Élmu

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Élmu sakaligus ngarupakeun prosés ngumpulkeun pangaweruh jeung wangunan pangaweruh nu kakumpulkeun ku prosés ieu. Prosés ilmiah ngarupakeun akuisisi sistematik pangaweruh anyar ngeunaan hiji sistem. Akuisisi sistematik ieu sacara umum mah métode ilmiah, sedengkeun sistemna umumna alam. Élmu ogé ngarupakeun pangaweruh ilmiah nu sacara sistematik kaala ku prosés ilmiah ieu.

Sabaraha papanggihan élmu bisa counter-intuitive pisan. Téori atom, misalna, nunjukkeun yén guruntulan granit nu katémbong beurat, teuas, padet, abu-abu, jsb. sabenerna ngarupakeun campuran partikel subatomik nu saeutik gé teu mibanda sipat-sipat éta, nu gerak cepet pisan dina hiji rohangan nu lolobana kosong.

Modél, téori, jeung hukum ilmiah[édit | sunting sumber]

Artikel utama: métode ilmiah

Istilah "hipotésis", "modél", "téori", jeung "hukum" dina élmu mibanda larapan nu béda jeung istilah umum. Élmuwan migunakeun istilah modél nujul ka dadaran hiji hal, hususna nu ditujukeun pikeun nyieun pangira nu bisa diuji ku dicoba atawa panenget/observasi. Hipotésis nyaéta hiji anggepan nu henteu (tacan) dirojong sagemblengna atawa diatur ku eksperimen. Hukum fisika atawa hukum alam nyaéta hiji generalisasi ilmiah nu dumasar kana tengetan empiris.

Kalolobaan jalma nu lain elmuwan henteu sadar yen naon anu ku ku elmuwan dianggep minangka "teori" teh mangrupakeun naon-naon nu ku kalolobaan jelema dianggep "fakta". Masarakat umum make istilah teori keur nujul kana ide nu henteu mibanda bukti atawa rojongan nu teges tur kuat; sabalikna, elmuwan mah biasana make kecap ieu keur nujul ukur kana ide anu tetep tahan sanggeus diuji bulak-balik. Ku kituna, nalika elmuwan nujul kana teori evolusi biologis, elektromagnetisme, jeung relativitas, maranehna sabenerna nujul kana ide nu geus tahan pisan diuji. Tapi aya oge kajaban, kawas string theory, nu katingalina jadi hiji model nu ngajangjikeun tapi kiwari tacan aya bukti empiris nu nyababkeun teori ieu leuwih unggul batan model sainganana.

Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

Especially fruitful theories that have withstood the test of time are considered to be "proven" in the scientific sense-- that it is true and factual but of course can still be falsified. This includes many theories, such as universally accepted ones such as heliocentric theory and controversial ones such as evolution, which are backed by many observations and experimental data. Theories are always open to revision if new evidence is provided or directly contradicts predictions or other evidence. As scientists do not claim absolute knowledge, even the most basic and fundamental theories may turn out to be incorrect if new data and observations contradict older ones.

Newton's law of gravitation is a famous example of a law falsified by experiments regarding motions at high speeds and in close proximity to strong gravitational fields. Outside of those conditions, Newton's Laws remain excellent accounts of motion and gravity. Because general relativity accounts for all of the phenomena that Newton's Laws do, and more, general relativity is currently regarded as our best account of gravitation.

Matematika jeung métode ilmiah[édit | sunting sumber]

Matematik esensial pikeun élmu, mangpaat pangpentingna nyaéta dina éksprési/ngawujudkeun modél ilmiah. Nengetan tur ngumpulkeun ukuran-ukuran, ogé nyieun hipotésis jeung pangduga, biasana merlukeun modél matematis sarta maké matematik kalawan éksténsif. Cabang matematik nu pangmindengna dipaké dina élmu di antarana kalkulus jeung statistik, najan sabenerna sakabéh cabang matematik boga larapanana, kaasup wewengkon "murni" saperti téori wilangan jeung topologi.

Some thinkers see mathematicians as scientists, regarding physical experiments as inessential or mathematical proofs as equivalent to experiments. Others do not see mathematics as a science, since it does not require experimental test of its theories and hypotheses. In either case, the fact that mathematics is such a useful tool in describing the universe is a central issue in the philosophy of mathematics.

Tempo: Eugene Wigner The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics.

R.P. Feynman nyarita "Matematik mah teu nyata, tapi asa nyata. Di mana nya perenahna?".

Tujuan élmu[édit | sunting sumber]

Despite popular impressions of science, it is not the goal of science to answer all questions, only those that pertain to physical reality (measurable empirical experience). Also, science cannot possibly address all possible questions, so the choice of which questions to answer becomes important. Science does not and can not produce absolute and unquestionable truth. Rather, science consistently tests the currently best hypothesis about some aspect of the physical world, and when necessary revises or replaces it in light of new observations or data.

Science does not make any statements about how nature actually "is"; science can only make conclusions about our observations of nature. The developments of quantum mechanics in the early 20th century showed that observations are not independent of interactions, and the implications of wave-particle duality have challenged the traditional notion of "objectivity" in science.

Science is not a source of subjective value judgements, though it can certainly speak to matters of ethics and public policy by pointing to the likely consequences of actions. However, science can't tell us which of those consequences to desire or which is 'best'. What one projects from the currently most reasonable scientific hypothesis onto other realms of interest is not a scientific issue, and the scientific method offers no assistance for those who wish to do so. Scientific justification (or refutation) for many things is, nevertheless, often claimed.

Perenahna élmu[édit | sunting sumber]

Élmu dipraktékkeun di universitas jeung lembaga ilmiah séjénna; najan ngarupakeun cocooan para akademia, ogé dipraktékkeun ku amatir, hususna dina bagean elmu observasional.

Sababaraha pagawe di laboratorium riset nu mibanda badan hukum (korporasi) mraktekkeun oge metoda ilmiah tur ahirna kasohor dina widangna sarta tuluy dipigawe oge di akademia. Sabalikna, sababaraha akademisi cukup kasohor pikeun jadi konsultan industri ku cara nerapkeun timuananan dina sababaraha tehnologi.

Widang élmu[édit | sunting sumber]

Élmu fisik jeung hirup[édit | sunting sumber]

Komputer jeung élmu informasi[édit | sunting sumber]

Élmu sosial[édit | sunting sumber]

Filosofi[édit | sunting sumber]

Science’s effectiveness has made it a subject of much philosophical speculation. The philosophy of science seeks to understand the nature and justification of scientific knowledge, and its ethical implications. It has proved remarkably difficult to provide an account of the scientific method that can serve to distinguish science from non-science.

Jejer nu patali[édit | sunting sumber]

Baca ogé[édit | sunting sumber]

Tiori dasar élmu - Élmu runtah - Patafisik - Élmu patologis - Filosofi élmu - Protosains - Pseudosains - Atikan élmu - Scientific enterprise - Scientific misconduct - Scientific materialism - Métode ilmiah - Révolusi ilmiah - Hubungan antara agama jeung élmu - Patarosan sadidinten - Daptar publikasi ilmiah

Tumbu kaluar[édit | sunting sumber]