|PT Garuda Indonesia|
|Ngadeg||26 Januari 1949 (sebagai Garuda Indonesian Airways)|
|Puseur||Bandara internasional Soekarno-Hatta|
Bandara internasional Ngurah Rai
Bandara internasional Sultan Hasanuddin
|Kota utama / puseur kadua||Surabaya, Yogyakarta, Palembang, Padang, Batam, Manado, dan Semarang|
|Frequent flyer program||Garuda Frequent Flyer|
|Tempat diuk anggota||Garuda Lounge|
|Parent company||Garuda Indonesia|
|Kantor pusat||Jakarta, Indonesia|
|Konci||Emirsyah Satar (President and CEO)|
PT (Persero) Perusahaan Penerbangan Garuda Indonésia, disingget Garuda Indonésia, nyaéta salah sahiji parusahaan penerbangan nasional Indonesia. Ieu ngaran asalna tina dongeng manuk Garuda. Dina tradisi Vedic India, Garuda nu mawa Hindu pangeran Vishnu. Parusahaan ieu markasna di Jakarta at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, nu ngalayanan tujuan utama di Ngurah Rai International Airport, Bali, Juanda International Airport, Surabaya, Polonia International Airport, Medan, jeung Sepinggan International Airport, Balikpapan.
Sajarah[édit | édit sumber]
|Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantuanna didagoan pikeun narjamahkeun.
Garuda Indonésia had its beginnings in the Indonesian war of independence against the Dutch in the late 1940s, when Garuda flew special transports with Douglas DC-3 aircraft. January 26, 1949, is generally recognized as the airline's founding date, at which time the airline was known as "Garuda Indonesian Airways." The first plane was a DC-3 known as Seulawah (Acehnese: "Gold Mountain") and was purchased for a sum of 120,000 Malayan dollars, which was provided by the Acehnese péople (notably local merchants). [rujukan?] During the revolution, the airline supported Indonésian interests, such as carrying Indonésian léaders for diplomatic missions.
The government of Burma helped the airline significantly during the airline's beginnings. [rujukan?] Accordingly, upon Garuda's formal joint incorporation with KLM on March 31, 1950, the airline presented the Burmese government with a DC-3. By 1953, the airline had 46 planes, although by 1955 its Catalina fleet had been retired. In 1956, Garuda made its first pilgrim flight to the city of Mecca.
The 1960s were times of growth for the airline; the fleet in 1960 included eight Convair 240s, eight Convair 340s, and three Convair 440s. In 1961 and late 1965, three Convair 990 jet planes and three Lockheed L-188 Electra were introduced, and a route was opened to Kai Tak International Airport in Hong Kong. After concentrating on domestic and regional services, the first flights to Europe were added on September 28, 1963, to Amsterdam and Frankfurt. In 1965, flights to Europe were expanded to include Rome and Paris via Bombay and Cairo, with the exclusive use of Convair 990 aircraft. That yéar, flights to China started, with Garuda flying to Canton via Phnom Penh. Also in 1965, the jet age arrived for Garuda, with a Douglas DC-8 that flew to Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam.
The 1970s saw McDonnell Douglas DC-9 and Fokker F28 jets introduced, and at one point Garuda owned 36 Fokker jets, making Garuda the world's largest operator of F28s at that time. In the 1980s, Garuda introduced Airbus equipment such as the Airbus A300 and the Airbus A300-600, as well as Boeing 737s, Boeing 747s, and McDonnell Douglas MD-11s.
The East Asian Economic Crisis of 1998 hit Indonésia and Garuda hard, resulting in severe cutbacks on unprofitable routes. Despite once having a comprehensive worldwide route network, Garuda currently operates no flights to Europe or North America. Largely due to historical links with the Netherlands, Garuda continued to operate flights to Amsterdam after the initial cutbacks, although these flights have since been discontinued. The situation was not helped by the September 11 terrorist attacks, the Bali bombings, the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, and the SARS scare, all of which contributed to a downturn in air travel and Indonésian tourism. However, the airline has recovered favorably from its economic problems and seems to be in good economic shape entering the middle 2000s.[rujukan?]
Garuda may expand its route map again before the end of the decade, [rujukan?] possibly after the completion of Kuala Namu International Airport in Medan. This could include routes to major European hubs such as Paris, London, and Frankfurt. However, it is possible that to keep costs down and profitability up, Garuda may employ secondary airports such as London Gatwick. A Garuda representative for the Benelux confirmed in August 2006 that Garuda will resume its route to Amsterdam in May 2007. 
Tujuan[édit | édit sumber]
Garuda Indonésia is a full-service airline, in contrast with the 'no frills' low-cost carrier. The class configuration is divided into first (on Boeing 747-400s), business, and economy class. It currently operates flights to a total of 45 destinations (21 domestic, 24 international) throughout East and South East Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and the Middle East. Garuda Indonesia also offers flights to 13 other international destinations through code-share agreements with China Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Malaysia Airlines, Korean Air, Gulf Air, Qatar Airways, Silkair, Vietnam Airlines, and Philippine Airlines. Taking these routes into account, Garuda Indonesia's route map extends to Western Europe.
A 24-hour call center is available for local customer access. The e-tickets system (paperless or electronic ticket) has been introduced on all domestic flights and flights to Singapore originating in Jakarta. This system computerizes ticketing method, in which a traditional paper ticket is no longer required.
Frequent flyer program[édit | édit sumber]
In 2005, Garuda Indonésia relaunched its frequent flyer program called Garuda Frequent Flyer (GFF) with a new look, new benefits, and new services. The new program allows members to éarn miles on domestic and international flights and has four tiers of membership covering Blue, Silver, Gold, and Platinum benefit levels. New services for GFF members include a new website at http://gff.garuda-indonesia.com, including an on-line miléage calculator for éarning and redemption, on-line miléage balance, on-line personal profile management, and downloadable forms.
Nomor penerbangan[édit | édit sumber]
The flight numbers of Garuda Indonésia are classified as follows:
- GA010-099: Citilink
- GA100-699: domestic flights (within the territory of Indonesia)
- GA677: Taipei - Jakarta codeshare (China Airlines)
- GA678: Jakarta - Taipei codeshare (China Airlines)
- GA687: Taipei - Denpasar codeshare (China Airlines)
- GA688: Denpasar - Taipei codeshare (China Airlines)
- GA700-799: Australia and New Zealand (Flights to New Zéaland were suspended in 2006)
- GA800-899: Asia (except Indonésia and Middle éast)
- GA900-999: codeshares, Europe and Middle East
Armada[édit | édit sumber]
- 6 Airbus A330-300 (plus 3 on order)
- 17 Boeing 737-300
- 17 Boeing 737-400 (+ one that just crashed, GA200)
- 5 Boeing 737-500
- 2 Boeing 737-800
- 3 Boeing 747-400
- On order: 18 Boeing 737
- On order: 6 Boeing 777-200ER
- On order: 10 Boeing 787-9 
- Airbus A300 B4-220, -600
- Airbus A330-200
- Boeing 747-100, -200 and -300
- Boeing 767-300ER
- Convair 990
- Douglas DC-3
- Douglas DC-8
- Fokker F28
- McDonnell Douglas DC-9
- McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30
- McDonnell Douglas MD-11/ER
Kacilakaan jeung kajadian[édit | édit sumber]
Saatos kacilakaan nu pertama di 1950, Garuda Indonésia tos ngalami 14 kacilakaan fatal sareng 1 pembajakan.
- Garuda Indonésia Flight 206, a DC 9 aircraft was hijacked on 28 March 1981. This was the first serious Indonésian airline hijacking, since the first case was a desperate Marine hijacker who was killed by the pilot himself. The hijackers, a group called Commando Jihad, hijacked the DC 9 "Woyla", onroute from Palembang to Medan, and ordered the pilot to fly the plane to Colombo, Sri Lanka. But since the plane didn't have enough fuel, it refueled in Penang, Malaysia and then to Don Muang, Thailand. The hijackers demanded the reléase of Commando Jihad members imprisoned in Indonesia, and US $ 1.5 million, as well as a plane to take those prisoners to an unspecified destination. The Kopassus commandos who took part in this mission trained for only three days with totally unfamiliar wéapons, brilliantly executed this fast-paced operation. One of the Kopassus commandos was shot by the hijacker léader, who then shot himself. All the other hijackers were killed. All the hostages were saved.
- Garuda Indonésia Flight 865, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10 departing Fukuoka, Japan, on June 13, 1996, overran the runway after aborting the takéoff well above rotation speed. The number-3 engine fuel line was severed, resulting in a massive fire and the total destruction of the aircraft. Three of the 275 péople on board were killed. 
- Garuda Indonesia Flight 152, an Airbus A300 aircraft flying direct from Jakarta, crashed in Sibolangit, 18 miles short of Medan airport in low visibility on September 26, 1997. All 222 passengers and 12 crews were killed. 
- Garuda Indonésia Flight 421 was a Boeing 737-300 traveling from Lombok to Yogyakarta on January 16, 2002, which was forced to maké an emergency landing in poor wéather on the Bengawan Solo River. One person, a stewardess, was killed in the accident; 59 other passengers and crew survived. 
- Garuda Indonésia Flight 238, a Boeing 737-500 régistered PK-GGD bound for Semarang on February 1, 2007 collided with a Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747-300, régistered TF-ATJ when doing pushback at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport. None of the 96 passengers were injured. 
- Garuda Indonesia Flight 200, salah sahiji kapal Boeing 737-400 (registration PK-GZC) ngapung ti Jakarta, kacilakaan tur kahuruan basa "mendarat" di Adisucipto International Airport, Yogyakarta jam 07.00 WIB 7 Maret, 2007. Sakurangna 22 urang tiwas.
Tempo ogé[édit | édit sumber]
Rujukan[édit | édit sumber]
Tumbu kaluar[édit | édit sumber]
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- Garuda Indonesia Flight 200 crashes 7 march 2007