslims believe that the Christian or Jewish texts were authentic divine revelations given to prophets. Some Muslims claim that they were neglected or corrupted (tahrif) by the Jews and Christians and have been replaced by God's final and perfect revelation, which is the Qur'an.[8] However the historical biblical archaeological record refutes this assertion because the Dead Sea Scrolls (Old Testament and other Jewish writings) have been fully translated [9], validating the authenticity of the greek Septuagint (Old Testament)[10].

Origin and development of the Qur'an[édit | sunting sumber]

Based on Islamic traditions and legends, it is generally believed that Muhammad could neither read nor write, but would simply recite what was revealed to him for his companions to write down and memorize. Many scholars - (Rashad Khalifa, Christoph Luxenberg, Maxime Rodinson, William Montgomery Watt, etc.) - have argued that this claim is based on weak traditions and that, in regard of many aspects concerning Muhammad's biography and teachings, it is not convincing:

"The Meccans were in general familiar with reading and writing. A certain amount of writing would be necessary for commercial purposes ... In view of this familiarity with writing among the Meccans particularly, both for records and for religious scriptures, there is a presumption that Muhammad knew at least enough to keep commercial records ... The probability is that Muhammad was able to read and write sufficiently for business purposes, but it seems certain that he had not read any [religious] scriptures." - W. Montgomery Watt in "Muhammad's Mecca"[11]

"Whatever Arabic tradition may have assumed from a wrong interpretation of a word in the Koran, it seems certain that Muhammad learned to read and write. But except for a few vague and unreliable pointers in his life and work we have no way of knowing the extent of his learning." - M. Rodinson in "Mohammed"[12]

Adherents to Islam hold that the wording of the Qur'anic text available today corresponds exactly to that revealed to Muhammad himself: words of God delivered to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel. The Qur'an is not only considered by Muslims to be a guide but also as a sign of the prophethood of Muhammad and the truth of the religion. Muslims argue that it is not possible for a human to produce a book like the Qur'an.

Some secular scholars accept a similar account, but without accepting any supernatural claims: they say that Muhammad put forth verses and laws that he claimed to be of divine origin; that his followers memorized or wrote down his revelations; that numerous versions of these revelations circulated after his death in 632 CE, and that Uthman ordered the collection and ordering of this mass of material circa 650-656. These scholars point to many attributes of the Qur'an as indicative of a human collection process that was extremely respectful of a miscellaneous collection of original texts.

Other scholars have proposed that some development of the text of the Qur'an took place after the death of Muhammad and before the currently accepted version of the Qur'an stabilized. Western academic scholars associated with such theories include John Wansbrough, Patricia Crone, Michael Cook, Christoph Luxenberg, and Gerd R. Puin.

Another scholar, James A. Bellamy, has proposed some emendations to the text of the Qur'an.

The Qur'an and Islamic culture[édit | sunting sumber]

Based on tradition and a literal interpretation of sura 56:77-79: "That this is indeed a Qur'an Most Honourable, In a Book well-guarded, Which none shall touch but those who are clean.", many scholars opine that a Muslim perform wudu (ablution or a ritual cleansing with water) before touching a copy of the Qur'an, or mushaf. This view has been contended by other scholars on the fact that, according to Arabic linguistic rules, this verse eludes to a fact and does not comprise of an order. This is so because the verb equivalent of English 'touch' is used in past perfect and not imperative. The literal translation thus reads as "That (this) is indeed a noble Qur'an, In a Book kept hidden, Which none toucheth save the purified," (translated by Mohamed Marmaduke Pickthall). It is suggested based on this translation that performing ablution is not required.

Qur'an desecration means insulting the Qur'an by defiling or dismembering it. Muslims must always treat the book with reverence, and are forbidden, for instance, to pulp, recycle, or simply discard worn-out copies of the text. Respect for the written text of the Qur'an is an important element of religious faith by many Muslims. They believe that intentionally insulting the Qur'an is a form of blasphemy. According to the laws of some Muslim-majority countries, blasphemy is punishable by lengthy imprisonment or even the death penalty.

Quran and Science[édit | sunting sumber]

Some people claim that certain Qur'anic verses contain statements that support accepted modern scientific notions and that this proves the divine nature of the Qur'an. Others claim that these scientific notions stem from Greek and Hellenistic science and scientists like Galen and Ptolemy who were well known in the days of Muhammad. Those who support the idea that the Qur'an contains modern scientific notions often refers to two western scientists. Maurice Bucaille, a French doctor who worked for the Saudi king, and the former President of the Canadian Association of Anatomists Dr. Keith L. Moore who later started to work at the King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia.

In 1976 Maurice Bucaille published his book The Bible, the Qur'an and Science which became a huge success in the muslim world. In this book he claims that the Quran has divine origins. Many have criticized his statements in this book, among them Dr. William Campbell. They have also criticized him for his close connection to the late King Faisal who he thanks in the introduction of his book.

Keith L. Moore is mostly known for his Embryology textbook. He has claimed that the Quran is divine and contains accurate scientific statements about the formation of the embryo from the mixing of the male and female gametes up to the embryo’s full development. He's said to have remarked "It has been a pleasure for me to help clarify statements in the Qur’an about Human Development. It is clear to me that these statements must have come to Muhammad from God or Allah because almost all of this knowledge was not discovered until many centuries later."Citakan:Cn

Today both these scientists have disappeared from the scientific community. They only appear in Islamic sponsored meetings and refuse any interviews.

Naha quran teh mahluk atanapi lain (abadi) ?[édit | sunting sumber]

Kaseueuran ulama tauhid ngayakinkeun yen al-quran teh kalam Allah nu tangtos sanes mahluk jeung moal ruksak (abadi),sabab al-quran teh dawuhan Allah, jeueng ari ngadawuh teh eta salah sahiji sifat Allah. Lamun sifat Allah teu abadi, tangtu dzat Allah ge teu abadi, sedengken lamun Alla teu abadi eta mustahil. kulantaran kitu kaharti ku akal yen sifat Allah nu ieu (ngadawuhna Allah) mustahil ruksak, kulantaran mustahil ruksak, atuh jelas yen al-quran teh lain mahluk. Ngenaan ieu pendapat kantos dibabarkeun ka ahli filsafatna Yunani, utamina teori-teori Plato yen sadaya kanyataan jeung kabeneran anu teu kawates tangtos abadi jeung moal matak robah. Given that Muslims believe that Biblical figures such as Moses and Jesus all preached Islam, the doctrine of an unchanging, uncreated revelation implies that contradictions between their statements according to the Qur'an and the Bible must be the result of human corruption of the earlier divine revelations.

However, some, notably including the Mu'tazili and Ismaili sects, dispute this doctrine of the uncreated Qur'an. Various liberal movements within Islam implicitly or explicitly question the doctrine of the uncreated Qur'an when they question the continuing applicability and validity of Islamic law, as their justifications for doing so are often based on a belief that such laws were created by God to meet the particular needs and circumstances of Muhammad's community. A Qur'an created by God for a particular context might also account for differences between the Bible without requiring humans to have corrupted divine texts.

Tempo ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Aya ogé artikel ngeunaan masing-masing surat dina Al Qu'an. Klik kana nomer surat keur ningali artikelna.
Surat sateuacanna:
'
Surat Surat saparantosna:
'
Al Qur'an

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114

Kotak ieu: temposawalaédit

Référénsi[édit | sunting sumber]

  1. Arabic pronunciation 
  2. BYU Studies, vol. 40, nomer 4, 2001. Kaca 52
  3. Lisan al-Arab
  4. Payne Smith, Jessie (Ed.) (1903). A compendious Syriac dictionary founded upon the Thesaurus Syriacus of R. Payne Smith. Oxford University Press, reprinted in 1998 by Eisenbraums. ISBN 1-57506-032-9. Page 516, 519
  5. Da nun ein Kulturwort wie "lesen" nicht ursemitisch sein kann, so dürfen wir annehmen, daß es in Arabien eingewandert ist, und zwar wahrscheinlich aus dem Norden...Da nun das Syrische neben dem Verbum קּרא das Nomen qeryānā hat, und zwar in der doppelten Bedeutung ἀνάγνωσις (das Lesen, Vorlesen) und ἀνάγνωσμα (Lesung, Lektüre), so gewinnt, im Zusammenhange mit dem eben Erörteten, die Vermutung an Wahrscheinlichkkeit, daß der Terminus Qorän nicht eine innerarabische Entwicklung aus dem gleichbedeutenden Infinitive ist, sondern eine Entlehnung aus jenem syrischen Worte unter gleichzeitiger Angleichung an Typus fulʻān." Nöldeke, Theodor (1860) Geschichte des Qorâns. Göttingen. Part I, page 33.
  6. Luxenberg, Christoph (2004) -- Die Syro-Aramäische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache. Berlin: Verlag Hans Schiler. 20054 ISBN 3-89930-028-9. Page 81-84.
  7. (2002) Islam: A Thousand Years of Faith and Power, p. 42, New Haven: Yale University Press.
  8. Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam (1984). Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00807-8. p.69
  9. The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English (2002) HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN 0-06-060064-0
  10. http://www.septuagint.net
  11. William Montgomery Watt, "Muhammad's Mecca", Chapter 3: "Religion In Pre-Islamic Arabia", p. 26-52
  12. Maxime Rodinson, "Mohammed", translated by Anne Carter, p. 38-49, 1971

Alihbasa[édit | sunting sumber]

Koméntar Lawas[édit | sunting sumber]

  • al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir -- Jami al-bayan `an ta'wil al-Qur'an, Cairo 1955-69, transl. J. Cooper (ed.), The Commentary on the Qur'an, Oxford University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-19-920142-0

Pustaka Lawas[édit | sunting sumber]

Pustaka Modéren[édit | sunting sumber]

  • Al-Azami, M. M. -- The History of the Qur'anic Text from Revelation to Compilation, UK Islamic Academy: Leicester 2003.
  • Bellamy, James A. -- "Some Proposed Emendations to the Text of the Koran", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 113, 1993
  • Bellamy, James A. -- "More Proposed Emendations to the Text of the Koran", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, 1996
  • Bellamy, James A. -- "Textual Criticism of the Koran", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 121, 2001
  • Crone, Patricia, and Michael Cook -- Hagarism, Cambridge University Press, 1977
  • Gatje, Helmut, and Alford T. Welch -- The Qur'an and Its Exegesis, Oneworld Publications; New Ed edition (November 1, 1996). ISBN 1-85168-118-3
  • Ibn Warraq (ed.), The Origins of the Koran, Prometheus Books, 1998. ISBN 1-57392-198-X
  • Kassis, Hanna E. -- A Concordance of the Qur'an, University of California Press (March 1, 1984), ISBN 0-520-04327-8
  • Luxenberg, Christoph (2004) -- Die Syro-Aramäische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache, Berlin, Verlag Hans Schiler, 2005, ISBN 3-89930-028-9
  • McAuliffe, Jane Damen -- Quranic Christians : An Analysis of Classical and Modern Exegesis, Cambridge University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-521-36470-1
  • McAuliffe, Jane Damen (ed.) -- Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, Brill, 2002-2004.
  • Puin, Gerd R. -- "Observations on Early Qur'an Manuscripts in Sana'a," in The Qur'an as Text, ed. Stefan Wild, , E.J. Brill 1996, pp. 107–111 (as reprinted in What the Koran Really Says, ed. Ibn Warraq, Prometheus Books, 2002)
  • Rahman, Fazlur -- Major Themes in the Qur'an, Bibliotheca Islamica, 1989. ISBN 0-88297-046-1
  • Robinson, Neal, Discovering the Qur'an, Georgetown University Press, 2002. ISBN 1-58901-024-8
  • Sells, Michael, -- Approaching the Qur'an: The Early Revelations, White Cloud Press, Book & CD edition (November 15, 1999). ISBN 1-883991-26-9
  • Stowasser, Barbara Freyer -- Women in the Qur'an, Traditions, and Interpretation, Oxford University Press; Reprint edition (June 1, 1996), ISBN 0-19-511148-6
  • Wansbrough, John -- Quranic Studies, Oxford University Press, 1977
  • Watt, W. M., and R. Bell, Introduction to the Qur'an, Edinburgh University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-7486-0597-5

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]

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