Dina fisika, proton (basa Yunani proton = munggaran) nyaéta partikel subatomik nu mibanda hiji muatan listrik fundaméntal positif 1.6 × 10−19 coulomb sarta massa 938 MeV/c2 (1.6726231 × 10−27 kg, atawa kira 1800 kali massa éléktron). Proton watekna stabil, nu wates handap waktu paruhna kira 1035 taun, najan sababaraha téori ngaduga yén proton bisa luruh.
Inti isotop atom hidrogén pangilaharna nyaéta proton tunggal. Inti atom séjén diwangun ku proton jeung neutron nu kabeungkeut ku gaya inti kuat. Jumlah proton na inti nangtukeun sipat kimia atom katut kaasup unsur kimia nu mana.
Proton digolongkeun kana baryon nu diwangun ku dua quark Naék jeung hiji quark Turun, nu ogé kabeungkeut ku gaya inti nu kuat, nu dimédiasi ku gluon. Ékivalén antizat proton nyaéta antiproton, nu mibanda tingkat muatan nu sarua tapi tanda nu sabalikna.
Because the electromagnetic force is many orders of magnitude stronger than the gravitational force, we see that the charge on the proton must be equal to the charge on the electron, otherwise the net repulsion of having an excess of positive or negative charge (depending on which charge was numerically greater - atoms would not be electrically neutral) would cause a noticeable expansion effect on the universe, and indeed any gravitationally aggregated matter (planets, stars, etc.).
Sajarah[édit | sunting sumber]
Proton kapanggih taun 1918 ku Ernest Rutherford. He noticed that when alpha particles were shot into nitrogén gas, his scintillation detectors showed the signatures of hydrogen nuclei. Rutherford determined that the only place this hydrogen could have come from was the nitrogen, and therefore nitrogen must contain hydrogen nuclei. He thus suggested that the hydrogen nucleus, which was known to have an atomic number of 1, was an elementary particle. This he named proton, from protos, the Greek for "first".
Larapan Téhnologis[édit | sunting sumber]
Protons can exist in spin states. This property is exploited by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In NMR spectroscopy, a magnetic field is applied to a substance in order to detect the shielding around the protons in the nuclei of that substance, which is provided by the surrounding electron clouds. Scientists can use this information to then construct the molecular structure of the molecule under study.