Sérok raja mantri

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Sérok raja mantri
Kantong luhur Nepenthes mirabilis
Status konservasi
Klasifikasi ilmiah
Karajaan:
(unranked):
(unranked):
(unranked):
Ordo:
Kulawarga:
Génus:
Spésiés:
N. mirabilis
Ngaran binomial
Nepenthes mirabilis
(Lour.) Rafarin (1869)[a]
Distribusi N. mirabilis.
Sinonim

Sérok raja mantri; Kantong semar rawa umum; Nepenthes mirabilisnyaéta hiji tutuwuhan anu asalna tina kulawarga nepenthaceae spésiés karnivora.[11]Nepenthes mirabilis tina basa Latin: mirabilis = éndah),ieu tutuwuhan katelah ogé Kantong semar rawa umum.[12] Ieu tutuwuhan pang lobana kapanggih hirup di wewengkon Asia Tenggara, utamana di pulao-pulo Kapuloan Melayu (kajaba Kapuloan Sunda lwutik jeung Philipina kalér), kitu deui ti kapuloan Tiongkok di kalér sarta Australia di kidul.[13] Dina sebaranna ieu tutuwuhan mibanda rupa-rupa variétas, salah sahiji anu penting tayalian N. mirabilis var. echinostoma ieu endemik di Brunei jeung Sarawakkalawan mibanda hiji peristom anu kacila lega.[14]

Status konservasi N. mirabilis kagolongkeun kana Risiko Rendah di 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[15] Di Hong Kong, spésiés ieu aya dina panangtayungan dumasar kana Peraturan Kehutanan Cap. 96A. Numutkeun Matthew Jebb jeung Martin Cheek, sésérok jaya mantri/ N. mirabilis dimangpaatkeun pikeun dumpel kotéka di Papua Nugini.

Sebaran[édit | édit sumber]

Nepenthes mirabilis mibanda daérah sebaran anu lega ti sakabek spésiés Nepenthes sarta dipikawanoh di nagara-nagara : Australia (Semenanjung York), Borneo, Kamboja, Kepulauan Caroline (Palau jeung Yap), Tiongkok (Provinsi Guangdong, Hainan,[16][17] Hong Kong, ogé Macau), Kepulauan D'Entrecasteaux, Pulau Jawa, Laos, Kepulauan Louisiade, Kepulauan Maluku, Myanmar, Papua Nugini, Semenanjung Malaysia, Philipina (Dinagat jeung Mindanao), Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, ogé Vietnam.[13][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] Ieu spésiés ogé katiténan kapanggih hirup di pulo-pulo, saperti: Babi, Bangka, Pulau Banyak, Pulau Batu, Bengkalis, Enggano, Ko Lanta, Ko Tarutao, Langkawi, Mendol, Kepulauan Mentawai (Pagai Utara, Siberut, Sipura, dan Pagai Selatan), Kepulauan Meranti (Padang, Rangsang, dan Tebing Tinggi), Nias, Penang, Phuket, Kepulauan Riau (Pulau Lingga dan Kepulauan Riau), Rupat,[25] Tawi-Tawi,[26] dan mungkin Wowoni.[27]

Taksonomi[édit | édit sumber]

Nepenthes mirabilis aya patula patalina anu kuat jeung N. rowanae ogé N. tenax, dua spésiés Nepenthes anu endemik di Australia.

Bédana N.mirabilis jeung N. rowanae (Clarke & Kruger , 2005)
Ciri-ciri N. mirabilis N. rowanae
Morfologi lambaran daun Lemes bulenek Karijut katungtungnakeun, nepika palebah rambatan/sulur anu heureut, lemes, turmanjang
Rambatan/sulur kana daun Sederhana Kawas taméng
Jangjang kantong Sederhana, élemén bantalan sisina multiseluler Remen katempo rata di palebah hereupna ngawujud T jeung XS, remen ogé katempo élemén sinina anu multiseluler
Tékstur lambaran daun Ilaharna centang ka luhur Katempo heuras
Tambahan lambaran daun tangkal Sederhana, atawa jarang katempo manjang ⅓ panjang bukuna Manjang sahenteuna ½ panjang bukuna, ilaharna leuwih
Massa jenis kelenjar dina kantongna 1600-2500/cm² kurangleuwih 3600/cm²
Tempat puhu kantong dina kantong luhur Jalan sedeng, di handap ½ kantong Diluhur ¼ kantong
Tempat puhu kantong dina kantong handap Dihandap ¾ kantong Dihandap peristom

Dina Database tutuwuhan karnivora-na, ahli taksonomi Jan Schlauer merenahkeun N. kongkandana salaku sinonim tina ‘’N. mirabilis’’[28]

Jinis Taksa Handap[édit | édit sumber]

Di tempat nyebar tur ngarekahanna, N. mirabilis nembongkeun variabilitas anu gedé dina morfologi jeung kelir kantong, ogé mibanda panglobana sinonim tina sakabéh spésiés Nepenthes.[29] Kitu deui wujud jeung jinis N. mirabilis anu kungsi dibéjérbéaskeun. kalawan henteu kaasup tina N. mirabilis var. echinostoma ogé N. mirabilis var. globosa, taksa ieu henteu dianggap bener mangsa kiwari.

  • Nepenthes mirabilis f. anamensis (Hort.Weiner) Hort.Westphal (1991)
  • Nepenthes mirabilis var. anamensis Hort.Weiner in sched. (1985) nom.nud.
  • Nepenthes mirabilis var. biflora J.H.Adam & Wilcock (1992)
  • Nepenthes mirabilis var. echinostoma (Hook.f.) Hort.Slack ex J.H.Adam & Wilcock (1992)
  • Nepenthes mirabilis var. globosa M.Catal. (2010)[30]
  • Nepenthes mirabilis f. simensis (Hort.Weiner) Hort.Westphal (1991)
  • Nepenthes mirabilis var. simensis Hort.Weiner in sched. (1985) nom.nud.
  • Nepenthes mirabilis f. smilesii (Hemsl.) Hort.Westphal (2000)
  • Nepenthes mirabilis var. smilesii (Hemsl.) Hort.Weiner in sched. (1985)

N. mirabilis var. echinostoma[édit | édit sumber]

Kantong luhur N. mirabilis var. echinostoma

Nepenthes mirabilis var. echinostoma mimiti dipedar ku Odoardo Beccari dina taun 1865 kalawan didéskripsikeun salaku spésiés kalawan maké ngaran latin N. echinostoma, ku Joseph Dalton Hooker dina taun 1873.[12] Dina taun 1882, Frederick William Burbidge ngaguar variétas anu henteu biasa dina The Gardener' Chronicle tayalian:[12][31]

N. echinostoma singular Beccari (vide Herb. Kew) éta spésiés anu éndah, tacan dipikanyaho saméméhna, kuring nyangka henteu katempo ku Beccari! Liang kantong katempo kawas salahsahiji huntu defleksi sababaraha lukut raksasa tina hipnoid.

Nepenthes mirabilis var. echinostoma hiji-hijina spésiés anu aya di Brunei. Spésiés ini ogé geus kapanggih di Sarawak, ngan kawasna moal aya di daérah Sabah.[12]

N. mirabilis var. globosa[édit | édit sumber]

Kantong handap budidaya N. mirabilis var. globosa
Kantong Nepenthes mirabilis dipaké nyangu ku Suku Jarai Provinsi Kon Tum, Vietnam

Nepenthes mirabilis var. globosa Kanyahoan ti daérah Laut Andaman salaku leuweung tutupan, Phang Nga, ogé ti daratan Thailand deukeut kota Trang.[13][30]

Variétas ieu tayalian anu aya dina bungkus Journal of Insectivorous Plant Society édisi Januari 2006, diguar salaku "Nepenthes sp. ti Thailand".[32] ngaran Nepenthes globosa bijil dina hiji artikel ku Shigeo Kurata, Journal of Insectivorous Plant Society dina bulan Juli 2007.[8] Masalah anu sarua ogé kapanggih dina hiji artikel ku Masahiro Tada anu disebut salaku"Nepenthes Viking".[10] Samemeh diguar ku Marcello Catalano dina taun 2010, takson ieu ogé disebutkeun sacara henteu resmi: Nepenthes sp. Phanga Nga dina buku Stewart McPherson taun 2009, Pitcher Plants of the Old World.[13]

Dina urusan balantik hortikultura, variétas ieu dipikanyaho salaku Nepenthes globosa[13] (/n[invalid input: 'ɨ']ˈpɛnθz ɡlˈbzə/; tina basa Latin: globosus, "bola") jeung Nepenthes sp. Viking,[13][33] saenggeusna nempo kamiripan kantong jeung haluan kapal Viking.[34]

Infauna kantong[édit | édit sumber]

Sérok raja mantri
Sérok raja mantri

Kalolobaan organisme infauna geus dipikanyaho di jero kantong spésiés ini. Organisme dimaksud kayaning laleur sarkofagid Sarcophaga papuensis jeung tungau Nepenthacarus warreni, anu kaduana geus kapanggih dina populasi tutuwuhan Australia.[35][36] Kitu deui, reungit Aedes dybasi jeung Aedes maehleri aya di jero kantong N. mirabilis dina pulo pulo jeung Yap.[37] duanana mibanda sajarah anu teu bisa jeung sifat-sifat Morfologi anu aya patalina.[38][39]

Nematoda Baujardia mirabilis geus diguar tina N. mirabilis di Thailand. Organisme ieu henteu dianggap hiji kabeneran; kantong spésiés ieu kawasna habitat alami ieu nematoda. Mikroekosistem di jero kantongna loba kapanggih larva reungit, jeung B. mirabilis. ieu nambah deu sangkaan yén nematoda ieu meureunmibanda hubungan foretik jeng salahsahiji atawa leuwih spésiés gegeremet infauna.[40]

Di Tiongkok kidul, cakung ogé geus katitenan aya dina éta kantong N. mirabilis. Amfibi ieu henteu jadi mangsa ieu tutuwuhan, ngan saukur ngamangsa gegeremet anu memang katewak ku kantongna.[41] Amfibi ieu teu kapangaruhanku cai anu aya dina éta kantong, padahal mibanda sifat haseum/asam (meureun mibanda pH anu saeutik 2), atawa alatan lapisan kulit luarna anu lucir jadi panghalang kana ieu cakung.[42]

Catetang anggalna ngeunaan supa cai hirup di organ kantong karnivora anu asalna tina spésimen N. mirabilis anu hirup disapanjang susukan Jardine di Australia. Supa miselium ieu katitenan duaduana hirup bebas di jero cai salaku pitapak pikeun gegeremet berkitin tetep.[43][44]

Kantong N. mirabilis geus dipikanyaho kapanggih ngumpulna rupa-rupa baktéri anu kompleks.[45] Rupa-rupa baktéri katempo leuwih loba jinisna tibatan anu kapanggih dina cairan kantong N. ampullaria dan N. gracilis simpatrik di Semenanjung Malaysia.[46] Komposisi dina N. mirabilis ogé bisa waé aya loba bédana gumantung kana rupa kantongna, hiji hal anu henteu katempo dina dua spésiés séjénna.[46]

Hibrida alami[édit | édit sumber]

Nepenthes mirabilis Mangifera caesia banda sababaraha hibrida alami panglobana tina spesies anu aya dina genus Nepenthes.[13]

Catetan[édit | édit sumber]

a.^ Nepenthes mirabilis munggaran diguar dina katangtuan sistem taksonomi Linnaeus salaku Phyllamphora mirabilis ku João de Loureiro dina taun 1790. Spésiés tuluy dipindahkeun genusna Nepenthes dumasar kana kasalahan kombinasi Nepenthes phyllamphora ku Carl Ludwig Willdenow dina taun 1805.[13][14][49][52][62] ngabenerkeun deui publikasi mimiti kalayan binomial anu bener —Nepenthes mirabilis— ka George Claridge Druce dina taun 1916,[63] ngan waé Database tutuwuhan Karnivora jieunan Jan Schlauer kacatet ngaguar jauh leuwih anggal ku Rafarin dina taun 1869.[64]

Dicutat tina[édit | édit sumber]

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  2. Cheek, M. & M. Jebb 2013. Typification and redelimitation of Nepenthes alata with notes on the N. alata group, and N. negros sp. nov. from the Philippines. Nordic Journal of Botany 31(5): 616–622. Citakan:DOI
  3. Clarke, C. & C.C. Lee 2012. A revision of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) from Gunung Tahan, Peninsular Malaysia. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 64(1): 33–49.
  4. Schlauer, J. N.d. Nepenthes alata. Carnivorous Plant Database.
  5. Bailey, F.M. 1881. On a new species of Nepenthes. The Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 5: 185–187.
  6. a b Citakan:La icon Hooker, J.D. 1873. Ordo CLXXV bis. Nepenthaceæ. In: A. de Candolle Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 17: 90–105.
  7. a b c d Citakan:La icon Blume, C.L. 1852. Ord. Nepenthaceae. In: Museum Botanicum Lugduno-Batavum, sive stirpium exoticarum novarum vel minus cognitarum ex vivis aut siccis brevis expositio. Tom. II. Nr. 1. E.J. Brill, Lugduni-Batavorum. pp. 5–10.
  8. a b Citakan:Jp icon Kurata, S. 2007. ネペンテス ・ ノート (XIV) — Nepenthes globosa のネーミングについて. Journal of Insectivorous Plant Society 58(3): 76.
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  11. Aanteekeningen over het nut, door de bewoners van Java aan eenige planten van dat eiland toegeschreven. Universitas Oxford: J. Müller. 1845. p. 109.  Disungsi8 April 2021
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Bacaan salajengna[édit | édit sumber]

Tutumbu ka luar[édit | édit sumber]

Citakan:Nepenthes